IJSER Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2011
Download Index File/Journal Page No. Detail Download Index File/Journal Page No. Detail       IJSER Research Group http://www.ijser.org/forum/index.php Register for IJSER Research Forum      IJSER Xplore IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database
A Survey of Cluster Based Multi-Processor system design with IP-Cores[Full-Text] [References]
K. Immanuvel Arokia James

This project aims to design a cluster-based multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) combines of hybrid interconnection composed of both bus based and network on chip (NOC) architecture. Two or more microprocessors working together to perform one or more related tasks using a shared memory is commonly referred to as a multiprocessor system. NoC is used to form a network to pass the message packets more efficiently between the source and destination and to provide additional communication resources so that multiple paths can be operated simultaneously. High performance is achieved by efficient implementation of hardware and software. It is done by fine tuning MPSoC architecture in the early stage of the design process. This project uses the FPGA device to prototype the cluster-based MPSoC. This paper proposes a hierarchical architecture consisting of SMP clustered nodes, each of which is structured by more than one baseline cores through centrally-shared memory and, some parallel applications with different characteristic of parallelism, functionality and communication pattern are designed and presented in this work. In this work a pure VHDL design, integrated with some intellectual property (IP) blocks. This project accounts for the highest throughput ratio.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots Synthesized by HVPC Growth Technique for Sensing Copper ion Concentrations[Full-Text] [References]
Arra C. Quitaneg, Gil Nonato C. Santos

Cadmium selenide quantum dots of different radii were synthesized using Horizontal Vapor Phase Crystal (HVPC) Growth Technique. Fluorescence quenching is the sensing mechanism utilized in the study. The synthesized CdSe quantum dots were used effectively in the optical sensing of copper ion concentrations

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Influence of Growth Temperature on the Photoluminescence of ZnONanomaterial[Full-Text] [References]
Alvin NoeLadines,Gil Nonato C. Santos

This study investigates the effect of growth temperature on the photoluminescence spectra of zinc oxide nanoma-terial synthesized on amorphous glass substrate via the horizontal vapor phase crystal growth method (HVPCG). XRD analysis reveals the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the grown ZnO nanomaterial with growth orientation in the (002) and (101) directions. The room temperature PL spectra of the samples show green emission centered at 510 nm. The strong green emission is caused by antisite oxygen defects in the film.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Performance Analysis of TCP in a Reliable Connections Environment with UDP Flows using OPNET Simulator[Full-Text] [References]
Friday Yakubu, S.E Abdullahi and P.E Aigbe

The widely use transport protocol on the Internet is TCP/IP and its usage is mainly based on its high dynamic nature of adaptability to any kind of network capacity. The Internet technology today runs over large different link technologies with vastly different characteristics. In spite of the recent sudden increase in accessibility of broadband Internet access to improve the transport protocols communication, business organization, computer laboratory in learning environment, and public organization have fairly small-bandwidth links compare to the network environment that host the requested content. With the explosive growth of the Internet application traffics, the network traffic congestion grows and available limited resources becomes a bottleneck. The performance of the network eventually decline because of traffic congestion among other challenging issues, bringing the need for outstanding means of improving the TCP performance. Therefore, it becomes necessarily for any kind of network environment, to carry out a TCP performance analysis and identify the possible means of obtaining an optimal performance. This paper seeks to reflect the performance analysis of TCP in a network environment of multiple reliable connections with UDP traffic flows.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Investigation of Avionics Box Precision Placement Using Motion Capturing and Thermal Imaging Techniques[Full-Text] [References]
Damon Stambolian, Moataz Eltoukhy, Shihab Asfour, Stephanie Bonin

There have been an abundance of lifting studies performed throughout the history of biomechanical analysis however, there are few studies that have looked at the biomechanics of placing a box on a target or within a restricted space. Of those studies, none have looked at the human's ability to precisely place the box, and none have considered precise placement in restricted space. Furthermore, the human lifting capabilities and limitations is lacking in the design standards used for avionics box and shelf arrangements, and past avionics box and shelf arrangements developed for the Space Shuttle have led to hardware damage during avionics box installations. Thus, the focus of this study is to use motion capture along with thermal imaging techniques to explore and describe the kinematics, EMG, and thermal variations during the lifting and precise placement of an avionics box in restricted space.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Active Prosthetic Knee Fuzzy Logic - PID Motion Control, Sensors and Test Platform Design[Full-Text] [References]
Ammar A. Alzaydi, Albert Cheung, Nandan Joshi, Sidha Wong

The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate the design and testing of a control system and test platform for an Active Prosthetic Knee (APK). The research scope includes mechanical design, sensing system, and motor (motion) controller of the Active Prosthetic Knee. The main objective is to produce an affordable yet rugged active prosthetic for above-the-knee amputees in developing countries. The main advantage of an active prosthetic is its ability to more accurately mimic the motion of a healthy limb without producing strain on the patient's muscles. The APK needs to be able to decide when to move by analysing the motion of the healthy leg without the use of expensive sensory system.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Atsero Method: A Guideline for Business Process and Workflow Modeling within an Enterprise[Full-Text] [References]
Roger Atsa Etoundi

In the fields of business process and workflows modeling, a wide range of techniques have been defined and used. Despite the popularity of some of them, there is no consensus on the modeling standards and concepts. However, there are many perspectives that need to be taken into consideration for a better management of workflows within an enterprise such as process, organization, information, operation and the quality of service. In this paper, a new approach so called ATSERO method, it is based on Formal Method, Domain and Requirement Engineering, is presented. This method describes several salient concepts inherent in the understanding of these perspectives. This method may be considered as a guideline in business process and workflow modeling and also allows organizations to deal with the competitive pressure of the network economy and to improve the quality of service for the satisfaction of different stakeholders.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Terminal Velocity of Canola Oil, Hexane, and Gasoline Drops Rising in Water due to Buoyancy[Full-Text] [References]
Benjamin Michael Cole Friedman, Cynthia Ross Friedman

Drops, globules of a liquid in another liquid, are extremely important in many natural processes and industrial applications. The purpose of this study was to devise a method to measure the terminal velocity of drops rising in water due to buoyancy, and to compare observed values with the theoretical. Two questions were explored: (1) Do these drops continue to accelerate upward from a depth of 6 cm; and, (2) Does the terminal velocity of these drops (modifying the experiment accordingly if not) match the theoretical (calculated) values? A syringe was used to inject 0.1 cm3 (0.1 mL) drops of three liquids (oil, hexane, and gasoline) into a vessel at a depth of 6 cm, and the resulting motion was video captured and imported into the shareware kinematics program Tracker for analysis and determination of terminal velocity. The experiments showed that the drops reached terminal velocity before reaching the surface (2.23 ± 0.10 cm, 1.48 ± 0.07 cm, and 1.35 ± 0.06 cm above the injection point, respectively). Secondly, the term 2Πr² as well as the accepted term of Πr² was used for the projected area in the theoretical equation for terminal velocity in order to account for drop flattening during ascension. As a result, the calculated value with the new term accurately predicted the observed, doing so better than the accepted term for all three liquids, and might be used to improve the accepted theory

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Acidogenic And Methanogenic Activities In Anaerobic Ponds[Full-Text] [References]
Effebi K. R, Baya T, Jupsin H, Vasel J

Anaerobic ponds are used rather often in hot climates. But the design of those ponds is still based on empiric rules. As for other types of extensive systems we should try to progress to the development of mathematical models describing in details the behaviour of such bioreactors. In the case of anaerobic ponds the two main processes of treatment (settling and biological activities) should be quantified separately. Moreover one should know more precisely where the biological activity mainly occurs: in the liquid phase or in the sediments accumulated on the bottom of the ponds.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Developing Geo-web portals with Google Map API- A Case study of the Fichtner Group[Full-Text] [References]
N.D. Tagoe, S. Mantey

The main objective of this paper was to research the use of Web 2.0 techniques and freely available geospatial tools as a base for infor-mation-focused applications. The investigation was conducted, based on a prototype development of a project portal for the Fichtner Group. The methods adopted include; developing both server and client-sides of the application with Adobe Flex Builder. Toad for Oracle was used to administer and maintain the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The server-side programming language was Java whilst ActionScript was used to create the client logic. MXML was used to describe the user interface and behaviour. The Application Programming Interface (API) used for developing the application was the Google MAP API for Flash (Flex).

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network[Full-Text] [References]
Subhadra Shaw (Bose)

Routing in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an important area of research due to its rapidly increasing application in monitoring various kinds of environment by sensing physical phenomenon. Energy consumption is one of the major criteria for most of the routing protocols because 70% of the total energy is consumed in data transmission in WSN. This paper introduces an energy efficient clustering algorithm for WSN based on Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) which will remove some of the drawbacks of LEACH. It utilizes the remaining energy of the current Cluster Head (CH) to make the routing process more efficient. Another level of aggregation is added which not only saves energy by eliminating redundancy and reducing number of data transmission but also distribute the work load evenly by utilizing the energy of the least overloaded CHs.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Admission Control and Performance Evaluation for Distributed Door Entry Wireless Networks[Full-Text] [References]
Wael Hosny Fouad Aly, Haytham Aboulabbas, Moustafa H. Aly, Hossam Eldin Moustafa

In this paper, we propose a novel smart access control system for large enterprises. The proposed system performs the following functions: (1) limits access to secured areas in a given physical facility only to authorized users, (2)provides authorized users with configurable and differentiated access rights to the same premises based on their assigned credibility and time-schedules, (3) maintains centralized event logs with date/time stamp for all users that have granted access to the system, and (4) keeps track of all their movement activities across the premises, allowing for further analysis of their behaviour during working hours. All of these functions are mainly intended to: (1) be carried out automatically and wirelessly with neither human intervention nor slowing down the organization's workflow, (2) avoid installation cost overhead,(3) minimize the running cost, (4) simplify system repairs and shorten it downtime, and (5) allow for future upgrades with almost little or no hardware changes along with slight firmware code modifications. The proposed system is implemented as a prototype model that presents both the hardware and the firmware aspects of the design. The built prototype shows success of the proposed system and hence it is promising for physical implementation in real systems at larger scales.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Vibration Based Condition Monitoring of Rolling Mill[Full-Text] [References]
Vinod D.TIrpude, Jayant P.Modak, Girish D. Mehta

All over the India, most of the processing industries are involved with rolling operations for steel and alloyed materials. To perform these operations, rolling mills are used. But maintenance of such rolling mills is a tedious job, because these rolling mills work under certain critical conditions such as frequent load variations, higher temperatures etc. Hence, every component bears load variations, which results in wear and tear of components. This causes frequent breakdowns of rolling mill components. Thus, it involves lot of maintenance cost, loss of production time, more number of workforces to perform maintenance action etc. One such rolling mill, which is situated in Hingna MIDC, Nagpur is taken as a case study in the present work. This rolling mill uses preventive and break-down maintenance strategies. But, these strategies seem to be inadequate.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Drunken Drive Protection System[Full-Text] [References]
J.Vijay, B.Saritha, B.Priyadharshini, S.Deepeka, R.Laxmi

Nowadays almost most of the countries are forcing the motor riders to wear the helmet and not to use the vehicles when the person is in drunken condition. But still in many places, the rules are being violated by the users. In order to overcome this problem, an intelligent system has been embedded in the helmet itself. The signal detected by IR sensor from the earlobe region and an alcohol sensor will be transmitted to the vehicle control circuit. It will not turn on the vehicle, when the user is without helmet or in drunken condition. The system containing the GPS receiver will provide the geometric coordinates to the control unit. Based on this coordinates the user cannot drive the vehicle into no entry or no parking areas. If he enters into the restricted area, buzzer will get activated and vehicle speed also gets controlled. In addition to the above, when an accident occurs the system will start alarm and if the user tries to suppress the warning alarm then SMS will not be sent else it will be sent to the user's relatives/friends. This contact information coded in the system can also be modified as per the users need. During the theft, the current location of the vehicle can be identified by sending the message from the user to the intelligent incorporated system. By this way the recovery of the vehicle is also possible by GPS-GSM communication.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Self - esteem and Perfectionism in the Chess Players[Full-Text] [References]
Dr. Mohammad Ebrahim Maddahi, Dr.Javad Khalatbari, Mona Samadzadeh, Mohammad Mojtaba Keikhayfarzaneh

This research aims to study the relationship between self -esteem and perfectionism (positive-negative) in chess players. 166 chess Players were randomly selected (60 F, 106m) and replied positive and negative perfectionism scale (Trishort, Etrodowis,1995) and self -esteem ( Noujent and Thomas,2001).Results of Pearson C correlation test Shows that there is a positive relationship between self -esteem and positive Perfectionism and there is a negative relationship between self -esteem and negative Perfectionism.Since the Success of the individuals achieved in different arena such as Sports is effective in self-esteem formation and strengthening, it can be concluded that chess Sport is an important and influential factor in this regard.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Study of the Quality of Life and Personality Traits of NEO Five Factors Concerning Death Anxiety in Shahed University Students[Full-Text] [References]
Dr. Mohammad Ebrahim Maddahi,Dr.Javad Khalatbari, Mona Samadzadeh, Mehdi Amraei, Reza Ahmadi, Mohammad Mojtaba Keikhayfarzaneh

The present research aims to consider the relationship between quality of life and personality traits and death anxiety. Personality traits consists of five components of NEO five factors questionnaire including Neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, extraversion and being conscientious, respectively. 55 Shahed University students were selected as controls. Quality of life scales for adults (pwi-A) of Cummins (2004) is used to assess the quality of life of the subjects, and the Neo-short form questionnaire of Costa and Mckery is used to assess the subject's personality traits, and Templer questionnaire is used to assess the subject's death anxiety. The correlation coefficient is used to statistically analyze the research data. The obtained results showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between quality of life and agreeable personality traits and a significant negative correlation between neurotic personality traits. Additionally, there is a positive non-significant relationship between quality of life and other personality traits ( extraversion, openness, and being conscientious) but a significant negative correlation with death anxiety. There is also a positive significant correlation with death anxiety and neurotic personality traits, a negative significant correlation with agreeable personality traits and a negative non-significant correlation with other personality traits ( extraversion, openness and being conscientious).

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Restore islet β-cells dysfunction and study the expression of PPARα and PPARγ in Stevia rebaudiana treated mice[Full-Text] [References]
Kosta Susmit, Tiwari Archana

The down regulation of PPARα and PPARγ at m-RNAs expression level is responsible for β-cell dysfunction and insulin secretion seen in diabetic mice. PPAR α is found primarily in the liver and regulates genes involved with fatty acid utilization. PPARγ is an important regulator of adipocyte differentiation and function. Expression of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter, GLUT4, and the UCPs are also influenced by PPARγ. The current investigation focuses on expression of m-RNA at PPARα and PPARγ receptors and the islet β-cells dysfunction in Stevia rebaudiana (SR) treated diabetic mice.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Natural Image Segmentation and Object Recognition using ACA and Steerable Filter based on Color-Texture Features[Full-Text] [References]
Mrs. Nilima Kulkarni, Dr. Mrs. A.M. Rajurkar

An image segmentation algorithm that is based on low-level features for color and texture is presented. It is aimed at segmentation of natural scenes, in which the color and texture of each segment does not typically exhibit uniform statistical characteristics. The proposed approach combines knowledge of human perception with an understanding of signal characteristics in order to segment natural scenes into perceptually/semantically uniform regions. The proposed approach is based on two types of spatially adaptive low-level features. The first describes the local color composition in terms of spatially adaptive dominant colors, and the second describes the spatial characteristics of the grayscale component of the texture. Together, they provide a simple and effective characterization of texture that the proposed algorithm uses to obtain robust and, at the same time, accurate and precise segmentations. We have tried to recognize objects in images. We used color values for object recognition. The images are assumed to be of relatively low resolution and may be degraded compressed.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Power-Quality improvement by multi pulse AC–DC converters for Varying Loads[Full-Text] [References]
Ch.Punya Sekhar, C.Hari Krishna

The present work is an endeavor towards analyzing the different multi-pulse converters in solving the harmonic problem in a three-phase converter system. The effect of increasing the number of pulses on the performance of AC to DC converters is analyzed.This paper presents the design and analysis of a novel 30-pulse ac–dc converter for harmonic mitigation under varying loads. The proposed multi pulse( 30-pulse) ac-dc converter is based on a polygon-connected autotransformer with reduced magnetics.The proposed ac–dc converter is able to eliminate lower than29th order harmonics in the ac supply current. Auto transformer is modi?ed The resulting supply current is near sinusoidal in shape with low total harmonic distortion and a nearly unity power factor. Moreover, the design of an to make it suitable for retro?t applications, where presently a 6-pulse diode bridge recti?er is used. To validate the proposed approach, various power-quality indices are presented under varying loads. The proposed ac–dc converter is found to be suitable for retro?t applications with a large load variation and where harmonic reduction is more stringent. The laboratory prototype of the proposed autotransformer-based 30-pulse ac–dc converter is developed and test results are presented which validate the developed design procedure and the simulation models of this ac–dc converter.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

OSD: A Source Level Bug Localization Technique Incorporating Control Flow and State Information in Object Oriented Program[Full-Text] [References]
Partha Pratim Ray

Bug localization in object oriented program has always been an important issue in softeware engineering. In this paper, I propose a source level bug localization technique for object oriented embedded programs. My proposed technique, presents the idea of debugging an object oriented program in class level, incorporating the object state information into the Class Dependence Graph (ClDG). Given a program (having buggy statement) and an input that fails and others pass, my approach uses concrete as well as symbolic execution to synthesize the passing inputs that marginally from the failing input in their control flow behavior. A comparison of the execution traces of the failing input and the passing input provides necessary clues to the root-cause of the failure. A state trace difference, regarding the respective nodes of the ClDG is obtained, which leads to detect the bug in the program.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Comparative Simulation of MBIST using March-Test Algorithms[Full-Text] [References]
Er.Manoj Arora, Er.Shipra Tripathi

Memories are an important aspect as there is an growth in submicron technologies. Memories may be RAM, ROM, DRAM etc becomes difficult to test as the system complexity increases. These embedded memories are on SOCs in which the embedded RAM memory is very hard to test because its testing needs a large number of pattern stimuli to be delivered to memory and retrieving a huge data. So time factor and difficulty forces us to use Memory BIST. BIST implies Built In Self Test,is a design technique in which,parts of circuits is use to test the circuit itself. In memory BIST,memory testing algorithms are implemented on chip which are faster than the conventional memory testing. March test algorithms are suitable for memory testing because of its regularity in achieving high fault coverage. This paper discussed about Memory BIST by applying march algorithm

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

An Efficient Algorithm for Segmentation Using Fuzzy Local Information C-Means Clustering[Full-Text] [References]
Sandeep Kumar Mekapothula, V. Jai Kumar

In this paper there is a variation of fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm is presented that provides image clustering. The proposed algorithm incorporates local spatial information and gray level information in a novel fuzzy way. The new algorithm is called fuzzy local information C-Means (FLICM). By using this algorithm we can overcome the disadvantages of the previous algorithms and at the same time enhances the clustering performance. The major characteristic of this FLICM is the use of a fuzzy local (both spatial and gray level) similarity measure, aiming to guarantee noise insensitiveness and image detail preservation. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is fully free of the empirically adjusted parameters (a, ?g, ?s, etc.). Experiments performed on some synthetic and real images shows that this algorithm is effective and efficient, providing high robustness to noisy images.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Artificial Neural Network Design and Parameter Optimization for Facial Expressions Recognition[Full-Text] [References]
Ammar A. Alzaydi

This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network design and Neural Network parameter optimization for emotional recognition of classified facial expressions. The main goal in this paper is to teach computers to recognize three distinct human emotions from static images. Training and Testing dataset will be collected and a multilayer perceptron network will be built to implement an emotion classifier. Two excellent face databases are used to construct the training and testing datasets. Cross-validation techniques were used to compare the parameters of the Neural Network classifier and the types of activation functions. This paper shows that the performance of the designed Neural Network is very high at above 90% with around 60/40 ratio of training dataset size to test dataset size.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Study of Nigeria Energy Resources and Its Consumption[Full-Text] [References]
Engr C.O Osueke (Ph.D), Engr C.A.K Ezugwu

This study focuses on Nigeria energy resources and its consumption. The present situation in Nigeria is that energy supply does not meet the energy demand. Energy is considered as the most important resources of any country. It is a well known fact that high rate of industrial growth of a country is a function of the amount of energy available in that country and the extent to which the energy is utilized. In our study, we classified energy resources on their basis of renewability which are; renewable and non-renewable energy resources. Under renewable, we looked at wind, solar, water, biomass, and under non-renewable, we looked at fossil fuels which includes; coal, oil and natural gas. Analysis of solar energy consumption to other forms of energy was carried out and the way in which PV cell can be applied in energy generation was also enumerated. We also conducted three separate studies that were used to determine the measurement of the average wind speed in Sokoto, Imo, and Borno State for period ranging from three to ten years. The factors that lead to the inability of Nigeria to explore her rich natural energy resources were examined. We analyzed the energy consumption by sector from 1999 to 2004 with household sector having the highest percentage of the nation's total domestic energy consumption. The strategies for optimum exploitation of the natural resources in Nigeria were also enumerated, which if they are properly followed or implemented, will solve the problem of energy imbalance facing this nation.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Power Quality Improvement by UPQC device in Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Farm to Weak-Grid Connection[Full-Text] [References]
Miss Sobha Rani Injeti, K. Ratna Raju

This paper mainly deals with the regulation of voltage at wind farm (WF) terminals and the improvement of power quality and WF stability in a WF to Weak-Grid connection. In facilities with moderated power generation, the WF are connected through medium voltage (MV) distribution headlines. A situation commonly found in such scheme is that the power generated is comparable to the transport capacity of the grid. This case is known as Wind Farm to Weak Grid Connection, and its main problem is the poor voltage regulation at the point of common coupling (PCC). Thus, the combination of weak grids, wind power ?uctuation and system load changes produce disturbances in the PCC voltage, worsening the Power Quality and WF stability. This situation can be improved using Custom power devices technology (CUPS), the Uni?ed Power Quality Compensator (UPQC). The internal control strategy is based on the management of active and reactive power in the series and shunt converters of the UPQC, and the exchange of power between converters through UPQC DC–Link. Simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed compensation strategy for the enhancement of Power Quality and Wind Farm stability.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A simple approach to fuzzy critical path analysis in project networks[Full-Text] [References]
Shakeela Sathish, K. Ganesan

In this paper, we propose a new approach to critical path analysis in a project network whose activity times are uncertain. The uncertain parameters in the project network are represented by fuzzy numbers. We use fuzzy arithmetic and a fuzzy ranking method to determine the fuzzy critical path of the project network without converting the fuzzy activity times to classical numbers. The proposed method is compared with the existing method using examples.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Implementation of MUSIC Algorithm for a Smart Antenna System for Mobile Communications[Full-Text] [References]
T.Nageswara Rao, V.Srinivasa Rao

This paper presents practical design of a smart antenna system based on direction-of-arrival estimation and adaptive beam forming. Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation is based on the MUSIC algorithm for identifying the directions of the source signals incident on the sensor array comprising the smart antenna system. Adaptive beam forming is achieved using the LMS algorithm for directing the main beam towards the desired source signals and generating deep nulls in the directions of interfering signals. The smart antenna system designed involves a hardware part which provides real data measurements of the incident signals received by the sensor array. Results obtained verify the improved performance of the smart antenna system when the practical measurements of the signal environment surrounding the sensor array are used. This takes the form of sharper peaks in the MUSIC angular spectrum and deep nulls in the LMS array beam pattern

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CORDIC Algorithm Implementation in FPGA for Computation of Sine & Cosine Signals[Full-Text] [References]
Hunny Pahuja, Lavish Kansal, Paramdeep Singh

Many hardware algorithms exist to handle the hardware intensive signal processing problems. Among these algorithms is a set of shift-add algorithms collectively known as CORDIC for computing a wide range of functions including certain trigonometric, hyperbolic, linear and logarithmic functions. While there are numerous articles covering various aspects of CORDIC algorithms, very few survey more than one or two, and even fewer concentrate on implementation in FPGAs

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Clonal Selection Algorithm for Dynamic Economic Dispatch with Nonsmooth Cost Functions[Full-Text] [References]
U. K. Rout, R. K. Swain, A. K. Barisal, R. C. Prusty

This paper presents clonal selection algorithm to solve the Dynamic Economic Dispatch Problem (DEDP) of generating units considering valve point loading effects. It determines the optimal operation of units with predicted load demand over a certain period of time with an objective to minimize total production cost while the system is operating with ramp rate limits. This paper presents DED based on clonal selection technique for determination of the global or near global optimum dispatch solution. In the present case, load balance constraints, operating limits, valve point loading, ramp constraints and network loss coefficient are incorporated. Five unit test systems with non-linear characteristics of the generators are considered to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated and compared to those reported in the literature. The results are promising and show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sensitive Information on Move[Full-Text] [References]
Sona Kaushik, Shalini Puri

Sharing bulky data over the network securely is still a challenge for the organisations. Some data security architectures use multiple layers to provide them high security, so a Sensitive Information Security (SIS) Model is proposed in this paper which allows the sharing of very bulky data with high security over the network. The idea is to divide the documented text into its constituent parts, called data chunks, by using Natural Language Processing and then this processed and refined data is further separated into high risky and low risky data. Each data section is arranged in byte arrays of verbs, nouns, pronouns and so on. Bytes in the byte array are shuffled and encrypted realising the criticality of each array. Small chunks of shuffled arrays are encrypted and sent over the network securely. In this paper, this effort is made to present the investigations carried out using the rare combination of language processing and encryption techniques, to enhance the information security.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

An Intelligent Approach for Dense Urban Area in existing 2G / 2.5G[Full-Text] [References]
Sumit Katiyar , Prof. R. K. Jain, Prof. N. K. Agrawal

In the prevailing scenario audio, video, data services (i.e. internet), multimedia and broadcasting etc. are being integrated. Decreasing cell size increases capacity but at the same time increases fluctuation and interference too. The intelligence approach is the only answer in developing countries where frequency and power are scarce resources. In this paper, we have tried to integrate all proven technologies in networking such as in-building network, micro zone, intelligent micro cell, deployment along city streets, tunnels, subway coverage etc. along with adaptive frequency allocation in hierarchical approach with the help of adaptive / intelligent antenna system. A-SDMA approach will further enhance spectral efficiency as well as QoS (Quality of Service). It can be proved beyond doubt that this integrated approach will convert 2G / 2.5G systems capable of handling the prevailing demand at reduced cost. In addition to it, integrated approach will save power and reduce RF pollution. In this paper we have explained the ill effect of cellular growth in terms of health hazard and increased power consumption. We have also suggested ways and means to overcome these problems (spectral density / capacity, QoS, power consumption and RF pollution etc.)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Automatic Detection of Carotid Artery in Ultrasound Image using Tresholding Method[Full-Text] [References]
Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood and Eko Supriyanto

Carotid artery is one of the parts that hard to identify by inexperience doctor or radiologist because the shape is almost same like the muscle layer. A common, non-invasive test used to check for carotid artery disease is a Doppler ultrasound. This variation of the conventional ultrasound assesses blood flow and pressure and possible narrowing of the blood vessel by bouncing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) off red blood cells. Ultrasound images of carotid artery are one of the parts that hard to identify by inexperience doctor or radiologist because the shape is almost same like the muscle layer. Hence, a carotid artery automatic detection method using threshold is proposed in this study. From 20 ultrasound images that have been tested in the proposed method, the percentage of accuracy of automatic detection is at least 90 percent. The results will help the doctors and radiologist for further diagnosis. Besides that, the patient can get the correct earlier treatment and the chance to recover is increased.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Design and simulation of Hybrid Active Power Filter using the Adaptive Fuzzy Dividing Frequency-Control Method[Full-Text] [References]
Mr. Nagaraju Devarashetti, Mr.Y.Rajasekhar Reddy, Prof. P.V. Kishore

This paper deals with a hybrid active power filter with injection circuit (IHAPF). It exhibits clear promise in decreasing harmonics and increasing the power factor with a comparatively low capacity active power filter. This paper concludes that the stability of the IHAPF based on spotting supply current is exceptional to that of others. To minimize the capacity of IHAPF, an adaptive fuzzy dividing frequency control method is used, which consists of two control units: a generalized integrator control unit and fuzzy adjustor unit. The generalized integrator is used for dividing the frequency integral control, while fuzzy arithmetic is used for adjusting proportional-integral coefficients timely. And the control method is generally useful and applicable to any other active filters. Compared to other IHAPF control methods, the adaptive fuzzy dividing frequency control shows the advantages of shorter response time and higher control precision. It is implemented in an IHAPF with a 100-k VA APF installed in a copper mill in Northern China. The simulation and experimental results show that the new control method is not only easy to be calculated and implemented, but also very effective in reducing harmonics.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Frame Communication Module for Bin-Packing Algorithms for Distributed Embedded Systems[Full-Text] [References]
Mr. Anand, Dr. S.Ravi Mrs.V.Kavitha and Dr.Uma Rajaram

Embedded real-time systems must satisfy not only logical functional requirements, but also para-functional properties such as timeliness, Quality of Service (QoS) and reliability. The proposed scheme describes an automated schedulability analysis, and generates glue code to integrate the final runtime executable for the system. Its extensive glue code generation capabilities include the ability to insert inter-processor communications code at arbitrary software boundaries. The objective of this deployment is to minimize hardware requirements while satisfying the timing constraints of the software. The classical approach to addressing this problem is to use bin-packing techniques. A bin-packing algorithm is proposed to exploit the capability of partitioning software modules into smaller pieces which exhibits that number of bins required can be reduced. In this paper, we investigate how to assign signals to periodic frames with the objective function to minimize the network bandwidth requirement while not violating specified deadlines. This problem is NP-hard, but can for most typical applications be solved efficiently by using simple heuristics. The effectiveness of our algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to signal sets derived from automotive applications for a CAN based system and for the newly developed, low cost and low speed, Local Interconnect Network (LIN). The results can be of great use in cost sensitive embedded systems such as car control systems, where the used hardware, communication networks and nodes (typically micro-controllers), have to be highly utilized to keep the production cost at a minimum level.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Design Modification in Engine Exhaust[Full-Text] [References]
Ram M S

The system aims at modifying the position and diameter of the exhaust valve in order to reduce the probability of knocking (both in SI and in CI) and lessen the dilution of charge because of the small size of exhaust valve when compared to the size of inlet valve. The size of the exhaust valve is smaller when compared to the size of inlet valve. It is done so because the region closer to the exhaust valve is at a higher temperature compared to that of the temperature surrounding the inlet valve. Now if the exhaust valve size is increased there will be higher possibility of knocking because the charge coming inside the combustion chamber has a higher probability of combusting at exhaust valve's surface (due to large surface area). On the other hand if the size is too small then, there will be greater possibility of dilution in the intake charge because there is no enough space for the burnt gas to leave the chamber.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Isolated Pico-Hydropower Generation Using Asynchronous Generator for Power Quality Improvement[Full-Text] [References]
Mr.K.V.N.S Pavan Kumar, Mrs.E.Praveena, Prof. P.V. Kishore

A comparative study between the topologies consisting of the Conventional Electronic Load Controller and the Proposed Electronic Load controller (ELC)has been carried out in this paper for the power Quality Improvement in a conventional Electronic Load controller used for Isolated pico-hydropower generation using Asynchronous generator (AG). A polygon wound autotransformer with reduced KiloVolts ampere rating is employed in the proposed ELC for reducing the harmonic current reduction inorder to meet the power quality requirements as prescribed by IEEE standard-519. The conventional ELC employs six-pulse-bridge-rectifier and the Proposed ELC employs twenty four -pulse-bridge-rectifier. The study is carried out in MATLAB using SIMULINK and power system blockset toolboxes. Experimental validation is carried out for both ELCs for regulating the voltage and frequency of an isolated Asynchronous generator driven by uncontrolled pico-hydroturbine.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

REEH: Residual Energy Efficient Heterogeneous Clustered Hierarchy Protocol For Wireless Sensor Networks[Full-Text] [References]
Lalitesh K.Sehgal, Vishal Chowdhary

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are spatially distributed micro sensor systems. WSN is a power constrained system, since nodes run on limited power batteries which shorten the life time of the system. Prolonging the life time depends on efficient communication protocol architecture. LEACH hierarchical homogeneous communication protocol which greatly minimizes the energy consumed in collecting and disseminating data. In this paper, impact of heterogeneity in energy of nodes to prolong the life time of WSN is described. A protocol is proposed, which is heterogeneous in energy than the LEACH protocol, further more residual energy of the network is used in which cluster head(CH) is selected based on the residual energy of the node and the cluster. This research work present a metrics approach, FND (first node dies), HNA (Half of the nodes alive) and LND (last node dies), to define lifetime of WSN. Simulation results using NS-2.27 shows that the proposed Leach- heterogeneous and residual energy based Leach protocol significantly reduces energy consumption and increase the total lifetime of the wireless sensor network compared to the homogeneous LEACH protocol.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Machine Transliteration for Indian Languages: A Literature Survey[Full-Text] [References]
Antony P J and Dr. Soman K P

This paper address the various developments in Indian language machine transliteration system, which is considered as a very important task needed for many natural language processing (NLP) applications. Machine transliteration is an important NLP tool required mainly for translating named entities from one language to another. Even though a number of different transliteration mechanisms are available for worlds top level languages like English, European languages, Asian languages like Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Arabic, still it is an initial stage for Indian languages. Literature shows that, recently some recognizable attempts have done for few Indian languages like Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Kannada and Tamil languages. This paper is intended to give a brief survey on transliteration for Indian languages.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Voice Recognition browser for reduced vision and vision loss Learners [Full-Text] [References]
K.Sireesha, A.Supriya, D.Haritha, K.S.Swetha Joseph Sastry

Learning through the use of web technology or web based learning has become an important media in the education revolution of the 21st century. The Internet particularly, has become an important tool for learners to acquire information and knowledge that encompasses various elements such as text, graphic, numeric, and animation for their learning process. Learners soon learn that the links in the Internet can lead them to various web pages that can lead them to more information that have a link with one another or to other information that has no link at all with the previous information. However, the visually impaired learners who actually represent a substantial proportion of the world's population living in certain parts of the world have no access at all to this tool nor can it be easily taught to them as they are not able to see the links in the web pages. There is a need to democratize education as this is the basic human right and a way to achieve world peace. This paper hopes to highlight the Mg Sys VISI system to enable the visually impaired learners experience the world of the Internet, which comprises of five modules: Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Text-to-Speech (TTS), Search engine, Print (Text-Braille) and Translation (Braille-to -Text) module. Initial testing of the system indicates very positive results.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Effect of friction stir welding pressure on the microstructure and mechanical properties of weld joints[Full-Text] [References]
Nofel M.AL-Araji, Karrer M.Kadum, Akeel A. AL-Dayni

The (FSW) of commercial aluminum were studied. The Vickers microstructure of the tested spacemen's ranged from (33-48) VHN. The mechanical properties were investigated and the result shows that they are dependents on the weld test parameters such as spacemen thickness weld speed and weld pressure. The microstructure, including grain and sup grain structure, of has metals were compared with the weld zone and heat effected zone using transition electron microscopy. The microstructure of weld zone was characterized by dynamic recrastallization producing fine grain structure. However ,the heat affected zone exhibited an inhalation of the dislocations due to the increase the welding pressure at the welded joints which lead to formation of porous ,cavities and uneven deformed layers.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Segmentation and Area Measurement for Thyroid Ultrasound Image[Full-Text] [References]
Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood and Akmal Hayati Rusli

The thyroid measurement and recognition system is very useful in the medical field because the measurement of thyroid is important for the doctor diagnostic and medical analysis. In this paper, we present a simple guide of determine the thyroid lobes in the thyroid ultrasound image using a MATLAB. The image undergoes the contrast enhancement to suppress speckle. The enhancement image is used for further processing of segmentation the thyroid region by local region-based active contour. The thyroid region is segmented into two parts, which are right and left with the active contour method separately. This is accordingly to the thyroid have two lobes; right lobe and left lobe. Thyroid ultrasound image of transverse view is used in this study. Therefore, the measurements only involve the width, depth and area of the thyroid region. The result of thyroid measurement is successfully calculated in pixel unit. The measurement is converted in centimetre (cm) unit. The proposed method is benefited to enhance the image and segmentation the thyroid lobe. It shows that from five samples, different people have different size of thyroid, especially in measurement of the width, depth and area.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reduction of Multiple Access Interference in CDMA by using Improved Minimum Mean Square Error Receiver [Full-Text] [References]
Harsimranjit Singh Gill, Gurjot Singh Gaba, Nancy Gupta

Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a most promising technique for using channel efficiency. Multiple access interference (MAI) is a limiting factor for the capacity of CDMA system. Proposed design is based on the step by step practical implementation of matched filter (MF) detection and minimum mean squared error (MMSE) detection. Thus, providing flexibility of variations in all parameters of interest which are otherwise difficult to accommodate in a theoretical model. In this paper, matched filter, decorrelating filter and MMSE and other detection techniques have been proposed to alleviate the effects of the MAI.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Wavelet Based Encoder/Decoder for Compression of ECG Signal[Full-Text] [References]
Om Prakash Yadav, Vivek Kumar Chandra, Pushpendra Singh

Signal compression is an important problem encountered in many applications. Various techniques have been proposed over the years for addressing the problem. In this paper three compression algorithms are presented. In EZW algorithm, 3-level decomposition is performed to the original ECG samples, and the wavelet coefficients at different sub-band representing the same spatial location in the ECG samples are loaded into a spanning tree.MEZW is a method derived from EZW method. The difference between them is that only one dominant pass and one subordinate pass are performed in MEZW. If the computation time is a concern, both EZW and MEZW, especially EZW method, need to be applied to each of the ECG beats in order to break down the computational complexity.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reduced Dynamic Power Shift And Add Multiplier Design[Full-Text] [References]
K. Sreenivasa Rao, D. Rajesh Setty

Today every circuit has to face the power consumption issue for both portable devices aiming at large Battery life and high end circuits avoiding cooling packages and reliability issues those are too complex. It is generally accepted that during logic synthesis power tracks well with area. This means that a larger design will generally consume more power. In this paper a low power low area architecture for the shift and add multiplier is proposed. For getting the low power low area architecture, the modifications made to the conventional architecture consist of the reduction in switching activities of the major blocks of the Multiplier, which includes the reduction in switching activity of the adder and counter. This architecture avoids the shifting of the multiplier register. The simulation result for 16 bit multipliers shows that the proposed low power architecture lowers the total power consumption by 40.15% when compared to the conventional architecture. Also the reduction in power consumption increases with the increase in bit width.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Problem-based Learning: An Approach to produce "System Thinking-New Kind Of Engineer"[Full-Text] [References]
PRIYANKA MAHENDRU, D.V.Mahindru

This paper describes an investigation of the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on undergraduate Electronics & Communication engineering students' conceptual understanding and their perceptions of learning using PBL as compared to lecture. Fifty students enrolled in an Electronics & Communication course at a SRMGPC, Lucknow, participated in this research. The study utilized a within-subjects A-B-A-B research design with traditional lecture as the baseline phase and problem-based learning as the experimental phase of the study. Participants completed pre- and post-tests surrounding the four topics covered in the study and also completed a Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALG) survey. Results suggested participants' learning gains from PBL were twice their gains from traditional lecture. Even though students learned more from PBL, students thought they learned more from traditional lecture. We discuss these findings and offer implications for faculty interested in implementing PBL. Given the limited research on the beneficial effects of PBL on student learning, this study provides empirical support for PBL. We discuss findings from this study and provide specific implications for faculty and researchers interested in problem-based learning in engineering

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

GUI/Simulink Based Interactive Interface for a DC Motor with PI Controller[Full-Text] [References]
Bishwajit Dash and Vibindeepak Vasudevan

This paper presents an interactive module for understanding the effect of PI (Proportional Integral) controllers in the regulation of DC motor systems. This module uses Simulink model to represent the DC motor model and was given an interactive interface with the Matlab graphical user interface (Matlab-GUI) tool, which makes it easier to learn the control engineering behind PI controls. The paper will go through the development of the GUI interface from the Simulink module, as students and engineers can go through each step involved in it for an interactive learning. The GUI interface created includes the variation of armature current, speed and voltage with respect to variation in DC motor parameters and relay parameters, in conjunction with PI controller.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UDA: Update driven approach for Continuously Moving Objects[Full-Text] [References]
G.Sriram murthy,Ch.Jyosthna Devi,G.Bala venkata kishore

In the present scenario location updating is main problem in mobile applications. Mobile clients will be spread based on location hierarchy. Updating all mobile clients' information at single database server faces overhead problem. To overcome this, in our approach we are providing server hierarchy for load balancing. Mobile clients generally send continuous information to servers. But if movement is local then the local server will have responsible to update data. If movement is global then central server will send data to all. Using this approach load is balanced. We develop efficient query evaluation/reevaluation and safe region computation algorithms in the approach. The experimental results show that UDA substantially outperforms traditional schemes in terms of monitoring overhead, CPU cost, and scalability while achieving close-to-optimal communication cost.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mining Frequent Item Sets from incremental database : A single pass approach[Full-Text] [References]
Sandhya Rani Jetti, Sujatha D

Apriori based Association Rule Mining (ARM) is one of the data mining techniques used to extract hidden knowledge from datasets that can be used by an organization's decision makers to improve overall profit. Performing Existing association mining algorithms requires repeated passes over the entire database. Obviously, for large database, the role of input/output overhead in scanning the database is very significant. We propose a new algorithm, which would mine frequent item sets with vertical format. The new algorithm would need to scan database one time. And in the follow-up data mining process, it can get new frequent item sets through 'and operation' between item sets. The new algorithm needs less storage space, and can improve the efficiency of data mining

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Neural Networks for Nonlinear Fractional Programming[Full-Text] [References]
S.K Bisoi, G. Devi, Arabinda Rath

This paper presents a neural network for solving non-linear minimax multiobjective fractional programming problem subject to nonlinear inequality constraints. Neural model is designed for optimization with constraints condition. Methodology is based on the lagrange multiplier with saddle point optimization

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Development of A Field Kit Using The 'Mixed Reagents Azo-Dye Method' For The Determination Of Nitrite In Water And Environmental Samples[Full-Text] [References]
S.O. Ajayi, B.O. Odesanya, A.A. Fashina & J.O. Ajayi

The transient nature of the nitrite ion and its toxicity make on-site determinations preferable to ensure actual values are obtained for analytical data integrity. A simple, compact and cheap field kit for the on-site determination of nitrite in water and environmental samples is presented using a method of colour development based on mixed reagents - (N-(1-napthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride and sulphanilamide) with standard nitrite solutions used to calibrate the field kit before determination of the nitrite in water samples. Results indicate the method is sensitive, selective and reproducible and would provide a reliable method for the determination of nitrite in water and environmental samples on-site.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Micro Hydro Power: Promising Solution For Off-Grid Renewable Energy Source[Full-Text] [References]
Md Tanbhir. Hoq, Nawshad U. A., Md. N. Islam, IbneaSina ,Md. K. Syfullah, Raiyan Rahman

Micro hydro current power plant studies to date have aimed at finding feasible solution of its realistic implementation to the different parts of the world.This paper will briefly review the micro hydro current power plant's prospect as a possible off grid source of renewable energy

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Suitability of Training Programme Based on Integrity Traits Identification[Full-Text] [References]
Mohamad Farhan Mohamad Mohsin, Faudziah Ahmad, Aniza Mohamed Din, Ku Ruhana Ku-Mahamud, Roshidi Din

Training programs for teacher's development in Malaysia are organized ever year. The selection of teachers to attend trainings is currently done randomly, by rotation and not based on their work performance. This poses a problem in selecting the right teacher to attend the right course. Up until now, there is no intelligent model to assist the school management to determine the integrity level of teacher and assign them to the right training program. Thus, this study investigates the integrity traits of teacher using association rule technique with an aim, which can assist the school management to organize a training related to teachers' integrity performance and to avoid sending the wrong teacher for the training. A dataset of Trainees Integrity Dataset representing 1500 secondary school teachers in Langkawi Island, Malaysia in the year 2009 were pre-processed and mined using apriori. Mining knowledge was analyzed based on demographic and integrity trait of teacher. The finding indicates that adaptability and stability are the weakest integrity trait among teachers. Teachers from the age group of 26 - 30 years are found to have lower integrity performance. However, other demographic factor such as gender, race, and grade position of teachers were not able to reflect their low integrity level in this study. Findings from this study can be used as guideline for school management to propose suitable training programs for teacher to improve their integrity mainly on adaptability and stability traits.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Interacting with Dynamic Web Portals in Local Language[Full-Text] [References]
Ch.JyosthnaDevi ,Santosh Kumar shah ,J.Devi Durga, K.Ruth Ramya,N.Vahini,Gyan pandy

Today and Tomorrow , the most advanced technology is Information Technology (IT) . But, the applications of IT are being limited to only those who are familiar in English. It is not useful for those who are unknown in digital literacy. In an increasingly interconnected world, the interactions among devices, systems, and people are growing rapidly. At present the repositories in Internet are mainly in English, as a consequence users unfamiliar in English are not able to get benefits from Internet. Although many enterprises like Google have addressed this problem by providing translation engines but they have their own limitations. One major limitation is that translation engines fail to translate the dynamic content of the web pages which are written in English in web server database. We address the problem in this work and propose a user friendly interface mechanism through which a user can interact to any web services in Internet. We illustrate the access of Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation System and interaction with Wikipedia English Website signifying the efficacy of the proposed mechanism as two case studies.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Comparative analysis of mint gas with R-12 and R-134 refrigerants[Full-Text] [References]
Ratnesh sahu

Today, environment safety has become an important aspect of the industries and people in common. The global warming, climate change ozone layer depletion and many other environmental disasters have prompted a need to look for environmental friendly operations and process for fulfilling our basic and other needs such as transportation, production of materials etc. This paper aims at development of one such eco friendly system for domestic refrigerators. The commonly used domestic refrigerators use the gas which either deplete the ozone layer or contribute in the global warming in the same as CO2 does. This work consists of using a hydrocarbon gas mixture known as mint gas which does not deplete ozone layer, is eco friendly, and can be used in the commonly used refrigerators without any significant change in the system. Efforts have been made to include various aspects to get the maximum knowledge about the refrigerant. Refrigerant physical and chemical properties of different refrigerants are included in this paper. This paper summarizes analysis of refrigerant used in domestic refrigerator with the mint gas. It present tabulated global warming potential and other environmental data for different refrigerants. This paper also discuses on the C.O.P (coefficient of performance).

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Research of cooperative decision-making based on Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy System [Full-Text] [References]
Sangita Lalchand Vaswani, Muhammad Mazhar Manzoor, Asad Ali Siddique, Amir Ijaz

A considerable advancement has been appreciated since very long in DSS framework and deployment of that in DSS. But the cognitive process execution and associative memory for storing the serial characters is an issue for DSS. The spectrum of neural networks is actually a huge platform to identify the hidden relations in dynamic systems, to resolve the problems in a way that linear systems can not resolve. Fuzzy-logic (FL) is an approach of solving the problems and the controlling the systems. Through FL definite conclusions can be received, even if the information is unclear, not complete, and splitting. Building DSS with hybrid neuro-fuzzy system gives us a new thought to develop intelligent DSS in cooperation with artificial intelligence. Hybrid neuro-fuzzy systems (Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System ANFIS) is a parallel architecture, distributive processing, system's adaptive nature for linguistics (low, medium, high), non-linear perspective, while realizing the real time processing. In this paper we have discussed the uncertain factors of DSS, explained cognitive processing steps of hybrid neuro-fuzzy systems, and proposed a research framework for cooperative decision support system in relation with neural network and hybrid neuro-fuzzy systems

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Extraction of Characteristics Quantities and Electro-Technical Modeling of Electrodynamic Direct Radiator Loudspeaker[Full-Text] [References]
Shaiyek Md. Buland Taslim, Shaikh Md. Rubayiat Tousif, Md. Asiqur Rahman, Shauk Muntaha Murshid Khan, Noor Ehteshamul Azad, Md. Shahnewaz Bhuiyan

This paper documents a comprehensive study of loudspeaker modeling to propose such a model that could be used for dimensioning the driver element of an electrodynamic direct radiator loudspeaker system. A lumped-parameter model for such a driver element mounted in an infinite baffle is presented after being derived from careful consideration of the physical principles related to the electro-mechano-acoustic transduction mechanism of the driver element under inspection. Different characteristics quantities such as resonance frequency, Q-number, acoustic efficiency at maximum radiated sound power, frequency response and electrical impedance were extracted from the models representing the loudspeaker driver elements of diameter 8", 16" and 32". Subsequently the outcomes were compared and their behaviors verified with the help of extensive simulation results.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Adsorption Studies of Zn (II) Ions from wastewater using Calotropis procera as an adsorbent[Full-Text] [References]
Vinod Vaishnav , Suresh Chandra , Dr. Kailash Daga

Zinc is an essential mineral of "exceptional biologic and public health importance"2. Zinc is an essential trace element, necessary for plants, animals, and microorganisms. Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases4.In children it causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea1. Treatment of zinc from polluted water and wastewater has received a great deal of attention. Adsorption technique is one of the most technologies for the treatment of polluted water from zinc 3, but seeking for the low-cost adsorbent is the target of this study. Removal of zinc was studied using adsorbent prepared from Calotropis procera leaves. Batch adsorption experiments were performed by varying adsorbate dose, pH of the metal ion solution and contact time. Adsorption of Zn (II) is highly pH-dependent and the results indicate that the maximum removal (75.2%) took place in the pH range of 6 and initial concentration of 60 ppm. Kinetic experiments revealed that the dilute Zinc (II) solutions reached equilibrium within 105 min. The adsorbent capacity was also studied. The zinc adsorption followed both the Langmuir6and Freundlich's equation isotherms5. Comprehensive characterization of parameters indicates Calotropis procera to be an excellent material for adsorption of Zn (II) ions to treat wastewaters containing low concentration of the metal.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ambedkar's Notion of Social Justice - A Different Perspective[Full-Text] [References]
A.Ranjithkumar

State has a fundamental role to play to construct a just society. India has been implementing social justice programmes through its reservation policy which is in reality a problematic one from its very inception. Since ancient time, the Hindu social system based on caste has proclaimed a social order which was the main cause of injustice in Indian society. All human beings are equal by birth but few people constructed caste system based on occupations which contributed to the evil practice of untouchability. Certain sections of society whom we call dalits were denied access to the natural resources and denied right to livelihood, this practice excluded them from the mainstream political participation which further added to vulnerability. Later, their Ambedkar, the great social reformer had addressed these issues in a different way during the independence movement period and thereafter Ambedkar's leadership provided a fresh path for over all development of scheduled castes and his whole life was a constant struggle against injustice in society. He addressed the problem of untouchability and came out with concrete proposals for the removal of untouchability and the upliftment of the marginalized and the excluded. Ambedkar's contribution is now in a critical juncture to create the just and casteless society. He believed that the root of untouchability lies in the caste system and caste in the hands of the orthodox has been a powerful weapon for persecuting the reformers and for killing all reforms. He felt that no socio-political reform movement could be successful without the annihilation of caste. He wanted justice for untouchables as well as the weaker sections of the society by making provision in this regard in the Constitution itself. Ambedkar's just society is based on three fundamental principles viz., Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. But the present scenario shows us a gloomy picture of Ambedkar's idea of dealing with the weaker sections in the society. The ideas enshrined in our Constitution are not addressing the issue properly even after the 64 years of independence. The present paper would address the question that why did Ambedkar unlike Hindu religion? This study would discuses on Ambedkar's perspective of Hindu social system and his notion of social justice.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Fraud Deduction and Precaution Measures for Branchless Banking[Full-Text] [References]
Fareen Bhutto, Naeem-ul-Hassan Janjua

Branchless Banking is growing faster and becomes the key factor in modern technologies so it needs to be secure from each and every perspective it might be bank security or even customer security, as the technology is moving onwards everyone is concerned about security related to customer money but there is still gap to be filled is the bank secured while doing branchless transactions via retail agents. In this paper we have tried to make available proper branchless banking security by following SBP (State Bank of Pakistan) rules and regulations and provide guaranteed security with respect to AML (Anti Money Laundering) and KYC (Know Your Customer) procedures. This would help in reducing fraud and increasing productivity of banks

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Productivity Improvement on a CNC Lathe by Automatic Loading and Unloading of Throttle Valve Component[Full-Text] [References]
Rohan Kulkarni, S. Shivakumar and Roopa K rao

Industrial Automation is a broad field among other engineering disciplines. The major activities of Automation stem from manufacturing industries and include cycle time improvement, productivity improvement, cost reduction, efficiency improvement, materials handling, analyze and improve the work methods, to eliminate waste and proper allocation and utilization of resources. Automation in a manufacturing shop is one of the most chal-lenging tasks, as it has an impact of many interrelated variables and parameters. A detailed study by large data acquisition and analysis is essential for understanding the trends in productivity improvement. Productivity improvement is achieved through analyzing the current method by eliminating unnecessary movements, reducing cycle time and providing appropriate solutions to various problems during the machining of components to improve productivity. The project titled "Productivity Improvement on a CNC Lathe by Automatic Loading and Unloading of Throttle Valve Component" includes analysis and detailed study of manufacturing process including loading and unloading methods of components on a machine. This project involves the use of automation techniques namely pneumatics automation to increase the productivity and efficiency. Present work aims at improving the productivity of throttle valve components on a CNC turning centre. Here emphasis is placed upon improving the existing time consuming methods. An effort is made to bring down the total cycle time.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Design of Narrow Band Reject Filter [Full-Text] [References]
Nitesh kumar, namarta sahayam

Microstrip filters are widely used in microwave circuit, This paper briefly describes the design principle of microstrip band stop filters. This paper presents novel millimeter wave filter structures by creation of some slots on the strip. This paper presents the design and simulation of a narrow band stop filter using microstrip which is designed to have a central frequency of 1.273 GHz which provides and improved bandwidth of 869MHz with return loss of -57.07db and another cutoff frequency obtained at 2.7Ghz with return loss of -22db. The simulation is done using the commercial software

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Morphophysiology Of Radiation Induced Lenticular Opacity[Full-Text] [References]
Sheetal Punjani, Dr. Bharat Jethava, Dr. Preeti Shrivastava

The purpose behind the study of radiation induced lenticular opacity was to know the distribution of the lens Glucose and their interaction with environmental radiation coming from the sun. Glucose is the most important free hexose sugar in the lens. It plays an important role in energy metabolism. In the lens the biological energy is necessary for the maintenance of transparency, synthesis and repair process (Kuck, 1965). This study provides information on the potential risk of cataract development due to exposure of Non-ionizing radiation i.e. UV-radiation, Infrared radiation during their occupational activities. The entire study is carried out in two phases. Phase I the normal lenses from mice have been analyzed by the standardized method in the laboratory. The biochemical analysis was carried out. Phase II the observations obtained in the laboratory were correlated with the data of normal and different cataractous lenses of other groups. These data were outcome of the standardized methodology and exposure set up for irradiation in vivo and in vitro. Animals used for these studies were the mice (Mus musculus) and the rat (Rattus norvegiicus) of either sex. The Control animals as well as the Experiment animals were kept in laboratory condition. They were fed with standard animal food and water (Phase I-II). The experiment animals were kept in radiation chambers periodically to see the effect of radiation on their lenses. Each lens from control and experiment strains was subjected to biochemical analysis. The irradiation of the lens by the non-ionizing radiation was carried out by the in vivo and in vitro method.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Effects of anisotropy on convection in porous media subject to nonuniform thermal average gradient[Full-Text] [References]
F. P. Codo, V. Adanhounme, A. Adomou

The objective of the present study is to investigate analytically the e ect of anisotropy on the onset of natural convection heat transfer in a uid saturated porous horizontal cavity subjected to nonuniform thermal gradients,taking into account the hydrodynamic anisotropy of the porous matrix and the rigid/rigid and stress-free/stress-free horizontal boundaries.We have obtained the exact solutions for the ow and heat transfer variables,valid for the onset of convection related to vanishingly small wave number and depending on the Darcy-Rayleigh number Ra, the Darcy number Da and the anisotropic parameters K* and γ. Furthermore the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of convection is computed and the cases when Da approaches ∞ or 0 are discussed. The results of this paper are the generalization of the results obtained in Degan and Vaseur.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

An Approach to Implement an Interactive Question Answer System[Full-Text] [References]
Soumya Batra, Piduru Sushrith Reddy

An Interactive Question Answer System is the one that interacts with a user to answer a question posed by him/her in a Natural Language. Such systems need to first process the user's input to extract meaning, then perform information retrieval and answer extraction from their knowledgebase to produce the necessary answer. If employed successfully, these systems could be the next generation smart search engines. Some of the existing interactive QA systems are High Quality Interactive Question Answering (HITIQA) and YourQA. While HITIQA is a GUI based system using no dialogue and acting as an expert system, YourQA is largely dependent on system-user interaction. This paper talks about the design of an interactive QA system by categorizing various question types. Here, prime focus is on understanding the question first and then finding out the answer for it. In case of ambiguity, the system interacts with the user to find out more details. Entire World Wide Web is used as the system's knowledgebase. WordNet is used as a tool to extract meaning.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Case Study on Pervasive Computing in MANET[Full-Text] [References]
G.S.Sarma, Kallakunta.Ravi Kumar, A.Somasekhar

In the near future, a pervasive computing environment can be expected based on the recent progresses and advances in computing and communication technologies. Next generation of mobile communications will include both prestigious infrastructure wireless networks and novel infrastructure less mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Mobile Adhoc Network is designed for mobihttp://www.teluguone.com/tmdb/http://www.teluguone.com/tmdb/. The special features of MANET bring this technology great opportunities together with severe challenges. This paper describes the fundamental problems of ad hoc networking by giving its related research background including the concept, features, status, and applications of MANET. Some of the technical challenges MANET poses are also presented, based on which the paper points out some of the key research issues for ad hoc networking technology that are expected to promote the development and accelerate the commercial applications of the MANET technology. Special attention is paid on network layer routing strategy of MANET and key research issues include new X-cast routing algorithms, security & reliability schemes, QoS model, and mechanisms for interworking with outside IP networks.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Selection Of Maintenance Practice Through Value Engineering[Full-Text] [References]
Prof. Malay Niraj

In this study the techniques of value engineering have been studied for finding the suitable maintenance practice. Value engineering is a one of the most powerful decision making techniques which depends upon factor. The VE process identifies; opportunities to remove unnecessary costs while assuring that quality, reliability, performance, and other critical factors will meet or exceed the customer's expectations. The improvements are the result of recommendations made by multidisciplinary teams representing all parties involved. VE is a rigorous, systematic effort to improve the value and optimize the life cycle cost of a facility. Using factor comparison study has been made between different maintenance practice .and finally select best maintenance practice based of value engineering.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Superplastic hemispherical Bulge Forming of a Ti-Al-Mn Alloy[Full-Text] [References]
B.Yogesha & S. S. Bhattacharya

Superplastic sheet thermoforming has been identified as a standard processing route for the production of complex shapes, especially in the aerospace industry. Ti-Al-Mn (OT4-1) alloy is currently being used for aero engine components as well as other aerospace applications by forming through a conventional route which is typically cost, labour and equipment intensive. The Ti-Al-Mn alloy (made as per the Russian specification, OT4-1) is a candidate material for aerospace applications. However, there is virtually little or no information available on its superplastic forming behavior. In this paper the superplastic deformation capability of the Ti-Al-Mn alloy was studied. Sheets of 1 mm thickness were successfully bulge formed to a hemispherical component of 90 mm diameter using a sheet thermoforming route.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Profit Analysis of Two Unit Cold Standby System with Two Types of Failure under Inspection Policy and Discrete Distribution[Full-Text] [References]
Jasdev Bhatti, Ashok Chitkara, Nitin Bhardwaj

In this paper the two identical unit cold standby systems with single repairman has been discussed.The concept of inspection policy has also been introduced for detecting the kind of failures (major or minor) before the failed unit get repaired by some repair mechanism.The model has been design for the system to calculate the various important measures of reliability i.e MTSF, steady state availability, busy period of repairman and inspector, profit function using discrete distribution and regenerative point techniques. Profit function and MTSF are also analyzed graphically

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Model Watershed Management Plan for Shivapur Village[Full-Text] [References]
Mrs. V. A. Swami, Dr. Mrs. S. S. Kulkarni

Water is one of the limited vital natural resources, which is indispensible for existence of all living matter hence it is known as ELIXIR of life, plant, animal and man. Potable water which was once thought to be an infinite, is in fact a fast depleting scarce commodity and at the present rate of consumption by mankind it would not last longer and become as dearer as fossil fuels today. Hence it becomes necessary to harness the water resources available on Earth through the application of science and technology. As a part of our last year students, we selected different areas for watershed development, surveyed them, analyzed the data and finalized the proposals. We could develop social contacts with the local people along with carrying out socio-economic survey of the area in the best possible way. It was decided that the proposals must be easily acceptable and adoptable by the local people, so that they would not have to depend upon the Government's financial assistance.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Collision-Free Navigation for Blind Persons using Stereo Matching[Full-Text] [References]
Saeid Fazli, Hajar Mohammadi D

A blind person in an urban environment has to navigate around obstacles and hazards. Though a significant amount of work has been done on detecting obstacles, not much attention has been given to the detection of drop offs, e.g., sidewalk curbs, downward stairs, and other hazards where an error could lead to disastrous consequences. In this paper, we propose algorithms for detecting obstacles in an urban setting using stereo vision and Two-Stage Dynamic Programming (TSDP) technique. We are developing computer vision algorithms for sensing important terrain features as an aid to blind navigation, which interpret visual information obtained from images collected by cameras mounted on camera legs nearly as high as young person. This paper focuses specifically on a novel computer vision algorithm for detecting obstacles, which are important and ubiquitous features on and near sidewalks and other walkways. A fast and robust stereo matching algorithm is proposed that uses only features in order to find a semi-dense disparity map. It works by growing from a small set of correspondence seeds. In this paper we use Normalized Cross-correlation (NCC) function matching with a 5 x 5 window and prepare an edge detected matching table t and start growing disparity components by drawing a seed s from S which is computed using Sobel edge detector, and adding it to t. It results in high accuracy and performance. The obstacle identified in the proposed method which appears in the disparity map enters the phase of depth computing.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Power -Management Strategies for a Grid-Connected PV-FC Hybrid System[Full-Text] [References]
T.Kranthi Kumar, Ratnaraju, Apparao

This paper presents a method to operate a grid connected hybrid system. The hybrid system composed of a Photovoltaic (PV) array and a Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is considered. Two operation modes, the unit-power control (UPC) mode and the feeder-flow control (FFC) mode, can be applied to the hybrid system. In the UPC mode, variations of load demand are compensated by the main grid because the hybrid source output is regulated to reference power. Renewable energy is currently widely used. One of these resources is solar energy. The photovoltaic (PV) array normally uses a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique to continuously deliver the highest power to the load when there are variations in irradiation and temperature. The disadvantage of PV energy is that the PV output power depends on weather conditions and cell temperature, making it an uncontrollable source. Furthermore, it is not available during the night.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Novel Method of Envisaging Thumb Features from Middle Finger Width[Full-Text] [References]
Manimala.S, C.N.Ravi Kumar

The anatomy of the hand is complex, intricate, and fascinating. Hands may be affected by many disorders, most commonly traumatic injury. In treating hand problems, the mastery of anatomy is fundamental in order to provide the best quality of care. The focus in this paper is on predicting geometric features of thumb from the known width of the middle finger. Geometric features of both the hands from 100 people of different age group were extracted from the silhouettes. The proposed method can be used to predict length of the thumb, position of knuckle from the finger tip and also thumb width at the above and below knuckle using taalamana system and shilpa shastra. The estimation accuracy of more than 90% is achieved for TFL, TFW1 and TL features and around 85% accuracy is achieved for TFW2 feature of the thumb.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

An Effective Strategy for Identifying Phishing Websites using Class-Based Approach[Full-Text] [References]
K. Ruth Ramya, K. Priyanka, K. Anusha, Ch. Jyosthna Devi, Y. A. Siva Prasad

This paper presents a novel approach to overcome the difficulty and complexity in detecting and predicting social networking phishing website. We proposed an intelligent resilient and effective model that is based on using A New Class Based Associative Classification Algorithm which is an advanced and efficient approach than all other association and classification Data Mining algorithms. This algorithm is used to characterize and identify all the factors and rules in order to classify the phishing website and the relationship that correlate them with each other. Applying the association rule into classification can improve the accuracy and obtain some valuable rules and information that cannot be captured by other classification approaches. The class label is taken good advantage in the rule mining step so as to cut down the searching space. The proposed algorithm also synchronize the rule generation and classifier building phases, shrinking the rule mining space when building the classifier to help speed up the rule generation.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Novel Hybrid Fuzzy Clustering based approach for the effective Quantification and Analysis of cDNA Microarray Images[Full-Text] [References]
A.Sri Nagesh, Dr.G.P.Saradhi Varma, Dr A Govardhan

In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach for microarray image analysis, which is to quantify the intensity of each spot and locate differentially articulated genes with the aid of image processing and machine learning techniques. Initially we employ a hill-climbing au-tomatic gridding and spot quantification technique, which takes a microarray image (or a sub-grid) as input, and makes no assumptions con-cerning the size of the spots, rows and columns in the grid. We propose an approach based on image processing techniques for microarray image segmentation that includes a noise-removal pre-processing stage. The foreground and background pixels from the microarray images are segmented with the aid of morphological operator and common subtraction procedure whereas the noise is filtered by using wiener fil-tering. Finally for cluster analysis we employed a hybrid approach based on clustering techniques; Fuzzy C Means and Fuzzy K Means. Clustering and their analysis were performed on this inputted microarray data. To quantify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, we utilized the Microarray database which is available publicly and we evaluated the accuracy, the specificity and the sensitivity of our proposed approach.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Growth Mechanism of SnO2 Nanomaterials Derived From Backscattered Electron Image and EDX Observations[Full-Text] [References]
Ronald de los Reyes,Gil Nonato C. Santos

SnO2 nanomaterials were synthesized using the unseeded, non-catalytic horizontal vapor phase growth (HVPG) deposition. The sample was synthesized at a growth temperature of 1200oC and growth time of 6 hours. The resulting nanostructures ranges from nanowires, nanorods to nanobelts as confirmed by JEOL JSM 5310-SEM. Backscattered electron image observations show that nanobelts has less intense brightness compared to nanorod and nanowire images. This suggests that the nanobelts are of lighter composition. Using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, it was confirmed that the nanobelts are oxygen deficient, being made up of SnO while the nanorods and nanowires are made of the more common SnO2. From these findings, a growth mechanism was proposed detailing the transition of the SnO2 nanostructures from the powder SnO2 source material.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Non-perfect M/M/R Machine repair problem with spares and two modes of failure[Full-Text] [References]
D.C.Sharma

The paper investigates the machine repair problem consisting of M operating machines with S spare machine and R servers where machines have two failure modes and server are subjected to breakdown under steady state conditions. The two failure modes have equal probability of repair. Spares are considered to be cold standby or warm standby or hot standby. Failure and service time of machines and breakdown and repair time of server are assumed to follow a negative exponential distribution. Each server is subject to breakdown even if no failed machine is in the system.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Application of Capacitive Energy Storage Unit for Automatic Generation Control of Two Area Two Unit Power System[Full-Text] [References]
V.V.Vijetha Inti, K.Ratna Raju, Aswani Kumar Eedara

This paper is about the application of Capacitive Energy Storage unit (CES) to two area two unit powersystem to improve dynamic performance of automatic generation control. Simulation is done without CES, with CES unit by taking frequency error as control input and with CES unit by taking Area Control Error (ACE) as Control input. Simulation studies show that CES units are capable of reducing the settling time of the responses. Simulation study also reveals that the dynamic responses with frequency deviations as feedback to CES are better than that obtained with ACE as feedback to CES unit and far superior than that without CES units

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Software Framework to alleviate the Development of DR Management Systems[Full-Text] [References]
Madhavi Latha Yalamarthi, Madhuri Katabathuni, Jyothi Kameswari Uppuluri

Even though many of the publications sustain the use for a generic DR Management software architecture, we noticed that present attempt to describe a Digital Rights Management Architecture that it doesn't provide to able support to visualize the existence and management of DR Management systems and applications. It is a marked problem that denote an essential demand for the development of DR Management, provides the significance of software architecture on the functional and non-functional characteristics of the performance. In this paper we suggested a generic DR Management framework, figure out it in the contingency even in heterogeneous environment. Analyze it to relevant work in the Digital Media Project. The proposed framework is more informative than the relevant work observed so far

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cerebral Hemispheres and Learning: A Study of the Correlation between Brain Dominations and Learning Styles[Full-Text] [References]
Rowena Zhang

Brain consists of left and right cerebral hemispheres. Left hemisphere controls the right side of the body, and right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. Based on observations of students, left-handed students and right-handed students seem to have differences in their mind thinking and learning styles. There are three types of learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. These two factors, brain dominations and learning styles, brought up my interests to ask the question: is there a correlation between brain dominations and learning styles? And if there is, what is it?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Web Search Engine[Full-Text] [References]
G.Hanumantha Rao, G.Narender, B.Srinivasa Rao, M.Srilatha

This paper explains how to make the process of searching in the search engine very efficient and more accurate and also how to reduce the number of unwanted search results in the searching process. They answer tens of millions of queries every day. Search engines index tens to hundreds of millions of web pages involving a comparable number of distinct terms. Instead of searching the keywords in total indexes present in the indexer if we reduce the number of search indexes by providing some conditions then we can reduce the number of search results. In this paper we present details of how to reduce the number of indexes that are not exactly suitable for our query that contain the number of keywords.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Speech Compression using DWT in FPGA[Full-Text] [References]
Ms. P.M.Kavathekar, Mrs.P.M.Taralkar, Prof. U.L.Bombale, Prof. P.C.Bhaskar

The paper gives the details about the speech compression using discrete wavelet transform in FPGA. In today's world multimedia files are used, storage space required for these files is more and sound files have no option so ultimate solution for this is compression. Compression is nothing but high input stream of data converted into smaller size. Compression is done for all, such as image, data; signals. Here speech compression technique is used and done using DWT. For this purpose only single level implementation is done to get compressed signal, and this is implemented in FPGA by using VHDL code. In this technique DWT code is written in VHDL that include separation of high level component and low level component from given input wav file and after separating these components down sampling is done and we get the compressed speech signal by keeping only approximation part of the result. The compressed speech signal was read back after up-sampling was performed. The resulting compressed signal is with some noise and future work is to reduce noise.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Character Localization From Natural Images Using Nearest Neighbours Approach[Full-Text] [References]
Shaila Chugh, Yogendra Kumar Jain

Scene text contains significant and beneficial information. Extraction and localization of scene text is used in many applications. In this paper, we propose a connected component based method to extract text from natural images. The proposed method uses color space processing. Histogram analysis and geometrical properties are used for edge detection. Character recognition is done through OCR which accepts the input in form of text boxes, which are generated through text detection and localization stages. Proposed method is robust with respect to the font size, color, orientation, and style. Results of the proposed algorithm, by taking real scenes, including indoor and outdoor images, show that this method efficiently extract and localize the scene text.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Performance Evaluation of Window Functions and Application to FIR Filter Design[Full-Text] [References]
Mridula Malhotra

The paper is based upon the performance of various windows in designing FIR Filter. The cosine hyperbolic window has been used to design a better FIR Filter in terms of ripple ratio, side-lobe roll off ratio and main-lobe width with its advantages of no power series expansion in frequency domain hence need less hardware. The spectral characteristic of cosh window is compared with other windows like Kaiser Window, hamming window and their combinations. A modification is also introduced in cosh window to perform better in terms of ripple ratio as compared to Kaiser as well as cosh window.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Competitive Study towards the impact of educational games on the Student Motivation and the Development of Self-Directed Learning for Math: A New SDL Model[Full-Text] [References]
Ahmed Dheyaa Basha, Irfan Naufal Umar, Merza Abbas

Self-directed learning (SDL) has become a major topic within adult education literature. Addressing the impact of various educational games on the student motivation levels and the development of SDL especially for learning math have helped to determine the important resources to be applied in order for monitoring the learner progress. Therefore, this paper was conducted to review different literatures on the use of educational games in motivating students and developing their learning progress which lead us then to characterize a new model for managing such development. The model was designed based on the recommendations by Tan and Gibbons (2011) "Design principles for SDL" in terms of self-planned, self-managed, and self-directed

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Analysis on Software Development Approaches[Full-Text] [References]
Vijayalakshmi N.S.

Software process models often represent a networked sequence of activities, objects, transformations, and events that embody strategies for accomplishing software evolution. Software systems come and go through a series of passages that account for their inception, initial development, productive operation, upkeep, and retirement from one generation to another.The objective of this paper is to analyze and categorize software development approaches and reveals where they can be beneficial in software industry with the type of project.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Computer Viruses[Full-Text] [References]
Sachin Dnyandeo Ubarhande

While technology advances have brought many benefits to society there have also been technological abuses .In today's generation, with the help of the Internet and the rapid growth of the personal computer in the average household, we are able to talk to and share information with people from all sides of the globe .Unfortunately this transformation of data has opened the doors for a new era of high tech crime - the computer virus. The Internet is now a complex gateway for transgression and immoral activities where often the perpetrators of the crime are far removed from the scene of the criminal activity and hidden behind maze of double speak. Today a properly engineered virus can have a devastating effect on the Worldwide Internet showing just how sophisticated and interconnected human beings have become. For example, the Melissa Virus, which became a global phenomenon in March 1999, was so powerful that it forced Microsoft and a number of other very large companies to completely turn off their e-mail systems until the virus could be contained. Viruses have also provided a weapon for those members of society who wish to harm others for a variety of reasons. As technology is proceeding, programmers are recurrently creating virus shielding software with live updates and enhanced fortification for the most recent viruses. However, the virus protection software's can not always offer 100 percent protection from all the dangerous and insecure material on the Internet. In conclusion, we can only be assiduous in our use of the World Wide Web and hope to turn clear from these perilous prevailing vulnerabilities.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------