Volume 13, Issue 7, July 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 7, July 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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Optimization of Operating Conditions for Enhanced Biogas Production with Substrates using Response Surface Methodology []

Biogas is produced when organic matter is broken down through bacteria in the absence of oxygen. However, the operating conditions can inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria needed for optimal biogas production if care is not taken. Therefore, this study optimized selected process conditions for enhanced biogas production using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to determine the maximum and minimum cumulative biogas yield, and the selected independent variables (pH, temperature, retention time, total solids and volatile solids) were all fitted by a second order polynomial model, while the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the quadratic model was carried out on all the responses obtained from the CCD of all the operating conditions. For the biological pretreatment process with poultry dung, the recommended optimal conditions from the biological pretreatment process are; temperature (350C), pH (7.3), retention time (32 days), total solids (8.2 g/Kg) and volatile solids (9.6 g/Kg). For the chemical pretreatment process with poultry dung, the recommended optimal operating conditions are; temperature (350C), pH (8.15), retention time (32 days), total solids (4.16 g/Kg) and volatile solids (4 g/Kg). The operating conditions pH, temperature, total solids, volatile solids and retention time had significant cumulative effects on the eventual biogas yield for both the biological and chemical pretreatment processes.

The Modern Origins & Sources of China’s Techtransfer []

The research identified the key element on P. R. China’s incentives in modern history on techtransfer practices. With reviewing on the state funding surrogacy in the natural sciences, the author identified the key militant coercive contracting clauses in the document of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. With its combined workings with the statutory & martial laws, the analysis takes a com-parative culture approach that partially counteracts the work of the “United Front Working Group of the CPC”, which constitutes as the major cyber espionage organization that manifests upon the communication & information technologies. The “United Front”’s work has substabtially undermined the premices of market economy and eroded the markets’ self-organizing & self-regulating functionalities. With heterogenous semantic networks taken into consideration, the psychosociological elements were taken into consideration even with the psychological data codings in the semantic networks of P. R. China.

Resignificación de sentido en contextos de conflicto: derechos humanos y entorno escolar []

Se trata de hacer un aporte al álgido problema que enfrenta Colombia con respecto a la nueva generación de niños de la violencia que viene creciendo en nuestro país: violados, maltratados, torturados, desplazados o testigos de los mismos crímenes sufridos por sus familias y sus amigos. Son niños, en buena parte, invisibilizados por el Estado, para los que usualmente no hay nada distinto que un cupo en una escuela ―cuando logran ingresar a alguna―, sin ningún trato especial ni apoyo psicológico, afectivo o de otro tipo. En otros casos, estos pequeños están condenados al destino del trabajo infantil, la explotación sexual, la mendicidad o al paso de víctimas a victimarios cuando encuentran como única salida el delito. También se hacer referencia a niños que, si no han sufrido estos traumas, han sido víctimas de violentas deprivaciones económicas, afectivas y sociales.

Effect of Sulphate Attack on Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Concrete []

Traditional Ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPC) was the second most used material next to the water, despite its widespread use in construction, OPC is not environmentally beneficial due to its high energy consumption and CO2 emissions during production. The Endeavour to develop an environment-friendly concrete had offered many alternatives. Geopolymer is a binder that can act as an alternative to Portland cement. The utilization of Geopolymer concrete as an alternative material adds sustainability to the environment by reducing gas emissions associated with cement production. This paper was focused on the behavior of Geopolymer concrete exposure to sulfate attack. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sulfate attack on the compressive strength of Geopolymer concrete with low calcium fly ash-based concrete, compared to ordinary Portland cement concrete with similar exposure. To achieve this goal, cubic samples of the dimension of 100x100x100 were cast for compressive strength for Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) and ordinary Portland Cement Concrete (OPC) mixes. The samples were immersed in magnesium sulfate solution at a concentration of 100 gm per liter for 90 days after curing, the GPC curing in a steamer at 60°C for three days and the OPC concrete was cured in water for 28 days. The test results of compressive strengths for GPC were 38.2 to 53 MPa and for OPC was 42.5.2 to 50.5 MPa, these values confirm the significant achievement for GPC performance in resisting sulfate attack.

Computational Study on Combustion Characteristics of Various Samples of Pulverized Coal in a Dual Swirl Co-and Counter Combustor []

Pulverized coal combustion is the primary method of generating thermal power in India. The combustion of pulverized coal is carried out in large furnaces. Improvement in the design and performances of these furnaces and detailed picture of its behaviors at different operating conditions can be efficiently assisted using computational fluid dynamics modeling. In the present work, we investigate the combustion and emissions characteristics of high-grade foreign and low-grade Indian coals using a dual swirl assisted (counter swirl configuration) pulverized coal combustion burner modeled with CFD. In addition, flame characteristics, flow patterns, and CO emissions are extensively discussed. Results indicate that low-grade Indian coals with high ash and moisture, IS2 and IS3, perform less well than high-grade foreign coals, IAS1 and SA1. As a result, low-grade Indian coals with high ash and moisture content will need a strong swirl and longer combustion chamber. As far as CO emissions are concerned, Indonesian coal IAS1 and Indian coal IS1 rank higher than the other coals. However, IS3 from India has the overall worst CO emission performance.

Development of quality improvement methodologies In Calibration Laboratory leading to 6-Sigma []

Starting with craftsmanship before in 17th century then, the invention of interchangeable parts (Eli Whetny, 1798), American system of manufacturing (18th century), moving assembly line (Ford, 1913), Scientific management (Taylor, 1915), statistical quality control (Shewhart, 1924), analysis of variance (Fisher, 1925), quality management (Juran, 1945), Japan quality evolution (Deming, 1954), zero defects (Crosby, 1979), and at last Six sigma which first appear in Motorola, 1986 by a Motorola engineer called Bill Smith.

Geospatial Analysis of High-Risk Malaria Region. In the Case of Dembia Woreda, Northern, Ethiopia. []

The main objective of the study is to introduce multicriteria evaluation methods and to consider the geographical distribution of malaria in Dembia Woreda. The physical environment and the climate condition in the woreda are effective for the incidence, spread, and prevalence of the disease. Therefore, the research detects the mosquito suitable breeding habitats in Dembia Woreda and identify the high-risk malaria buffer regions in which populations live within four kilometers of these habitats. The two objectives of this research were to utilize the multicriteria evaluation method with a geographic information system and remote sensing techniques to locate the suitable and high-risk area habitats, quantify how the water bodies and physical environments impacted mosquito breeding habitats, and identify populations within areas at high risk of malaria due to the physical environment, water bodies, and health facility distance. The result shows that the mosquito suitable breeding habitats are not uniformly distributed in the whole of the Woreda and the estimated risk is very high and high in the north-western, south, south-eastern, and south-western parts. Mapping the geographical distribution of a disease is essential for health officials to recognize high-risk areas, and improve case management and resource allocation.


The linear movements of the piston in an actuation process are controlled by valves. The inlet valve ensures that pneumatic force is allowed in the actuation chamber resulting in the forward motions of the piston on one hand while clutch spring actions on the other hand pushes out air through the exhaust valve during the reverse motion of the piston. Both the opening of the inlet valve and the closing of the exhaust valve and vice versa at alternate cycles are functions of the valve control current. The valve controllers are accomplished by the electrical control unit. The electrical power required to open and close the inlet and outlet valves and the corresponding mechanical pressure for valves opening and closing are studied by empirical and analytical processes. The knowledge of these parameters is essential in the study of clutch actuation process in heavy duty vehicles. The investigation was done with a Mercedes Benz Actros Truck Model MP 2, 2031 actuator valve controller, whose spring was removed and subjected to test in a laboratory with mass spring and related apparatus. The spring thickness, coil width, number of turns and compressive forces under varying weights were determined and subjected to analysis. The result showed that the mechanical pressure on the valve spring is 191.529 bars while the electrical power and current demand of the valve controller are 1.96 watts and 82 milliamps respectively

Non-negative weak majority roman domination in graphs []

A Non-negative Weak Majority Roman Dominating Function (NNWMRDF) on a graph G=(V,E) is a function f : V → {−1,+1,2} satisfying the condition that the sum of its function values over at least half the closed neighborhood is at least zero. The weight of a NNWMRDF is the sum of its function values over all vertices. The Non-negative Weak Majority Roman Domination Number of a graph G, denoted by γ NN WMR (G), is defined as γ NNWMR (G) = min{w(f) | f is a NNWMRDF of G}. In this paper, we initiate the study of Non-negative Weak Majority Roman Domination In Graphs.

Using Hodgkin-huxley Equations to Determine the Inhibitory Effects of Neurotoxins that Lead to Multiple Sclerosis []

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is caused by the degeneration of myelin sheath, which leads to the reduction of axonal action potential conduction, which is initiated by dysfunctional sodium and potassium channels where ions are blocked. Neurotoxins, chemicals that hinder activity of nerve tissue, inhibit the ions’ conductances across the neuronal membrane, leading to the development of symptoms associated with MS. However, neurotoxins, such as tetrodotoxin and tetraethyl-ammonium, are used for cancer pain therapies as they block channels to prohibit the transmission of pain signals. An experimentation was conducted that investigated the inhibitory effects of those potent neurotoxins to determine the toxins’ effects on voltage-gated channels using the Hodgkin-Huxley differential model. The hypothesis was that of all possible neurotoxin concentrations, increasing concentrations of tetrodotoxin in a mammalian neuron would result in fewer displayed spikes with smaller amplitudes in one sinusoidal period on a voltage-clamp amplifier. The experimentation showed that since there was a decrease in the neuronal membrane’s current, the blockages in the channels led to the development of MS symptoms. The derived conclusion also showed that the usage of Pronase as a therapeutic option to treat multiple sclerosis is effective as the proteolytic enzymes served as antagonists to the neurotoxins’ impacts.


The prime objective of this proposed research is to build a model for drones' real-time detection and tracking. In recent years, the security of UAVs emerged as a big concern for many military agencies worldwide. Surveillance of UAVs has been prompted as due to the technical advancement in terror, UAVs are being used widely to harm civilians and military stations. Detection and tracking of such UAVs are one the prominent challenges, and hence the proposed model will help in such security actions with an enhanced measure ability of the suspicious activity by the DRONES. The goal is to develop an algorithm to Optimize the Detection of Drones and check the feasibility of tracking a drone-based on IR technology at night and optimize the algorithm to achieve adequate accuracy (min 70%) in tracking a single target. To adapt the tracking algorithm for tracking selected targets in the presence of clutter and multiple targets at short ranges using Python and OpenCV. The proposed model achieved max accuracy of 100% for drones and 99.4 %, 96.9% and 99.2% for airplanes, Birds and Helicopters, respectively. The model uses 8000 epoch maximum for a total of 3200 images, and the proposed model gives 0.98, 0.99, 1.00, and 0.99 for mAP F1 score, precision and recall, respectively, with an average loss function of 0.1479.

Robust Deep Learning-Based Barcode Detection []

Barcode processing of seized images is quite a big challenge, as different shooting conditions can result in different barcode appearances. In this paper, we design a robust barcode "scanning" system by applying deep learning. In order to improve barcode detection performance of deep learning model, we propose synthetic-to-real data augmentation to generate various data closed to real scene. Comparisons with previous works and evaluations with our original data set show that the proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art performance both in normal images and difficult images in the real-world scenario. In addition, the system is designed to use low-resolution image for barcode detection and high-resolution partial image for barcode recognition, which is and is applicable to real-time applications.


Security has become a key issues in today’s world of technology. Data is the basis for computer security research. In this report we present a novel classification method of computer security data. This report is offered a detailed overview of the privacy community about the securities related to the computing Network and Information. It mainly focuses on importance of staying up to date on global security crime trends, especially concerning the use of mobile and personal computing devices.


The paper of qualitative as well as quantitative study of micro and macro plankton organisms of Annraj dam of the district Garhwa,12 species of phytoplankton and nine species of zooplankton were recorded .Number of phytoplankton increases in the month of January and decreases in month of march ,while a number of zooplankton increases in the summer season and decreases in winter season . Plankton are indicator of the productivity of the water bodies, eutrophication, pollution and other qualities of water bodies / resource. This study provide information about diverse utilization of water bodies/resources.


This research aims to analyze the feasibility project of the Gas Engine Power Plant (GEPP) XX-2 50 MW using a capital budgeting technique and sensitivity analysis with changes variables. Indicators used to analyze feasibility project of the Gas Engine Power Plant (GEPP) XX-2 50 MW are: payback period (PP), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), sensitivity analysis of EPC cost deviation variables , deviations in fuel prices, fluctuations in exchange rates and changes in capacity factors. This research analyzes the feasibility of project investment from the financial aspect by considering the basic electricity tariff (TDL) and break event point (BEP) assumptions. The calculation of the value of investment made amounted to 2,108.38 IDR/kWh, net present value (NPV) of minus 420,385.574,000,- IDR for the assumption of TDL and minus 37,687,189,000,- IDR for the BEP assumption, the internal rate of return (IRR) is 2.85% for the TDL assumption and 8.63% for the BEP assumption where this project is not feasible by financially aspect, the results of this study has also been calculated the payback period (PP) for 16.02 years for the TDL assumption and 11.39 years for the BEP assumption where this project is feasible because it is shorter than the project age (20 years). The results of the sensitivity analysis to the deviation of the EPC variable costs have a significant effect on the cost of electricity generation (LEGC) and the project is not feasible, then both the sensitivity analysis to the deviation of fuel prices and to fluctuations exchange rate have a less significant effect on the cost of electricity generation (LEGC) and projects is not feasible, and sensitivity analysis to changes in capacity factors has a very significant effect on the cost of electricity generation (LEGC) and the project is feasible

Collocations for resourceful English language teaching and learning []

Abstract: As teachers and learners all of us require different collocations (Co-occurrence of parts of speech) target language expressions for effective and efficient teaching and learning to take place. Confident written and spoken communication is determined by natural and crispier set of combination of words. This would result in fluent and clear communication. The objective of this research paper is to expose the flaws committed in using collocations by the language users and suggest some of the remedial measures to overcome those errors. For instance, notorious is misinterpreted and misused for a positive context such as notorious gentleman. Introduction: Collocations are co-occurrence of parts of speech. They are Target language expressions learnt and used according to the situation and needs/demands/requirements. Learning and acquiring the knowledge of collocations is the need of the hour in this knowledge and information technology explosion world. Every day, fresh and new collocations are popping up in terms of loaned words or neo-logism. They are read and learnt through newspapers most importantly, since journalists and article writers use fresh and state of the art phrases and expressions. Recall those collocations contextually, retain the text and reproduce it in the test (when the situation demands) Dedication, determination, discipline, duty-mindedness and devotion in updating and equipping ourselves with the latest spoken and written expressions will decide the destiny of the English language learner/user. The crux of this paper is how to recall the collocations contextually/situationally, how to retain the text and how to reproduce/exploit the phrases and expressions to the maximum possible benefit of the user and beneficiary in the test. The six language guiding factors would enable us to understand this process of systematic and strategic collocations learning/acquisition. They are Who, What, Where, When, Why and How. Key-terms: Language learning/acquisition, collocations, phrases and expressions, Recall the context, retain the text and reproduce it in the test. Dedication, determination, discipline, duty-mindedness and devotion. Who, What, Where, When, Why and How.

The roles of Adiponectin in Insulin sensitivity, Modulates inflammatory responses, Regulation of energy metabolism and Several key signaling pathways as potential therapeutics on Cancer, and Metabolic Disorders (Part three) []

Adiponectin, the most abundant adipokine produced by the human adipose tissue, is linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, inflammation, and several types of cancer. Recent study demonistrated that adiponectin-based short peptide, ADP 355, mimicking adiponectin action, restricted proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in several adiponectin receptor-positive cancer cell lines, modulated several key adiponectin signaling pathways (AMPK, Akt, STAT3, ERK1/2), and suppressed the growth of orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts Adiponectin, an abundant adipocyte-secreted factor with a wide-range of biological activities, improves insulin sensitivity in major insulin target tissues, modulates inflammatory responses, and plays a crucial role in the regulation of energy metabolism. However, adiponectin as a promising therapeutic approach has not been thoroughly explored in the context of pharmacological intervention, and extensive efforts are being devoted to gain mechanistic understanding of adiponectin signaling and its regulation, and reveal therapeutic targets. In this article, I discuss Adiponectin Pathophysiology, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer, and lung cancer

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