Volume 13, Issue 10, October 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 10, October 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

IJSER Research Group https://www.ijser.org/forum/index.php Register for IJSER Research Forum      IJSER Xplore IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database

Pages   [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]

Assessing the Walkability Index in the City of Vadodara, Gujarat. The study of factors affecting walkability in the urban context []

Walkability provides a foundation for a sustainable city (Bhattacharyya & Mitra, 2013). Walking is measured as one of the most sustainable & democratic ways of traveling within the city—the advantages of applying the walkability concept and the factors related to making cities more pedestrian-friendly (TUROŃ et al., 2017). Walkability provides travel safety, security, and comfort for city dwellers (Bhattacharyya & Mitra, 2013). Pedestrian paths must be well planned in width, paving, landscaping, signing, and lighting. A walkable neighborhood or city has a controllable pattern of events to serve daily wants. Pedestrian-friendly transportation is essential for any local area as it increases social gatherings, improves peoples' safety, and improves public health and the overall urban environment. Thus, there is a need to address walkability as an essential transport mode as a revised perspective of sustainable transportation. A walking environment is one of the essential needs to take a step toward sustainable transportation. This research is based primarily on qualitative and qualitative evidence sequentially collected in three phases based on the research objective. In the first phase of research, there are two segments. The first is the footpath mapping done with the help of QGIS software, which helps identify the availability of the footpath in three areas of Vadodara city. The second is to take a pedestrian perception survey based on the MoUD framework of the walking index based on the IRC Guidelines. The second phase investigated the gap between the existing situation of road sections based on elements affecting the walkability of the proposed road section in the IRC Guidelines. It is a comparative analysis between standard & existing conditions. The last phase was to prepare guidelines & design needs to revise in IRC guidelines after examining the second phase's result. The research concludes by redesigning the existing roads for pedestrian, non-motorized transport vehicles & motorized transport vehicles with wide footpaths and spaces for vendors on the streets & roads that will enhance the walkability in the urban area.


ABSTRACT In today's increasingly frightful construction companies’ competition, enterprises optimization to maximize profits through continuous innovation and minimization of costs to increase their competitiveness in among construction companies. The Cost of Quality method has been widely used in the manufacturing industry / construction project in oil and gas industries to improve product quality and save the cost of quality, however seldomly used in construction projects. The author introduces the successful application of the Cost of Quality method to a cross country pipeline construction project. After evaluation of the cost of quality of an on-going oversea pipeline project, the attention and commitment of top management of the construction company have been drawn. The author started a campaign to reduce the cost of quality by conducting a root cause analysis to find the root causes of quality failures and applying a brainstorm method to construct preventive actions to utilized them in the construction project. With the use of preventive measures, internal & external failures such as rework and repair at work were significantly reduced. After reassessing the cost of quality at the end of the project, the figure shows the overall cost of quality has been reduced from 15.7% to 9.9% of the contract value. The finding of this study can be a very useful lesson to other pipeline construction projects and at the same time help other quality management peers to continuously improve the quality management programs and to increase the profit of their further projects.

Unit Stable Operation at 40% Minimum Technical Limit []

India is planning to increase the renewable generation capacity to 175 GW by 2022. Due to increasing renewable energy penetration in the grid, Flexibilization is the new paradigm in thermal power generation, which is aimed at converting baseload stations into flexible generators. Based on the concept and importance of its strata, Maithon Power Limited Unit 2 has been selected by CEA-Ministry of Power, to conduct the flexi test in Eastern Region. It is second plant after NTPC Dadri to conduct the test in collaboration with IGEF.


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND This article aims to examine the analgesic efficacy, progression, and outcome of CSE (combined spinal-epidural) and epidural analgesia in labour. MATERIALS & METHODS The Department of Anaesthesiology at Government Medical College, Thrissur undertook this prospective observational research in association with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, for a period of 18 months from January 2018 to June 2019 among parturients admitted to the labour room, for safe confinement. Sixty parturients in established labour and requesting epidural were alternatively divided into two groups. Group Epidural received a bolus of 10 ml 0.2% ropivacaine with 2 mcg/ml fentanyl as 5 ml increments 5 mins apart. Group CSE received a bolus of 1 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine and 0.5 ml 25 mcg of fentanyl in the intrathecal space (1.5 ml total). Both groups were started on continuous infusion with 0.1% ropivacaine with 2 mcg/ml fentanyl. Analgesic efficacy, maternal haemodynamics, fetal heart rate, progress of labour(time from initiation of analgesia to delivery), level of sensory and motor blockade, incidence of caesarian section or instrumental delivery and occurrence of side effects were recorded using a clinical performa. RESULTS In the CSE group compared to the Epidural group, the Numeric Rating Scale(NRS) for pain following analgesia administration was considerably lower. The duration of labour as measured from the initiation of analgesia to complete cervical dilatation was much longer in the group receiving an epidural than in the CSE group. In comparison to the epidural group, the CSE group had a shorter second stage of labour. The requirement of top-up boluses was lesser for group CSE. The maternal pulse rate and blood pressure changes in the initial 5,10,and 15 mins after administration of CSE were more compared to the Epidural group. The sensory level obtained upon instituting CSE analgesia was statistically significant indicating that sensory blockade of T6 and T8 was common with CSE as opposed to T8 and T10 in the Epidural group. None of the parturients had any motor blockade. The outcome of labour was comparable in either group irrespective of the technique of analgesia. The incidences of post-procedure complications like maternal hypotension & bradycardia, foetal bradycardia, and pruritus were none. CONCLUSION Similar extent of pain reduction were given by CSE and epidural analgesia. The quality of analgesia was better with CSE. The progress of labour was shorter with CSE. The outcome of labour was comparable in either group. The change in hemodynamic parameters during the initial period could be due to better pain relief with CSE. KEYWORDS Epidural, Combined Spinal Epidural, Ropivacaine, Fentanyl, Labour Analgesia.


Incessant and uncontrolled disposal of solid waste in improvised and unprotected sanitary landfills, industrial activities which produce effluent and mining operations which produce minerals of heavy elements and spillage of crude oil, pose potential pollution hazards to ground water and surface water sources in Rivers State Nigeria. Water quality indices are useful tools for the overall assessment of water quality. Some previous studies (Onukwugha et al., 2019) have worked on (WQI) for boreholes located around waste disposal sites. Continuous sampling of surface and ground water sources was carried out around the selected cities/towns in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study was carried out during the early rainy seasons around March 2022. The water samples collected was tested for pH, phosphate, temperature, conductivity, nitrate, chloride, turbidity, hardness, BOD, DO, COD, TDS, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, E.Coli and Coliform. Thereafter, the test results obtained were used to compute the water quality index using Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index Method (WAWQI). The values of the water quality index as prescribed by the WAWQI method range as follows: from 0-25% is Excellent, 26-50% is good, 51-75 is poor, 76-100% is very poor and above 100% is unsuitable for drinking purpose. Field survey data of the study area was done, 31 water samples was collect, 20 were borehole samples while 11 were Rivers samples. The WQI was computed in two stages, first was without heavy metal and second with heavy metals. We notice well distribution of water quality status in the first stage and on the second stage the middle range disappeared. The present of heavy metals in our calculation in second stage make this to be possible so recommend that WQI should be computed considered only parameter that is present in each sample base on heavy metals

Comparative Analysis of Time and Space Complexity of an Algorithm and the Introduction of A1-Score Factor []

While time complexity and space complexity of an algorithm helps to determine its efficiency when time or space needs to be optimized respectively, they fail to determine the more efficient algorithm when time and space both need to be optimized simultaneously. This resulted in the development of the A1-Score Factor which solve the problem i.e., helps to find the algorithm which optimizes both time and space simultaneously. The following research paper contains the hypothesis, the proof, the theoretical and the graphical implementation of the A1-Score Factor along with the use cases of the same.


This study examined the impact of strategic management on organisational performance in Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria with emphasis on five selected banks in Osun State. In order to achieve the four specific objectives designed for the study, four hypotheses were formulated. The first, environmental Scanning has no significant impact on organisational effectiveness, second, Strategy formulation has no significant impact on the employee’s turnover, the third hypothesis was that Strategy implementation has no significant impact on business expansion while the forth hypothesis was that strategy evaluation and control has no significant impact on performance. Descriptive survey designed was adopted for the study. The sample size was 156. Data was sourced through the use of a structured questionnaire and the study adopted stratified sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were both adopted as methods of data analysis. Results from the first hypothesis showed that environmental scanning had significant impact on organisational effectiveness with R2 value = (0. 396) and F (1, 150) = 98.532, p < 0.0.5 Second hypothesis showed that strategy formulation had significant impact on employee’s turnover with R2 value = (0.349) and F (1, 150) = 80.342, p < 0.05. Also, the result of the third hypothesis revealed that strategy implementation had significant impact on business expansion with R2 value = (0.438) and F (1, 150) = 117.126, p < 0.05. Furthermore, hypothesis four results revealed that strategy evaluation and control had impact on business expansion with R2 value = (0.284) and F (1, 150) = 59.417, p < 0.05. This study thus rejected all null hypotheses and accepted the alternative hypothesis that strategic management variables had a positive impact on organisational performance of the five selected banks. In this wise, the study concluded that environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategic implementation and strategy evaluation and control has positive impact on the organisational performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria. Therefore the study recommended that banks should have a well-conceived strategic vision that must be communicated to all employees. It is imperative to emphasize that all employees should be carried along in implementation of strategic management process that will prepare the company for the future, establish long-term direction and indicate the company’s intent to position itself as a market leader in the industry.

Stock Price Prediction System Based on Hybrid RNN []

The stock market provides grounds for forecasting due to the complex nature of financial data available in the marketplace and an endless supply of external factors that affect the price of stocks. The complex nature of the marketplace makes it difficult to create trends that take into account all the factors that will affect the cost of stock for a given day, let alone the trendline for the stock price as to whether the price will take an upward or downward inflection. There exists a vast amount of historical data regarding trends of all stocks that are being traded daily. However, making rapid decisions and predictions on stocks based on this enormous amount of pre-existing information can prove almost impossible. Thus, algorithms must be implemented to combat the available data's complexity. Recurrent neural networks have proved a successful means by which stock prices can be predicted. But has failed in accuracy. This paper aims to establish a hybrid RNN using the gated recurrent unit with stochastic gradient descent. This approach will provide high levels of accuracy and tackle the problem of complexity of the voluminous amounts of information in our marketplace. Keywords: RNN, Stock, Price, Complex, Prediction.

Removal of smear layer by 0.2% chitosan, apple cider vinegar and EDTA solution after root canal instrumentation using SEM: An in - vitro study. []

Introduction: Smear layer removal is mandatory in root canal treatment and this must be carried out before obturation. Aim: To get a successful result in root canal treatment, there must be thorough debridement with smear layer removal. This study uses different irrigants to evaluate the smear layer removal and evaluation is done using by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),. Materials and Methods: Forty maxillary human canines were instrumented and the final irrigation was carried out with 0.2% chitosan, apple vinegar and 15% EDTA. The smear layer removal evaluation in middle and apical thirds was done after longitudinal sectioning of the roots. The roots were then examined under SEM. The statistical analysis of the scores obtained after cleaning was done using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: There was statistically significant difference between 0.2% chitosan and the other solutions with regard to smear layer removal. Conclusion: The smear layer removal from middle thirds was more and less in apical thirds with chitosan (0.2%), EDTA (15%) and apple cider vinegar. Keywords: Smear layer, Chitosan, EDTA, Apple Cider vinegar, scanning electron microscope.

Experimental Investigation of Diesel and Pentanol Blends as a Fuel in Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engines []

Increasing industries and vehicles has led to greater use of petroleum products. Because of fuel cost and stringent emissions norms, diesel has become an attractive, efficient and less expensive fuel compared to petrol. However, diesel engines are at a disadvantage because they produce higher level of NOx, which is a toxic emission. In the Diesel engine Nox formation is mainly due to lean A/F mixture; increase in engine temperature, fuel spray structure and also by poor quality fuel. This problems results in reduce the engine life time and efficiency of the engine. In my experimental setup Pentanol is blended with ester as a fuel and introduced in twin cylinder engine to reduce the HC and CO formation. Pentanol is the new generation bio-fuels it will give good efficiency and reduce the Nox formation. Regarding the particulate emissions, n-pentanol is found to be very promising in terms of reducing both the mass concentration and the particulate number concentration simultaneously. By using n-pentanol as a fuel in diesel engines the results to be achieved are efficiency – Not affected, Co2, CO emission are almost same as diesel ,NOxemission decreases.


Shape memory alloy (SMA) is currently a material that is widely developed in various technologies such as automotive, orthopedic, aerospace, sensors, and actuators. SMA’s ability to respond to changes in shape and temperature is very suitable for use in equipment that requires safety and functional intelligence. In the development of SMA, it is necessary to understand the pro-cess parameters which are one of the challenges in the development of SMA today so that SMA with good properties is ob-tained. Index Terms— Shape Memory Alloy, SME, Cu-Zn-Al,Material

Development of ControLearn SDBT: A Low-Cost Bubble Tube for Sensory Skill Development in Individuals with Learning Difficulties []

This paper presents ControLearn SDBT, an affordable version of a sensory development bubble tube that provides visual, tactile and auditory stimulation to children with learning difficulties (LDs). The literature review on the use of bubble tubes for development of multi-sensory skills in children with LDs demonstrates that it is an effective tool. The materials used are described with their cost. ControLearn SDBT uses affordable parts and an open source software Arduino to make it extremely affordable and offers an array of features in addition to the choice of the level of complexity as per users’ requirements. It offers a 92 percent cost saving over the bubble tubes currently available in the market. Testing the prototype with twelve children with LDs at a pyschologist’s clinic showed that ControLearn SDBT leads to marked improvement in challenging behaviour, communication and prosocial behaviour, concentration and engagement, enjoyment and relaxation of the users. Keywords: bubble tube, learning difficulties, multi-sensory environment, India, affordable


One of the immediate causes of conflict and human insecurity in Ethiopia is the illicit distribution and supply of small arms and light weapons. Ethiopia has a porous border with neighboring countries (Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, and Sudan). These porous borders facilitate the transport of small arms and light weapons between these countries. As a result, small arms have destroyed, injured, terrorized, and displaced thousands of people in Ethiopia. Goncha Siso Enesie Woreda is a part of Ethiopia located in the East Gojjam district of the Amhara region. This world is notorious for its problems with the arms trade and illegal possession of weapons. Therefore, the central objective of the development of this document is to assess the factors of the arms trade and their challenges for the security of the Goncha Siso Enesie radar. If the researcher views the problem as a social phenomenon, they use qualitative methods and case study designs as well as a non-probability sampling technique known as intentional snowball sampling. Primary and secondary data are available. The results show that the arms trade and illicit possession of arms are increasing at an alarming rate. A culture of retaliation, vigilance, and weak government security are the root causes of the illicit arms trade and possession of dead; people were injured and left the cities due to the easy availability of SALW. Although there are laws made by law, it is not enough because the laws lack uniformity between regions of a country. Therefore, the researchers recommend that the government first try to solve the problem by modifying previous laws. Moreover, disarming the individual mind by creating awareness is considered a fundamental proposition of problem solving. Keywords: illicit trafficking, small arms, smuggling, and distribution.

Skin Disease Detection Using Machine Learning []

Skin disease is a very common health issue all across the globe. It is one of the most common forms of infection occurring in people of all ages. Skin is one of the most delicate parts of the human body. Skin disease is one of the most difficult to predict due to irregular skin color, rough area, moles, burns, blisters, pimples etc. The above factors need to be suppressed in order to accurately detect the disease. In a developing country like India, it is very costly for many people to visit a doctor for their skin disease. So, the need for automatic skin disease detection is very important for patients as well as the dermatologist. It makes skin disease detection much easier, faster and cheaper. In this paper, we are developing a model that can detect 4 types of skin diseases, those are Eczema, Acne, Ichthyosis, Psoriasis (Bacterial disease). In the proposed model, we have 4 phases. In the first phase, we grayscale the image so that the system can recognize and control it, then in the second phase we do Image Segmentation to locate the ROI (Region of Interest i.e the main area or portion of the image from which the disease is to be detected) so that system can analyze the image more clearly. In the third phase, we do Image Pre-Processing using various techniques to remove the unnecessary distortions from the image and enhance the image quality for further processing. In the fourth and the final phase, after the image is processed, it is given as input to the Neural Network which is able to detect the skin disease with an accuracy of 95%.

Pages   [1]