IJSER Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2012 Edition

"International Conference on Mathematics and its Applications" "Special Edition" on Page 4

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The Paleocene-Early Eocene Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy Of Eastern Dahomey Basin, Sw Nigeria [Full-Text[References]
Okosun, E. A. and Alkali, Y. B

The foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Paleocene - early Eocene strata of SW Nigeria which represents the eastern Dahomey basin has been studied from four boreholes and two outcrops. A fairly diverse planktic and benthic foraminiferal assemblage was recovered.Six planktic biozones comprising Praemurica pseudobulloides, P. inconstans, Morozovella angulata, Globanomalina pseudomenardii, Morozovella velascoensis and M. subbotinae were identified. Two benthic concurrent range zones, Anomalinoides uboniferus - Eponides pseudoelevatus and Planulina oyae and Uvigerina hourcqi have been identified. These biozones will serve as useful correlation tools in the West African coastal and inland sedimentary basins.

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Expression of NT-3 and BDNF in cerebro-spinal fluid of patients with Tuberculous meningitis [Full-Text[References]
Yun Li, Chun Peng, Zi-Hua Zhang, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Dan-Dan Li, Jian Zhong

Aim: To explore the expression of brain deriverd neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and neurotrophic factor-3 (NT-3) in the CSF of patients with Tuberculous meningitis (TBM). And elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methodology: Prospective observational clinical study performed on 18 adults with TBM and 12 Adults with viral meningo-encephalitis (ME). 9 controls with non-in?ammatory intracranial hypertention were also employed. Neurotrophic factor levels in the CSF were measured using an immunoenzymatic assay(ELISA). Results: Both NT-3 and BDNF protein level of CSF were higher in patients with TBM at acute period than the patients with viral ME (P<0.05). Whereas there was no statistical difference of BDNF protein level between the patients with TBM and non-inflammation intracranial hypertention group(P>0.05). The patients with viral ME also showed no statistical differnce of BDNF protein level compared with non-inflammation intracranial hypertention group(P>0.05). NT-3 expression was higher in the patients with TBM than non-inflammation intracranial hypertention group(P<0.05). But the patients with viral ME showed no significant difference compared with non-inflammation intracranial hypertention group(P>0.05). Furthermore, NT-3 protein level in the CSF of patients with TBM at acute period was higher than BDNF protein level (P<0.05). Conclusion: The expression variations of NT-3 and BDNF protein level in CSF may re?ect an endogenous attempt at neuroprotection against biochemical and molecular changes during both TBM and viral ME at the acute period. Which suggested a marked and rapidly activated intracerebral neurotrophic factors biosynthesis after the patients subjected to TBM. The expression of NT-3 and BDNF is likely to play a neuro-immunomodulatory role in the process of TBM.

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Process Parameter Optimization For Zinc Coating Weight Control In Continuous Galvanizing Line[Full-Text[References]
Akhil P Deote, Dr. M. M. Gupta, Prof. D. R. Zanwar

The continuous hot dip galvanizing line is mainly dedicated to the production of galvanized corrugated & plain coils for the market. The process combines of 3 stages: metallurgical annealing, zinc coating deposition & temper rolling. Due to manual operation at zinc coating area, zinc consumption is higher & coating weight thickness is uncertain. Moreover, manual interventions, varying with the operative personnel, inevitably resulted in coating thickness fluctuations & out of range coatings.

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Green Marketing: Role of Demographic Variables on Awareness and Purchase of FRP Products[Full-Text[References]
Dr. Mrs Mala Kuthiala, Dr. Prof Sadhana Mahajan

The Conception of the present exploratory and empirical research paper is based on the growth of interest on "Green marketing" particularly "Green buildings" and consequently to analyse the application of the concept of green products. The paper attempts to analyse the scope of application of various FRP (Fibreglass reinforced plastics) products as green products in the development of construction of structure and infrastructure.

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Land use land cover change detection of Ghatkesar mandal,RangaReddy district using Remote sensing and GIS[Full-Text[References]
Faridkhan,Dr.T.Vijayalakshmi,Dr.Santosh Kumar

Land use and land cover change has become a central component in current strategies for managing natural resources and monitoring environmental changes. Urban expansion has brought serious losses of agriculture land, vegetation land and water bodies. Urban sprawl is responsible for a variety of urban environmental issues like decreased air quality, increased runoff and subsequent flooding, increased local temperature, deterioration of water quality, etc. In this work we have taken Rangareddy District, Ghatkesar Mandal as case to study the urban expansion and land cover change that took place in a span of 05 years from 2006 to 2011. Remote sensing methodology is adopted to study the geographical land use changes occurred during the study period. Satellite Imagery- IRS1D, LISS-III+PAN FUSED of two different year are taken into consideration. After image pre-processing, un-supervised classification has been performed to classify the images in to different land use categories. Classification accuracy is also estimated using the field knowledge obtained from field surveys. Information on urban growth, land use and land cover change study is very useful to local government and urban planners for the betterment of future plans of sustainable development of the city.

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Outsourcing and Acquisition Models Comparison Related to IT Supplier Selection Decision Analysis[Full-Text[References]
Lucas Grossi, Jose A. Calvo-Manzano

This paper presents a comparison of acquisition models related to decision analysis of IT supplier selection. The main standards are: Capability Maturity Model Integration for Acquisition (CMMI-ACQ), ISO / IEC 12207 Information Technology / Software Life Cycle Processes, IEEE 1062 Recommended Practice for Software Acquisition, the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) and the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) guide. The objective of this paper is to compare the previous models to find the advantages and disadvantages of them for the future development of a decision model for IT supplier selection.

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A Study on Hubbert Peak for Natural Gas of Bangladesh: A System Dynamics Approach[Full-Text[References]
Saifullah Al Yusuf, Sabuj Das Gupta, Shuva Paul, Md. Shahinur Islam, Sudip Majumder

M. King Hubbert, an American geophysicist, in 1956 introduced a logistic equation for the estimation of USA peak and lifetime. As a case study, this paper investigates the Hubbert peak for Natural Gas production of Bangladesh. In this work, the authors have adopted system dynamics methodology to examine the Hubbert peak for Bangladesh's Gas production. Results show that the peak will occur in the 2012 with a value of 2184550 million cubic foot which is about 3 times of the 2011 year production. The proposed model helps us to evaluate different scenarios as well as performing sensitivity analysis which give us informative and useful forecasts about the time and value of Hubbert peak in different conditions. Thus, it is useful for Bangladeshi and international energy policy makers to understand the forthcoming shortage in the world's energy supply. Since this is the first study of Hubbert peak for Bangladesh, comparison with previous forecasts about this peak is not possible in this study.

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Bianchi Type-III String Cosmological Models in The Presence of Magnetic Field in General Relativity[Full-Text[References]
Kandalkar S.P., Samdurkar S.W. and Gawande S.P.

In this paper we have examined Bianchi type-III string cosmological model in the presence of magnetic field. To get determinate solutions, the Einstein's field equations have been solved for two cases (i) Reddy string and (ii) Nambu string. The physical and geometrical behaviour of these models are discussed.

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Treatment of Distillery Spentwash Using AFBBR and Color Removal of Treated Spentwash Using Adsorbtion[Full-Text[References]
Lakshmikanth R, Arjun S Virupakshi

Spentwash was pretreated with anaerobic floating bed baffled wall reactor (AFBBR) with a capacity of 4.5 litters. Reactor used to obtain a treated spentwash on which adsorption experiment was carried out. Adsorbent used was activated Bagasse. Its adsorptive properties were determined by using standard Melanoidin solution which was synthesized in laboratory. Adsorbents showed a best fit for Langmuir isotherm undergoing monolayer. A 10 g dosage and 90 min contact time was chosen as optimum value. Rector performed well and shown 69 % efficiency in removing COD at 2000 mg/L COD loading rate at 24 hr of HRT. Adsorption experiment had shown 40% efficiency in reducing melanoidin concentration and 68.9 % efficiency in reduction of color from treated spent wash. Combined treatment of spentwash in anaerobic floating bed baffled wall reactor and adsorption resulted in 81 % efficiency in treating COD load at 2000 mg/L COD loading rate at 24 hr of HRT.

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The Application of Wavelet and Feature Vectors to ECG Signals [Full-Text[References]
Amit Gothiwarekar, Vaibhav Narawade, Nareshkumar Harale

The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most commonly known biological signals, which are traditionally analyzed in the time-domain by skilled physicians. However, pathological conditions may not always be obvious in the original time-domain signal. Fourier analysis transforms signals into frequency domain, but has the disadvantage that time characteristics will become unobvious. Wavelet analysis, which provides both time and frequency information, can overcome this limitation.

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Behavior of Integral Abutment Bridge with and without Soil Interaction[Full-Text[References]
R.Shreedhar, Vinod Hosur, Iftikar Chappu

Integral Abutment bridges (IAB's) can be defined as bridges without joints. The main purpose of constructing IAB's is to pre-vent the corrosion of the structure due to water seepage through joints. The biggest uncertainty in the design of these bridges is the reaction of the soil behind the abutments and next to the foundation piles, especially during thermal expansion. This lateral soil reaction is nonlinear and is a function of the magnitude and nature of the wall displacement.To gain a better understanding of the mechanism of load transfer due to thermal expansion, which is also dependent on the type of the soil adjacent to the abutment walls and piles, a 3D finite element analysis is carried out on representative IAB. In this paper two models are compared one with considering soil interaction and other without soil interaction and live load is applied using STAAD-Beava. The main objective is to study the trends in bending moment, shear force and deflection in central and end longitudinal girders and deck slab due to dead load, live load in combination of thermal loads. This paper emphysis that the temperature effects are more significant in case of integral abutment bridges, however the changes in soil properties behind the abutment and around the piles do not affect significantly the performance of super structure.

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Recent Advances in Nanotechnology[Full-Text[References]
Kuldeep Purohit , Pooja Khitoliya and Rajesh Purohit

Nanotechnology is gaining importance rapidly as a most powerful technology. Its immense potential promises the possibility of significant changes in near term future, once the most essential machines - called the Universal Assembler and the Nanocomputer are built. The present paper aims to reviews the previous work done and recent advancements in the field of nanotechnology. Today the products made using nanomaterials having general as well as special applications like treating cancer, phosgene detection, energy harvesting for self powered nanosystems, chip fabrication, batteries, aerospace materials etc. The research in the area of carbon nanotubes, nano-polymers, nano-vectors, nanocomposites, nano-crystals, nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanoclays, nanotubes, nanofilters, nanohorn, nanowires, nanosprings, nanorods etc. have been reported. Various risks involved in using nanotechnology are also discussed because it is believed that the most disruptive future changes may occur as a result of molecular manufacturing, an advanced form of nanotechnology.

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Methodology for EEG Based System Development to Detect Objective Pain in Human Body[Full-Text[References]
Asim Mahmood , Nasir Mahmood, Nazish Iqbal, Zainab Hafeez

Objective was to develop a system that makes difference between EEG patterns, to detect pain. Keeping in mind this phenomena the techniques were explored to develop such a system. Literature studies further cleared that acute pain signals moving from all part of human body to brain consists of certain frequencies bands between 0-98.4Hz. Further banding includes eight different bands in which different pains show their responses. Skin on the human skull is rough and it's bad conductor for getting signal out of it, thus skin is prepared by rubbing to remove dead cells, using a simple glass rod. After that EEG conductive paste is applied and skin is again rubbed to fill the porous surface of skull. Ag/AgCl electrodes with gold contacts are used for getting the signals. These are special purpose electrodes made for picking signals of very low voltage (µV) range. EEG gel is applied on the electrodes to make a better conductive contact between skin and electrode. The locations of the skull are decided by 'International 10-20 System for Electrode Placement'.

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Comparative Study Of Various Techniques For Elimination Of Noise In Emg Signal[Full-Text[References]
Jitendar Yadav, Arjun Singh, Mohit Kumar

Electromyography (EMG) is the study of electrical activity of muscle and it form valuable information in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders. EMG signal may be degraded by a noise; it is in the baseline of EMG signal. It is called baseline fluctuation of EMG signal. Baseline fluctuation distorts qualitative and quantitative analysis. The present work focus on various techniques and their comparative study for elimination of this kind of noise present in EMG signal. These techniques on real and simulated EMG signal gives their advantages and disadvantages in term of both visual inspection and merit figures. In present work, we use three methods to remove the noise present in the baseline of EMG signal named as Digital filter designing, statistical approach, moving average method. Segmentation of EMG signal is used in all these approaches and MATLAB is used as a software tool. We analyzed recording of EMG signal from the muscles in a healthy subjects at low force level, using concentric needle electrode.

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Blocking Misbehaving Users in Anonymizing Networks[Full-Text[References]
Rajkumar Rathod Banoth , Chandra chary sreeramoj, Dr. G. Narsimha

Internet services can be accessed privately through anonymizing networks like Tor. A set of routers are used to achieve this in order to hide the identity of client from server. The users of such networks often indulge into malicious activities and cause damage to popular web applications. The administrators of those web sites do block the IP address from which the request comes. This is not the practical solution as the hackers operate through anonymous networks. Blocking a node based on IP address will cause misbehaving and genuine users to lost access to the web sites. This is the problem in the existing systems and motivation to take up this research work. The proposed system develops a security mechanism that ensures that only the misbehaving users are blacklisted while genuine users and their anonymity are preserved. Even though the misbehaving users are blacklisted, their privacy is still maintained. The experiments revealed that the system is able to block misbehaving users only instead of blocking the node through IP address.

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E-governance of Bangladesh: Present Scenario, Expectation, Ultimate Target and Recommendation[Full-Text[References]
Giash Uddin

E-governance has been recognize as an integrated system of radical change and strategic tools that supports and simplifies governance to improve some criteria like easy access to information, participation of citizens, efficiency, prompt service delivery, reduce corruption, transference and accountability to reform and provide dynamism in the public sector. Similarly improve the communication with the others government organizations, business organization as well as public. The aim of the paper to study and analyzes the current status of emerging electronic and web based governance (e-governance) in Bangladesh. The evaluation of e-governance conducted through this study. Theoretically the paper considers some criteria of e-governance to know the state of governance and development of the country. Similarly it examines the dynamics, challenges, drawbacks and recommendation of e-governance in Bangladesh. It is shown that e-governance can add tremendous dynamism in reforming public administration and can change the mode of interaction between the state organizations, business organizations and citizens. It also suggests easy access, increase transference, accountability; reduce corruption and participation of citizens. The paper tried to identify the advance organizations and leg behind organizations in respect of e-governance. Several studies have discussed how e-government will transform public sector organizations from traditional paper-based systems to electronic delivery system to lead self-service operations that develop efficiency, accountability and reduce corruption. Some tools of e-governance are using different organization randomly but it should be systematic and concentrated way.

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Improving Sound Quality by Bandwidth Extension[Full-Text[References]
M. Pradeepa, M.Tech, Assistant Professor

In recent telecommunications system uses a limited audio signal bandwidth of 300 to 3400 Hz. In recent times it has been proposed that the mobile phone networks with increased audio signal bandwidth of 50Hz-7 KHz will increase the sound quality of the speech signal. In this paper, a method extending the conventional narrow frequency band speech signals into a wideband speech signals for improved sound quality is proposed. A possible way to achieve an extension is to use an improved speech coder/decoder (CODEC) such as the Adaptive Multi Rate - Wide Band (AMR-WB). However, using an AMR-WB CODEC requires that both telephones at the ends of the communication link support it. Moreover the Mobile phones communicating with wire-line phone can therefore not utilize the enhanced feature of new CODECS; to overcome this limitation the received speech signal can be modified. The modification is meant to artificially increase the bandwidth of the speech signal. The proposed speech bandwidth extension method is Feature Mapped Speech Bandwidth Extension. This method maps each speech feature of the narrow-band signal to a similar feature of the high-band and lowband, which generates the wide band speech signal Y(n).

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Analysis of Stress-Coupled Magneto-Electric Effect in BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 Composites using Raman Spectroscopy[Full-Text[References]
Mrittunjoy Guha Majumdar

The Magneto-Electric Effect refers to the electric polarization induced due to an external magnetic field in certain substances known as Multiferroics. In recent years the ME effect has drawn a lot of attention, partly owing to its use in Memory Devices and partly due to extensive studies conducted on Multiferroic Composites.

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Renewable energy: Spaced based solar Power transmission [Full-Text[References]
Md. Sazzad Hossain

Solar power satellite (SPS) is one of the sustainable sources for next generation. One of the most important technologies SPS is wireless power transmission from space to earth using microwave beam and laser beam transmission. At the earth based solar power collection, array of the panels are placed In the ground facing the sun, which collect sun's energy during the day-time alone. In Spaced based solar power system huge solar energy present in GEO and beams it down to earth and it unaffected by the day/night 24 hours . Solar beam collection panels can consistently be exposed to high amount of solar radiation. SPS offers a complete displacement of fossil fuel, nuclear and biological sources of energy.

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Micro-electromechanical System (Mems) Sensor[Full-Text[References]
Azharuddin Allamin Shaikh, Dattatraya Shashikant Shitole

There are many new emerging technologies in electronics and telecommunication but this paper focuses particularly about "MICRO-ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEM (MEMS) SENSOR Purpose - To describe the development of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) sensor technology, to consider its current use in sensing technology and to identify and discuss future technological trends and directions in today's life of technology. Design/methodology/approach- We are poised in a revolution of microelectronics, which has dramatically reduced the cost and increased the capability of electronics because of its technology of very small devices. This has given much potential to prosper in the area of micro mechanics encompassing MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems). MEMS promises to revolutionize nearly every product category by bringing together silicon based microelectronics with micro machining technology, making possible the realization of complete systems on a chip. Commercial applications are inertial sensors, Power MEMS and RF switches. This technology is also used in industrial, consumer and auto motive marketing. Findings - This paper illustrates the greatly differing impacts sensing by MEMS technology. More recent developments are discussed which suggest strong market prospects for MEMS device and how important role the plays in today's technology. Originality/value - This paper provides a technical and commercial insight into the applications of MEMS technology to physical and molecular sensors from the present day. It also identifies high growth areas for innovative developments in recent technologies

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Web-usability Assessment Methodology[Full-Text[References]
Kamruzzaman Md

It has always been a challenging undertake to build a user friendly website and make it a useful resource for the audiences. User satisfaction is related to usability of a product. Here with this paper my effort is to develop a methodology in order to provide a recommendation and guidelines of whether a website meets usability requirement or not. The methodology aims towards an assessment of a website and prescribe a remedial to achieve more usability. I have developed a simple excel spreadsheet to demonstrate the methodology that I have developed. In order to prove the concept and the methodology, I have considered a website as a case. How to apply the methodology on the case website has been explained and the case website has been assessed applying the proposed methodology. In order to assess the website, at first stage, usability factors have been identified. The usability factors are the key components of the assessment process. During the assessment process, based on the websites usability quality and availability, every usability factor gets a weight. The total value (the sum) of all the weights is the usability value of the website. At the final stage of the assessment process the study shows total usability value of the case website. This paper will also explain and describe what usability means to the web users and why it is very essential to focus on usability perspective of a website. Comparision study between websites and remedial guidelines are not in the scope of this paper though the original research work includes both of thsese area based on the Assessment Methodology. This paper merely focusses to the fundamental research of developing a 'Assesment Methodology'.

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A Review Report on Cryptovirology and Cryptography[Full-Text[References]
Shafiqul Abidin, Rajeev Kumar, Varun Tiwari

Cryptography has traditionally been used for defensive purposes. Ciphers defend against a passive eavesdropper. Public key infrastructures defend against an active adversary that mounts a man-in-the-middle attack. Digital signature algorithms defend against a forger. E-cash systems defend against a counterfeiter and a double-spender. Pseudorandom bit generators defend against a next-bit predictor, and so on. Crypto virology extends beyond finding protocol failures and design vulnerabilities. It is a forward engineering discipline that can be used for attacking rather than defending.

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An Overview Of Data Mining[Full-Text[References]
Rishabh Kadyan , Nancy Arora , Paras Chhabra

The rapid progress of computers and databases has enable companies to store data about future use. The sheer amounts of data to be analyzed in order to make better decisions require dramatically improved new automated data modelling technologies. A concept of Data Mining is developed. There are two foundation of using data mining techniques: the availability of large amount of data and the data mining modelling techniques. In this paper I have explained the whole overview of Data Mining, that comprises all the techniques used,all the real time and the actual applications that are possible and through which some of the companies have made tremendous growth. In my paper I have written everything right from the history of data mining to the future prospects.

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A Study On The Psychology Of An Indian Customer Towards E-banking With Reference To Pune Region[Full-Text[References]
Prof. Priya Vasagadekar

The advancement in the technology paved new ways of delivering bank facilities to the customer, such as ATMs & Internet Banking. Hence banks have come a long way from its traditional banking methods. This research paper throws light on the response to E-Banking facilities by Indian customers. As it has been more than three decades since the E-Banking concept came into existence, it becomes very much essential to study the current state of Internet banking through the Indian context. The basic aim behind this research is to check the percentage of customers using online banking in Pune & its outskirts. It also aims at suggesting some ways for making internet banking successful in the developing country like India. This paper depicts the study of various E-Banking facilities that are provided by private sector, public sector & co-operative banks in Pune & its outskirts & in what way the Indian customers are responding towards the same.

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Performance evaluation of soft body impact on Ni-Ti shape memory alloy with conical model[Full-Text[References]
Nagraj.R.G, C.S.Venkatesha, Rajeev Jain

The response of soft body impact on a Ni-Ti shape memory alloy with conical model is investigated by using the non-linear finite element analysis method for obtaining Kinetic Energy, Internal Energy and contact force plot by considering idealized bird model with constant velocity.

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Implementation of Scrum Methodology for Optimizing the Working of Edcational System [Full-Text[References]
Nilima yadav, Sarvesh Tanwar

This paper will contain the implementation of a very successful and high performance oriented concept of SCRUM (Agile Methodology) into a totally new domain area i.e. Education. Scrum and education sector are two very different concepts and are very uncommon to each other .This paper will help us to guide how SCRUM will be mapped and implemented into the working of an education system and how can it improve productivity and better monitoring of the various activities which were done on an unplanned basis. We have provided real scenario based mapping of various stakeholders from SCRUM concept to those in the Education system who will be part of the model and will be responsible in implementing the processes in such a way that SCRUM comes out to be a better implication to them in terms of performance monitoring of the faculties as well as the students .This paper will also help us check the impact of SCRUM methodology apart from the software projects and processes.

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Effect of tool on tensile strength in single and double sided friction stir welding[Full-Text[References]
Sunny Mehra, Pardeep Dhanda, Ravinder Khanna,Narender Singh Goyat, Sanjeev Verma

In this experimental work, an extensive investigation had been carried out on AL 19000-H12 grade aluminum alloy plates. Plates of aluminum alloy (AL19000H12) size 200x50x6 mm were used for experiment. Material of weld tool used high carbon steel Diameter of tool head used 17 mm and length 50mm. Four different tool pin profiles (Straight cylindrical, Square, Threaded and Triangular) be used to fabricate joints in a single and sequential double sided. In this investigation, tool rotation and traverse speeds be kept constant i.e. 3000 rpm and 25 mm/min. The variables are shape of the tool and having passes one sided and both sided. Tensile test specimens are prepared according to the guidelines of American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM) to be tested on UTM (Ultimate tensile strength). Ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation and joint efficiency are noted. Various mechanical properties of the joints are evaluated.

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Radiation pattern optimization by Apicalis Ant algorithm for smart Array antennas[Full-Text[References]
Debbat F, Bendimerad F. T.

In modern mobile communications systems, both desired and interfering signals change their directions continuously. Therefore, a fast tracking system is needed to constantly track the users and then adapt the radiation pattern of the antenna to direct multiple narrow beams to desired users and nulls interfering sources. This paper proposes a smart array antenna system, which can improve performance by spatial filtering. Smart array antennas backed by strong signal processing algorithms are able to automatically change the beam pattern in accordance with the changing signal environment. The adaptation is achieved by multiplying the incoming signals with complex weights and then summing them together to obtain the desired radiation pattern. Adaptive array optimization is an NP-hard problem. In this paper, a technique based on the API (Pachycondyla Apicalis algorithm) is presented to solve this problem. Several illustrative examples of patterns with imposed single and multiple null directions are given to show the versatility of the present method.

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Wireless Broadband Network Technology Infrastructure and Related Intellectual Property Application & Security [Full-Text[References]
Nandini mishra, Neelam maurya, Nikita gaur

Since the beginning of this millennium, there has been an unprecedented growth in broadband wireless networks. This can be attributed to high demand for wireless multimedia services such as data, voice, video, and the development of new wireless standards. The growth of wireless broadband networks is expected to gradually outpace landline communications because advancements in these technologies have continued to enable higher broadband speeds. This paper explores broadband fixed wireless and broadband mobile technologies. The characteristics of these technologies are examined. This paper also explores the relative strengths and weaknesses of each of the technologies as well as their relationship to each other. In this paper, we would be discussing about major issues pertaining to security feature in broadband technology. To know different securities aspect which may hinder advancement of broadband technology? In this research paper taking up Wimax broadband technology working concepts and it's different security features, which needs to be taken up at a clear scale.

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Identifications of concealed weapon in a Human Body[Full-Text[References]
Prof. Samir K. Bandyopadhyay, Biswajita Datta, Sudipta Roy

The detection of weapons concealed underneath a person's cloths is very much important to the improvement of the security of the public as well as the safety of public assets like airports, buildings, and railway stations etc. Manual screening procedure gives unsatisfactory results when the object is not in the range of security personnel and when there is an uncontrolled flow of people. The goal is to develop an automatic detection and recognition system of concealed weapons using sensor technologies and image processing. The focus of this paper is to develop a new algorithm using a colour visual image and a corresponding IR image for such a concealed weapon detection application by the help of fusion technology.

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On the molecular adducts of tris(pentafluorophenyl)antimony(V) diisothiocyanate with neutral monodentate ligands[Full-Text[References]
Dharmendra K. Srivastava, Ram Nath Prasad Yadav, Prem Raj, Isha Rizvi, Prof. Amarika Singh

Hexa-coordinated neutral adducts (C6F5)3Sb(NCS)2.L [L = DPF, a-Pic., ß-Pic., ?-Pic., DMF, Ph3AsO, Ph3PO, DMSO, TU, Py] have been synthesized. Molecular adducts are monomeric in benzene and non electrolyte in acetonitrile. IR spectra and conductance measurement suggest the presence of coordination of O, N and S donor ligands in adduct. Spectroscopic data conform to the requirement of octahedral configuration for these neutral adducts.

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Enhanced QoS in MANETs using Analysis of Routing Protocol[Full-Text[References]
K. Venkata Ramana, P.C. Devi and B. Chaithanya

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), is a self-configuring infra structure less network of mobile devices Connected by wireless links. ad hoc is Latin and means "for this purpose". Each device in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. QOS is defined as a set of service requirements to be met by the network while transporting a packet stream from source to destination. Intrinsic to the notion of QOS is an agreement or a guarantee by the network to provide a set of measurable pre-specified service attributesto the user in terms of delay, jitter, available bandwidth, packet loss, and so on. In this paper we are presenting two mobile ad-hoc routing protocols DSDV and AODV. Here the DSDV is a proactive protocol depending on routing tables which are maintained at each node. The AODV is a reactive protocol, which find a route to a destination on demand, whenever communication is needed. Considering the bandwidth, throughput and packet loss, in both DSDV and AODV routing protocols, DSDV is best suited for only smaller networks and AODV is suited for general Ad-hoc networks. br />
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Level by Level Image Based Data Security Approach[Full-Text[References]
Deepak Gupta, Shikha Gupta, Ranjeet Kumar Singh, Abhisek Gour

Now-a-days, digital communication is part of every computing system. As the usage is increasing in every aspect of data transfer and sharing; so is the threat of information stealing and security. Data Security over the public network is the major concern of every communication expert. Cryptography and Steganography are the major techniques employed for hiding and securing the data from the channel intruders. This paper discusses a new approach that combines the concept of digital image processing, cryptography and steganography to provide a more secure data communication over the network

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Optimization of LPG Diffusion Flame Synthesis of Carbon - Nanotubed Structures using Statistical Design of Experiments (SDOE) [Full-Text[References]
Akash Deep, Nishtha Arya

A statistical designed experimental approach was followed to investigate the various diffusion flame conditions for the synthesis of carbon nanotubed structures utilizing domestic Liquefied Petroleum Gas (IS - 4576) as the fuel carbon source. LPG flow rate, Oxygen flow rate, Height above burner (HAB) and Exposure time have been identified to generate different flame conditions based on varying one factor at a time (OFAT) approach. 2 - level 'full factorial' design model in "Minitab12" software has been used for design of experiments. The 16 samples of soot with different flame conditions were collected on the surface of stainless steel plate. The output parameters i.e. weight of soot and substrate surface temperature were analyzed by Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to ensure that the experimentation is following the physics of the diffusion flame. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed the growth of well aligned single walled carbon nanotubed structures with high aspect ratio as 220 nm - 650 nm diameter and 534 nm - 1803 nm length. In the present study the parametric range for producing the single walled carbon - nanotubed structures through LPG diffusion flame were found and optimized.

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Assessment on Ground Control Points in Unmanned Aerial System Image Processing for Slope Mapping Studies[Full-Text[References]
Khairul Nizam Tahar, Anuar Ahmad, Wan Abdul Aziz Wan Mohd Akib, Wan Mohd Naim Wan Mohd

The first objective of this study is to investigate the use of light weight rotary-wing UAV for mapping simulation model. The second objective is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric output produced from this study. In this study, the photogrammetric output such as stereomodel in three dimensional (3D), contour lines, digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from a simulation model with a dimension of 3m x 1m. In the simulation model, ground control points (GCP) and checked point (CP) were established using a total station. The GCP is used to produce photogrammetric output while the CP is used for accuracy assessment. A Nikon Coolpix consumer digital camera was used in image acquisition of the simulation model. Two methods of image capturing were used. In the first method, the camera was mounted vertically on a rotary-wing UAV and the images were captured at an altitude of 1.2 meters. In the second method, the camera was mounted vertically on a wooden structure at a fixed height (in this case 1.2 meters). After obtaining all the required images, they were then processed using digital photogrammetric software to produce photogrammetric output. Based on the results of this study, it was found that the final product of the rotary-wing UAV was not significantly different from the results acquired from the fixed height data acquisition method. The results of this study also showed that the differences of DEM and digital orthophoto between both methods were relatively small. Finally, it can be concluded that the UAV system can be used for small-scale mapping and other diversified applications, especially for small areas, which involves a limited budget and time constraints.

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Analysis of Railway Wheel to study Thermal and Structural Behaviour[Full-Text[References]
Pramod Murali Mohan

Wheel-Rail systems are intensively subjected to damage caused by rolling contact and slip behaviour between the wheel and the rail. This is caused because of the brake block pushed against the wheel tread to create friction through which energy is dissipated. Friction also generates heat which results in distortion of the wheel as well as thermal stresses.In order to accurately predict this phenomena an accurate understanding of the thermal and structural loading on the wheel is required. In this paper this type of problem is being discussed. Two applications are presented. In the first the behaviour of wheel due to thermal and structural loading are dealt and in the second the combined loading is being discussed.

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Nutrition education among adolescent girls on recipes using dehydrated vegetables -Am impact study of video and Booklet.[Full-Text[References]
Jaya Sinha, Kumar A.R, Yadav N, Pravin K, Tripathi U

Nutrition education has been defined as educational measures for inducing desirable behavioural changes for the ultimate improvement in the nutritional status of all nutrition intervention programmes. The importance of nutrition education as a means for improving the health and nutrition of community in the developing countries, has been increasingly realized during recent years. Lack of knowledge of the dietary requirements and the nutritive value of different foods is the main contributory cause for the widespread occurrence of many disease in developing countries. Nutrition education, which is practical and adopted to suit the socioeconomic conditions, food habits and local food resources, can tackle the problem to a great extent. Adolescent are one of the most important groups of any society because they have an influential effect of the future social economic and cultural status of society. Nutritionally, this age is very vulnerable because of double demand of growth and activity. So there is need to promote nutrition education. Micronutrient deficiencies like anaemia are important nutritional disorder among adolescent girls in Indian and other developing countries. Vegetables particularly the leafy ones,are known to be rich in these nutrients. Through produce in plenty when in season, their high perishability make their usage limited round the year. Dehydration or vegetables, one of the most popular and oldest method of preservation, is one of the important way to make the vegetables available in all seasons, thus supplying the important nutrient to our population group regularly. As mineral content is not lost during dehydration, dehydrated vegetables can be utilized to enrich the various conventional food products.

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Using Microsoft PowerPoint Presentations To Create HTML5 Based E-learning Courses[Full-Text[References]
Harsh Alkutkar, Ajinkya Abhyankar, Rushikesh Gawali, Saurabh Gandhele, Prof.Kailash Tambe

This paper introduces how to use Microsoft PowerPoint presentation files to generate HTML5 based interactive e-learning courses packaged in SCORM format.

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Government Expenditure In The Manufacturing Sector And Economic Growth In Nigeria[Full-Text[References]
Ishola Saheed Ademola

The contribution of the manufacturing sector of the economy cannot be over emphasized when considering its role in building grounds for development, its employment potentials and financial impacts on the economy. This study is set forth to explore the average contribution of the manufacturing sector to the national earning of Nigeria over the years, using a time series data from 1981 to 2010 sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria. The empirical perspective of this paper applied the unit root test and co integration, relying on the theoretical backing posited by Solow. It was found that a significant relationship exist between government expenditure in the manufacturing sector and the economic growth of Nigeria.

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Small Scale Businesses As A Remedy To Unemployment Problem In Nigeria[Full-Text[References]
Ishola Saheed Ademola

SMEs or small scale business is described as the engine for rapid economic growth due to its numerous benefits such as employment generation and contribution to the GDP. In Nigeria, SMEs defined as any enterprise with a maximum asset base of #500 million ($4.2 million) excluding land and working capital with the number of staff not less than 10 or more than 300 (IFC, 2001).

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A Remark on the Elastic Properties of Mixed Systems[Full-Text[References]
Vassiliki Katsika-Tsigourakou

The recent paper by E. S. Skordas (Modern Physics Letters B, vol. 26, No. 11, pp.1250066, 2012) dealt with the elastic properties of solid solutions of silver halides was crossed by the publication of Pandey et al. (International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 3, issue 4, April-2012) focused on elastic constants of liquid binary alloys. We show that the procedure of the former is of wider applicability than that of the latter.

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A New Procedure For Designing Single Sampling Plan Indexed Through Trignometric Ratios[Full-Text[References]
P.R DIVYA

Acceptance Sampling is the methodology which deals with procedures through which decisions to accept or reject of a lot which are based on the result of inspection of samples. The foundation of the scheme of acceptance sampling has laid by Dodge and Romig (1959). General procedures and necessary tables are provided for the selection of single sampling plan through tangent angle as proposed by Norman Bush (1953). Mandelson (1962) has explained the desirability for developing a system of sampling plans indexed through MAPD. Mayer (1967) has explained that the quality standard that the MAPD can be considered as a quality level with other conditions to specify the OC curve. Soundararajan (1975) has constructed tables for selection of single sampling plan indexed through MAPD and K (pT/p*) Suresh and Ramkumar (1996) have studied the selection of single sampling plan indexed through Maximum Allowable Average Outgoing Quality (MAAOQ) and MAPD.

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A Comparative Study Of Reactive Routing Protocols In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks[Full-Text[References]
K. VENKATA RAMANA, M.Tech, K.Muniramaiah ,MCA and 2S. HEMASRI

Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self organize into arbitrary and temporary ad hoc network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internet work in areas with no preexisting communication infrastructure e.g., disaster recovery environments. An ad hoc network is not a new one, having been around in various forms for over 20 years. The goal of the routing protocol is to have an efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes. Routing protocols used in wired network cannot be used for mobile ad-hoc networks because of node mobility .Many routing protocols such as proactive, reactive and hybrid. Reactive routing protocols have been found to be user friendly and efficient when compared to other routing protocols. The main boon of routing protocols when compared with proactive and Hybrid routing protocols is the relatively unconditional low storage requirements, higher mobility and the availability of routes when needed. There are a variety of reactive routing protocols suchasAODV,DSR,LAR1,LMR,ABR,SSI,TORA,RDMAR,MSR,AOMDV,MRAODV,ARA.However there is no study done over the efficiency of any reactive routing protocols. In this study a comparison and performance evaluation of two reactive routing protocols AODV and DSR are done using OPNET simulator to identify the protocol that is best suited for MANET'S

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Multiple Mobile Agents In Wireless Sensor Networks Using Genetic Algorithm[Full-Text[References]
LingaRaj.K, Aradhana.D, Nagaveni.B.Biradar

It has been proven recently that using Mobile Agent (MA) in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can drastically help to obtain the flexibility of application-aware deployment. Normally, in any MA based sensor network, it is an important research issue to find out an optimal itinerary for the MA in order to achieve efficient and effective data collection from multiple sensory data source nodes. In this paper, we firstly investigate a number of conventional single MA itinerary planning based schemes, and then indicate some shortcomings of these schemes, since only one MA is used by them. Having these investigations and analysis, a novel genetic algorithm based multiple MAs itinerary planning (GA-MIP) scheme is proposed to address the shortcomings of large latency and global unbalancing of using single MA, and its effectiveness is proved by conducting the extensive experiments in professional environment.

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Implementation of FFT Algorithm for OFDM Wireless LANs[Full-Text[References]
Katta. Mangarao, Sirigineedi.Srividya

The explosive growth of 802.11-based wireless LANs has attracted interest in providing higher data rates and greater system capacities. Among the IEEE 802.11 standards, the 802.11a standard based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation scheme can be defined to address high-speed and large-system-capacity challenges. Although DSPs have been used to implement the 802.11a standard, they can only support limited data rates due to the lack of global parallelism found at the application level. Hence, it is still a major challenge to develop a software implementation for the 802.11a standard on a DSP to meet the high-data-date requirements.

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Papers for International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research on Railway Safety [Full-Text[References]
Mr.Kaushik Banerjee, Mr.Subhas De, Mr. Rahul Sourav Singh

MOST accidents are caused when the pilot can't see the signal- it happens when there is fog. Another chance of missing the signal is somehow the signal is not lit or driver falls ill and cannot operate the system

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Dielectric Diagnosis of EHV current Transformer Using Frequency Domain Spectroscopy (FDS) & Polarization and Depolarization Current (PDC) Techniques[Full-Text[References]
Abhishek Joshi, Pooja Aaradhi

Current transformers (CT) are an important element of substation used for metering and protection. The CT forms main link in ensuring the reliability of the entire power system. Most of the faults occurring in Instrument transformers are due to insulation failure (Viz. oil and paper for this research work). Various factors responsible for degradation and failure of insulation in CT are electrical, mechanical and thermal stresses, poor maintenance and incorrect loading. The CTs used in substations should be replaced in order to ensure continuity in the power supply for the end user. For a systematic replacement program to be planned and to avoid unexpected breakdowns in Instrument transformers, dielectric diagnostic tools are gaining high importance. These dielectric diagnostic tools deduce the moisture in paper or pressboard and oil conductivity from dielectric properties like return voltage, charging currents and dissipation factor. Two dielectric response measurement techniques have been established; the current measurement in the time domain, also called the Polarization and Depolarization Current (PDC) and the Frequency Domain Spectroscopy (FDS) techniques. The research considers an application of this technique to 245kV and 420kV OIP CTs. The application of FDS and PDC techniques for CT insulation analysis and its effectiveness to on field applications is also discussed.

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Design and Implementation of VLSI Architecture for Mixed Radix FFT[Full-Text[References]
Dr.Y.Padma Sai, Y.Swetha Sree

The main objective of this paper is to design and implement the VLSI architecture for Mixed Radix FFT. This architecture is proposed for memory based Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to support less memory size and area reduction .The pipelined architecture would cost more area and power than memory based architecture.

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Student's Examination Result Mining: A Predictive Approach[Full-Text[References]
Vaneet Kumar, Dr. Vinod Sharma

This paper takes into consideration the various factors and their influence on student performance in education and predicts their final examination result whether Pass or Re-appear. Various factors such as previous year results, attendance, financial status of family, parent educational qualification, internet use for study material, parents visits to school, extra classes etc plays an important role in students' education. A lot of other immeasurable factors such as student motivation level, learning techniques used, strategy for preparing for final examination, student behavior and habits, questions chosen for answering and way of expressing ideas may also be responsible for the final result, but they are beyond the scope of this paper. This paper discusses the most common measurable factors among the students. The data mining methodology while extracting useful, valid patterns from education database environment contribute to proactively ensuring students maximize their academic output [1]. The results of this paper present an idea about these factors and their influence on student performance and may also be used by the educational administrators in making proper decisions for the welfare of the students. Naive Bayes classifier is applied to calculate probabilities. MATLAB is used to get the final outcome which helps in predicting final examination results. The data set is collected from different schools by distributing questionnaires, has been used as input to the algorithm.

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Optimal Power Dispatch Incorporating UPFC Devices Using Foraging Algorithms Voltage Stability and Reliability Analysis[Full-Text[References]
S.Jaganathan, S.Palaniswami

The Refined Bacterial Foraging Optimization (RBFA) algorithm is biologically inspired computation technique which is inspired on foraging behavior of E-coli bacteria and its improved version of basic Bacterial Foraging Algorithm (BFA). This paper illustrated how a proposed algorithm different from other social behavior algorithm for solving optimization problems especially in multi-objective case and this proposed algorithm is applied to solve the Optimal Power Dispatch (OPD) problem with incorporating Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and optimal location of UPFC based on stability and reliability analysis. This RBFA algorithm provides an enhanced optimal solution of all control variables and results are shown to be robust and improvement in convergence speed, simulations are performed with help of standard IEEE systems.

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Energy Efficient Technology Diffusion Factors: A Systematic Review [Full-Text[References]
Suchismita Bhattacharjee, Andrew P. McCoy

Due to the escalating population and the resulting increase in energy use, the world is faced with the challenge of energy crisis. To mitigate the rise in energy crisis, innovation, adoption, and diffusion of energy efficient technologies is imperative. Review of available literatures indicates that expected improvement in energy consumption has not been achieved in spite of the innovation and improvement in energy efficient technologies. This imbalance points towards the lack of proper adoption and diffusion of these technologies. This paper has looked into prior arts to determine the factors responsible for this diffusion process. Upon identifying the factors, it is evident that some factors can be improved to act as accelerators to the diffusion process. The other set of factors tend to remain as hindrances which can be reduced to an extent, but not removed completely. The paper further investigates the reasons behind these factors and categorizes them under three groups - financial, informational, and behavioral. Findings prove that most of the factors can be attached to a financial cause. Thus research and development alone is not the answer to the rising energy demand, but effective economic motivation is necessary to curb the demand. Future research will look into the present energy policies and group them based on their targeted sector. This will enable to locate the gaps in the policies already implemented and subsequently help in the creation of new policies.

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Assessment of Transformer Oil Quality Using Fuzzy Logic Technique[Full-Text[References]
Chinmaya Kumar Pradhan

The life of a transformer is dependant upon life of its insulation. The insulation of a transformer deteriorates over a span of time with temperature, moisture and oxygen. Oil quality assessment is the technique to decide the quality of transformer oil after a specific period of use. The quality of transformer oil decides the efficiency of the transformer while in service. This chapter presents an innovative methodology for assessment of transformer oil quality by using fuzzy logic based decision support system.

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Review of Challenges in Accessing Cloud services through Mobile Devices[Full-Text[References]
Charushila Kadu, Praveen Bhanodiya, Makrand Samvatsar

Mobile cloud computing is an emerging branch of cloud computing. Mobile cloud computing is a 3+ combination of cloud computing, mobile computing and internet. Nature of accessing cloud services through mobile devices increases as there is continues growth in the number of mobile users. But, there are several problems in accessing cloud services through mobile devices. This paper discuss about various problems in accessing cloud services in mobile environment. It also discuss about mobile cloud computing in details, current state of mobile cloud computing and its system architecture.

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Intelligent Belt for the Blind[Full-Text[References]
Sneha Venkateswar, Ninad Mehendale

This system focuses on the Electronic Blind Mobility Aid that helps blind people to travel autonomously using sensors mounted on a belt to be worn around the waist.Many people with visual impairments can travel independently with this advanced technology. Blind people cannot always travel alone due to the various obstacles that come in their path. A blind belt can be used to extend the user's range of sensation. It is usually worn around the waist as an obstacle detector.It is well known that visually impaired people use their hearing sense to compensate for their reduced eyesight. For instance, they can recognize sound sources. This project helps blind people travel alone by using sensors mounted on a belt to be worn around the waist. Thus they can be forewarned about obstacles with the help of the headphones and speakers. This will allow them to benefit from a systemthat they can use every day and hence making the blind person independent, while being able to identify potential risks, obstacles and routes.

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Development Of Labview Based Wireless Control Systems For Ion Beam Micromachining Systems[Full-Text[References]
Mr. Joshi Tushar Prakashrao

Ion beams are becoming increasingly important in miniaturization of semiconductor devices. When ion beam is focused to micron / submicron spot size, several processes takes place on the substrate at the same time. Ion beam interaction with the surface produces various phenomena such as sputtering of substrate material, ion implantation, secondary electron emission etc. Sputtering mechanism is the most important one in the field of micromachining applications. Few months ago plasma based focused ion beam system has been developed in Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, kolkata for high speed micromachining applications which has immense application in Material science, MEMS etc. Previously the entire system was controlled using conventional control system (using cables).The aim of the project was to eliminate the cables by utilizing wireless communication to enhance the performance of the system and develop few applications to automate the operation.

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The Formation of the High Tc Phase of Melt Quenched Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy[Full-Text[References]
Shirley T. Palisoc, Michelle T. Natividad, Phebe P. Mendoza

The melt quench method was applied in the fabrication of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy superconducting ceramics. The effects of melting the lead doped BSCCO were investigated using the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscope (SEM/EDAX), differential thermal analyzer (DTA), x-ray diffractrometer (XRD) and magnetic susceptibility (?-T) analyses. The results showed that the superconducting phase appeared even in the precursor samples. Glass forming tendency is also remarkably retarded. Sintering at 840°C for 24 hours completely vanished this glass forming ability. The critical temperature (Tc) onset was strongly dependent on the amount of non-superconducting impurities, grain size and intensity of the endothermic peak that affects the phase formation in the partially melted state.

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Agile Software Engineering Framework for Evaluating Mobile Application Development[Full-Text[References]
Ridi Ferdiana

The development of mobile applications is becoming one of the growth sectors of the local software economy. In addition to a lot of mobile users, developers also have a lot of choices in developing mobile applications. A large selection resulted in the development technology makes developer team need to invest the time to learn each platform. This was definite by the competition of mobile application development which should always be fast, efficient, and also includes as many targeted platform. This paper will focus for the beginner developer teams who want to develop or evaluate mobile applications in more nimble. In this paper, it is shown a software engineering approach called MASEF ("Mobile Application Software Engineering Framework"). MASEF will guide novice developers to develop and evaluate a mobile application development in agile way. This paper also recounts the successes and challenges in adopting MASEF at four kinds of mobile applications projects.

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A Case Study on Multi-instance Finger Knuckle Print Score and Decision Level Fusions[Full-Text[References]
Harbi AlMahafzah, H.S. Sheshadri, and Mohammad Imran

This paper proposed the use of multi-instance as a means to improve the performance of Finger Knuckle Print (FKP) verification. A log-Gabor filter has been used to extract the image local orientation information, and represent the FKP features. Experiments are performed using the FKP database, which consists of 7,920 images. The influence on biometric performance using Decision and Score Level Fusions has been dem-onstrated in this paper. Results indicate that the Multi-instance verification approach at Score Level (Max Rule) and Decision Level (OR Rule) out-performs higher performance than using any single instance. Whereas at Score Level (Min Rule) and Decision Level (AND Rule) does not have performance improvement.

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