Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2016 Edition


Publication for Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2016.


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Effect of various pollination treatments on yield characteristics and fruit quality of shaddock fruits[ ]


The genus citrus belongs to the family Rutaceae. A Shaddock (Citrus maxima L.) or (Citrus grandis L.) is one of the most distinctive and easily recognized species of the genus Citrus. The present investigation was conducted during two successive, (2012/2013) and (2013/2014) seasons, grown in clay loamy soil at experimental station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University at Moshtohor, Toukh region, Kaliobia Governorate. on 21 trees of Shaddock trees of about 20 years old. All the trees in this investigation were similar in growth, healthy, apparently free from disease and the trees were planted at 5x5 meters a part.

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Mechanism of Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Composite Precipitation From Aqueous Solution at Room Temperature and Alkali Environment[ ]


The process of hydroxyapatite/chitosan precipitation from aqueous solution, at room temperature and alkali environment, was examined by chemical analysis, Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show, in the presence as in the absence of the chitosan, initially the fast formation of amorphous octocalcium phosphate (Ca8(HPO4)2(PO4)4, nH2O: OCPam) and fast transferring from OCPam to apatitic-tricalcium phosphate: (Ca9(HPO4)(PO4)5(OH): TCPap), then from TCPap to calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (Ca10-X(HPO4)X(PO4)6-x(OH)2-X: ACP) and to stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2: HAP). The transformation TCPap-ACP was slightly inhibited in the presence of chitosan. A stable ACP-chitosan complex was formed, and then evolved into Hydroxyapatite / chitosan composite. The materials can have potential medical applications such as bone regenerating scaffold.

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Structural Characterization of Stoichiometric Calcium Hydroxyapatite Prepared from Aqueous Solution at Room Temperature and Neutral pH[ ]


In this study structural characterization of stoichiometric calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) powder is investigated. The sample was prepared from aqueous solutions, under air atmosphere at 22°C and neutral pH. The powder calcined at 1100°C was investigated by chemical characterization, thermal analysis and X-ray pattern fitting methods. Results showed that hydroxyapatite can successfully be produced at room temperature and neutral pH without other calcium phosphate impurities. Trace ions as Na+, Mg2+, Sr2+, SO42-, and CO32- were detected and coupled substitution of cation and anion trace affects neither the theoretical structure nor the thermal stability of the hydroxyapatite but creates vacancies in calcium (Ca1) and oxygen (O1 and O3) sites. This structural change leads to a slight lattice distortion (Dind = 3.204) compared to the theoretical value (Dind =3.079). The structure showed the dehydroxylation between 950°C and 1300°C and the decomposition, into both tri-calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) and tetra-calcium phosphate (Ca4(PO4)2O), takes place at 1450 °C.

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Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Mechanism[ ]


Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is technology used in 3D printing. This research explains the foundation, mechanism and the economy efficiency of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM).

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Performance Study of Photovoltaic DC Water Pumping System with Maximum Power Point Tracking[ ]


DC photovoltaic pumping system is presented in this paper. Solar DC pump needs less solar panels to run than the AC pump. The system is divided into three parts; photovoltaic (PV) array, boost converter and permanent magnet (PM) dc motor-pump set. Solar cells have nonlinear I-V characteristics, efficiency of PV module is low and output power depends on solar isolation Level and ambient temperature. A great loss of power is due to mismatch of source and load. So to extract the maximum power delivered to the load from PV array, MPPT is implemented in the boost converter circuit. Each part of the system is modelled. The system is simulated using Matlab/Simulink .The proposed system is studied with and without maximum power point tracking conditions. The results show a very good performance and efficiency of the overall system when using MPPT compared with direct coupling. The system is studied under various climatic conditions.

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Hydroelectricity: The Valuable and Cost Effective Energy[ ]


This research paper addresses the uses of energy source, Hydroelectricity.

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Earned Value Analysis carried out in Real Estate Construction Industry[ ]


According to the investment advisory report 2016 there are many no. of units i.e. flats which are not sold because they were worthless compared to the rate. An analysis including the land details, locality & neighborhood, area surrounding to it is taken in to consideration. Construction cost analysis, planning & estimating details are to be carried out & valuation is to be made for cost analysis. Studying of surrounding locality rate/ Square feet with amenities provided in the project for carrying out study to decide the cost of product. Once all things are planned the BOQ entries should be made in ERP i.e. Enterprise Resources Planning. EVR includes decision making process where a construction activity is in progress. In this project ERV is done by decision making, matching investments against objectives, asset allocation for individuals & institutions and balancing risk against performance i.e. by taking suitable & required decisions on time in order to avoid project delays & failure. In the project actual construction cost is worked out of the all amenities provided & analysis regarding Project inflow v/s Project Out flow is carried out. After all the result which will be shown in this project is the valuation done of asset in terms of cost using different skills, its value in terms of marketing, its execution along with portfolio management and the profitability of entire project. Use of sustainable construction theory GRIHA- Green Ratings for Integrated habitat assessment is being used to attract the clients in our project.

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Performance Analysis of Noise Uncertainty in En-ergy Detection Spectrum Sensing Technique using an Optimized Algorithm[ ]


The Performance of Energy Detection (ED) spectrum sensing technique depends on threshold selected for deciding the pres-ence or absence of Primary User. In practice, noise density is uncertain and can affect the performance of ED in that sometimes presence of signals is confused for their absence (noise) and vice versa. The traditional energy detection algorithm was based on fixed threshold and has been observed to be inefficient under noise uncertainty. The technique requires optimizing the threshold to be more flexible to check the noise uncertainty effects. The paper therefore proposed an algorithm relative to a unique environment which in effect considered the dynamism relatively and dependent on the environment. The results obtained demonstrated significant improvement compared to the traditional energy detection system.

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Time Machine Theory without Any Paradoxes[ ]


Background/Objectives: Using this theory. We can travel to future and past from present time. In this theory there is no paradoxes.

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Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model[ ]


The study aims to analyze the utilization of the Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model for a student-teacher. There are several keywords that are noted in this paper. The model was created by Donald Kirkpatrick while being a professor at the University of Wisconsin. The model is adaptive and adds value to the traditional learning model. Besides, there are techniques which I used as a student-teacher and my contribution in the education system and the model itself. The results of using the model are positive both in teachers and the learners.

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The impact of toxoplasmosis on Seminal fluid analysis in association with infertility[ ]


Toxoplasma gondii is a common protozoan parasite that infects warm-blooded animals throughout the world, including mice and humans. Mice and humans are both the intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii. During infection, both, the parasite and the host, utilize various mechanisms to maximize their own reproductive success. As half of the human population is infected, developing a disease called toxoplasmosis, along with an ever-growing number of couples suffering with idiopathic infertility, it is therefore surprising that there is a lack of research on how Toxoplasma gondii can alter reproductive parameters. One of the common methods for determination of fertility status in males is seminal fluid analysis. This study was conducted on 83 males in which 64 infertile male patients, Include 25 males with primary infertility and also 39 males with secondary. Our aim was to determine the effect of toxoplasmosis infection on seminal fluid analysis parameters. ELISA was used to detect the chronic state of toxoplasmosis. The study showed there is no effect of toxoplasmosis on seminal fluid criteria in infertile males.

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A Novel Approach to Search for and Discover Iranian Identity Using Muscic Performance and Preference: A Note on “Cylinder of Cyrus” Album, Composed by Vahid Zardey[ ]


History, which indicates all social, religious, philosophical and psychological origins of a nation, is considered as a root for the current tree of a society. In this manner, the current human being fed and getting energy from his/her past roots, intentionally or unintentionally, studied or unstudied, to fructify in specified seasons in his/her special manner [1-17].

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EUS-FNA and ERCP in the Diagnosis of Presumed Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Meta-analysis[ ]


Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are two choices for cytopathological diagnosis in patients with suspected malignant biliary obstruction. Our aim was to compare the sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio (LR) of EUS-FNA and ERCP in the diagnosis of presumed malignant biliary obstruction. In this meta-analysis, PubMed, SCOPUS and EMBASE databases were examined to find studies published from January 2000 to December 2015. No language restriction was applied. All the searched studies were retrieved, and their references were checked as well for other relevant publications. The main outcome measurements were sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio. Three studies were selected for the analysis on the basis of inclusion criteria. The overall pooled sensitivity and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of EUS-FNA for diagnosis of malignant biliary obstruction were 81.4% [95% CI 74.1–87.4%] and 0.187 (95% CI 0.050–0.699), respectively and the overall pooled sensitivity and LR- of ERCP for diagnosis of malignant biliary obstruction were 35.0% [95% CI 26.5–44.4%] and 0.770 (95% CI 0.666–0.890), respectively. The meta-analysis suggests that EUS-FNA was superior to ERCP in diagnosing malignant biliary obstruction.

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CFD Prediction of High Viscosity Oil-Water (Water-Assist) Flow Behavior in Horizontal Pipe[ ]


The advent of high viscosity oil requires more investigations to enhance good design of transportation system and forestall its inherent production difficulties. Experimental and numerical studies were conducted on oil-water in 1-in ID 5m long horizontal perspex pipe. The densities of CYL680 and CYL1000 oils employed are 917 and 916.2kg/m3 while their viscosities are 1.830 and 3.149Pa.s at 25oC, respectively. The high viscosity oil-water interfacial tension is 0.026 N/m at 19oC. The oil superficial velocity ranged from 0.1 to 0.55m/s and water ranged from 0.2 to 1.0m/s. A three-dimensional high viscosity oil-water, two-phase co-current CFD model was developed for predicting the local hydrodynamics of flow. The transient model based on Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, considering surface tension was employed. Co-current water flow model compared favourably with the experiment. The pressure gradients decreased by 5 to 8 order of magnitude. The flow patterns, Water Assist- Annular (WA-ANN), Dispersed Oil in Water (DOW/OF), Oil Plug in Water (OPW/OF) with oil film on the wall and Water Plug in Oil (WPO), were also identified from the contour plots of the flow configurations, the trend plot, Probability Density Function (PDF) and statistical moments of the downstream pressure signalled.

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Patients and Health Care Provider’s Perceptions and Expectations towards Hospital Pharmacist in Lahore[ ]


During the past few years, the pharmacy profession has expanded significantly in terms of professional services delivery and now has been recognized as an important profession in the multidisciplinary provision of health care. In contrast to the situation in developed countries, pharmacists in developing countries are still underutilized and their role as health care professionals is not deemed important by either the community or other health care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Patient’s and Health Care Provider’s Perceptions and Expectations towards Hospital Pharmacist in Lahore. For this purpose, an observational, cross-sectional and comparative study was conducted by designing a specific Data Collection Form for obtaining the relevant data. The study was conducted at different public and private sector hospitals in Lahore for two months. Data was collected by face to face interview & results were calculated. The analysis of the data depicts that majority of the population including adult patients (83%) & other health care providers (77%) have the knowledge about hospital pharmacists, (41%) of the patients think that they are dispensers. However, (76%) patients and (82%) health providers consider them as important part to improve the patient care settings in hospitals. (43%) of the health providers stated to cooperate with the hospital pharmacists as they consider them as a reliable source of drug information, while (39%) pointed of the negligence in the duties of hospital pharmacist mainly because of lack of facilities. From the point of view of the hospital pharmacists they say that (18%) of them act as storekeepers, (16%) have clinical roles to perform; while (22%) of the Hospital Pharmacist take their duties as being as storekeeper, dispenser as well as a counselor. (36%) of them pointed to have good relationship with the health care providers while (56%) said that they share healthy relationship with the patients. However, (58%) of Hospital Pharmacists stated to not face any barrier in performing their duties, while (6%) mentioned to get hindrance due to Over Burden. Therefore, in order to meet the expectations & improve the status of hospital pharmacists Government should take actions to clear the job status & duties of hospital pharmacists. Moreover, not only health care providers should provide hospital pharmacists enough space to work along with them but also pharmacists must be vigilant, knowledgeable, and active.

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PROCESSING, MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND TOPSIS RANKING OF GLASS/PARTICULATES REINFORCED EPOXY BASED HYBRID COMPOSITES[ ]


In this Research article, the processing and mechanical characterization of hybrid composites which consists of Epoxy resin (E) reinforced with E-glass fiber (G.F) and filled with natural fillers like Arabic gum tree coal powder (A.C.P), Neem tree coal powder (N.C.P) and Jambal tree coal powder (J.C.P) particulates was done. The effect of A.C.P/ J.C.P/N.C.P in modifying the mechanical properties of glass reinforced epoxy composites has been studied. It is found that the mechanical properties like Tensile strength, Flexural strength, ILSS, Impact strength and Hardness of the glass reinforced composites are modified with the incorporation of the fillers. Also The TOPSIS technique is implemented for the ranking of the matrix with respect to the mechanical properties.

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Design Related Parameters of Nigerian Ginger (Zingiber Officianale) Rhizomes[ ]


The value derived from ginger is a function of the level to which it is processed. Value addition in ginger is achieved basically by using a processing device. The performance of any agriculture processing device is affected by the shape and size of the agricultural material being handled.

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Role of blue-green algae in managing damping-off and charcoal rot diseases of bean[ ]


Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) is a very important legume crop in Egypt for local consumption and exportation. Many soil-borne pathogenic fungi can infect bean roots; from those Macrophomina phaseolina ( Tassi) Goid ; the causal of damping-off and root-rot (charcoal-rot).

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Mediums for Gravity[ ]


Every force requires medium? How does force communicate or transfer between two objects? Approach to answer these questions by looking similarities in human behavior because our body is composed of matter that exist in this universe hence our behavior reflects the behavior of different bodies in this universe.

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Face Detection Based on Robust Algorithm of Skin Color[ ]


In the current research, an experimental study of algorithms of face detection that are based on “Color of Skin” has been carried out in details. The three color spaces RGB, YCbCr and HSV were of the main concern of the study. The algorithms depend on these color spaces were compared and they have been combined to get a new skin color depend on algorithm of face detection, which gave higher ratio of accuracy. In the result part, the proposed approach is applied on FEI database and the accuracy rate reached 96.25%.

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Image Region Duplication Identification: A review[ ]


This paper studies reviews of image Region duplication identification. Currently, digital images being the main source of information have gain high importance. Also with the popularity of low cost, high resolution digital cameras & sophisticated editing software, digital image tampering has become relatively easy. This makes authenticity of digital images untrustful. So it is very necessary and challenging to find effective methods to detect digital image forgeries. One of the specific types of forgery, where a part of the image is copied and pasted on another part of the same image and post processing is done, without leaving obvious visual clues, is called region duplication forgery. To detect the region duplication attacks, block based and key-point based methods are integrated together. The host image is divided into non-overlapping and irregular blocks adaptively using over-segmentation algorithm. The feature points are then extracted from each block as block features. The block features are matched with one another to locate the labelled feature points, which approximately indicate the suspected forgery regions. Then forgery region extraction algorithm is used to detect more accurate forgery regions. Finally morphological operation is applied to generate the detected forgery regions. As compared to previous methods this forgery detection method achieves much better detection results.

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Kansas technology literacy[ ]


For this assignment, I decided to compare Kansas technology literacy standards to their national counterparts. I was particularly interested in adult learners, so the closest population of my interest were those who were in high school Thus, I chose grade 12 for this comparison although the state technology literacy standards were the same for all the different high school grades – grade 9 to 12, which is too general in my point of view.

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How Exchange Rate Influence a Country’s Import and Export[ ]


Businesspersons and governments all over the globe are very serious about the severe results of currency appreciation and depreciation on different things such as imports, exports, domestic products, etc. Academic researchers conducted many researches in order to explore the impact of currency fluctuations on the import and export of the country as well. Many researchers concluded that G-7 countries exports and imports took the effect due to currency fluctuations during the period of 1982-1997. Depreciation in exchange rate increases the domestic currency value and decreases the value of our own currency as well. If our own country currency rate increases due to foreign exchange rate declines then the domestic country can import the goods at cheap prices. In contrast if the home country currency decreases due to an increase in exchange rate then the imports of the home country will decreases due to increasing in other country prices as well. If the domestic currency appreciates due to declining in exchange rate the domestic country exports will bring the high foreign exchange for the country and vice versa. When some countries currency increases or decreases, it brings the changes in the whole business of the country at very much extent (Kandil, Berument, & Dincer, 2007)).

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Federal Reserve Requirements[ ]


The vital managing an account association of the United States is the Federal Reserve. The association was begun on December 23, 1913, with the execution of the Federal Reserve Act. The Federal Reserve System is otherwise called the Federal Reserve an in a casual manner as the fed. The Federal Reserve is the focal Banking arrangement of the United States the Federal Reserve Act generally in answers to a succession of monetary frenzies, in general a brutal frenzy in 1907 (Rudebusch, G. D. 1995). The parts and obligations of the central bank System have drawn out, and its setup has advanced. The Federal Reserve Systems design is reserved of the presidentially chosen leading group of Governors. The US Government gets all the yearly benefit, after a legitimate separation of 6% on individual from the banks 'capital speculation is paid, and a record overabundance is kept up. In 2010, The Federal Reserve made pay of $82 billion and exchanged $79billion to the US Treasury (Rudebusch, G. D. 1995). Necessities concerning the measure of the trusts from those banks must hold available for later contrary to stores made by their clients. This cash must be in bank's vaults or at the nearest Federal Reserve Bank. Hold Requirements are the measure of trusts that a repository association must hold available for later contrary to specific set down liabilities (Romer, D. H. 2000). The cutoff demanding by the law, The Board of Governors has just have the directly over changes for possible later use necessities. Repository foundations must grab hold of stores as jump money or stores with Federal Reserve Banks. The dollar measure of a depositary association hold prerequisite is solid minded by applying the store proportions indicated in the central bank Board's parameter D to a foundation's resolvable liabilities It comprises of net dealings accounts, non individual time stores and euro coin liabilities' have had a store proportion of zero (Romer, D. H. 2000).

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Value of Internet, Digital Divide[ ]


Usually, the value of a certain commodity is measured in terms of its monetary worth (Varian, 2013). For example, the value of a television can be measured by the amount of money the person is willing to pay to acquire it. However, there are some commodities whose value is much more difficult to measure. An example is the Internet. The Internet is defined as a large network of networks which connects millions of computers across the world (Beal, 2010). It is a medium by which people can connect and can access information. Let us say that tomorrow, the Internet will suddenly disappear and will be gone forever. For sure, the lives of many people who are used to the Internet will never be the same. From that scenario only, it is safe to say that Internet is so valuable. Nevertheless, there were days that the Internet was not invented yet. The origins of the Internet can be dated just in August of 1962. The concept of computer networking was just developing at that time. In fact, it was only on October 24, 1995 that the term “Internet” was invented ((Leiner et. al., 2015). From that time, the Internet has changed much. Some people may even remember what was it like to live without the Internet. For example, to look for answers to questions, one had to look for volumes of books or encyclopedias. Questions regarding weather or direction required a lot of work and effort. There was no Facebook, Youtube or any media by which people can interact with each other regardless of geographical location. With the widespread use of the Internet however, there are still people or locations today that do not have any access to the Internet. This causes a term called “digital divide.” Digital divide is defined as the gap between people or places that have access to the Internet or modern information and communication technology and those that do not have access (Rouse, 2014). In the U.S alone, digital divide is indeed a reality. According to Rouse (2014), the June 2013 U.S. White House broadband report showed that 71% of the American household have adopted a broadband while the remaining 29% have not. Some people argue that the digital divide must be lessened, if not closed, because they believe that an access to the Internet can increase economic growth and social mobility among other areas. On the contrary, others have argued that reliance to the Internet increases laziness and limits real social interaction. This paper discusses the value of the internet in different fields. This will also show some issues such as the growing digital divide and some future trends.

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A Statistical Approach for early detection and modeling of Heart Diseases[ ]


Cardiovascular diseases are considered as one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality rate. It causes the narrowing of the blood vessels that prevents supply of oxygen to the heart. This study analyses to design a linear statistical model to detect possibility of heart disease. We have analyzed the correlation and partial correlation coefficients using Pearson method for four primary attributes namely Cholesterol, Thalach, Blood Pressure and Fasting Blood Sugar apart from family history, Hypertension and Diabetes.

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