Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2017 Edition


Publication for Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2017.


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STRAINING ACTIONS OF FOOTINGS CONNECTED WITH TIE BEAMS RESTING ON REPLACED SOIL[ ]


The straining actions variation of foundations located on soil replacement are an important factors affecting the foundation design and construction. Soil replacement may be refer to topography of the location or/and accidents like a failure of slops or retaining structures and environmental soil conditions.

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Analysis of the new modulation and coding techniques for xDSL[ ]


Nowadays, the demand on higher transmission speed increased, because of more users using the Internet and the applications are demanding the higher transmission speed, too. In this article, I would like to give you my point of view on increasing the transmission speed in xDSL technology, because the DSL is most popular technology used in WAN.

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Separation Axioms Via -open sets[ ]


In this paper, we define new types of separation axioms which we call - ( ), and characterize these spaces by using the notion of -closed and -open sets.

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Relative Performance study of three Routing Protocols in MANET for CBR Traffic[ ]


Ad hoc Network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. The highly dynamic nature of mobile ad hoc networks results in frequent changes and unpredictability in network topologies, adding difficulty and complexity to routing among the mobile nodes within the network. There are different routing protocols proposed for MANETs which makes it quite difficult to determine which protocol is suitable for different network conditions as proposed by their Quality of service offerings. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare three routing protocols on the basis of performance under different environments. The comparison has been done under the UDP payload (CBR traffic). The tools used for the simulation are NS2 which is the main simulator, NAM (Network Animator) and Excel-graph which is used for preparing the graphs from the trace files. The results presented in this paper clearly indicate that the different protocols behave differently under different environments.

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Cadmium induced antioxidant activity and alteration in DNA pattern in biodiesel plant: Jatropha curcasL[ ]


In the present study, effect of cadmium on glutathione reductase, catalase, peroxidase activity, MDA content and genotoxicity effect using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques in Jatropha curcas were investigated. Seedling were grown in vitro in MS medium solidified with agar containing various concentration of Cadmium as CdCl2(0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 µMol L-1) for two week. Atomic absorption spectrometry data suggest the uptake and accumulation of Cd by root and shoots. Glutathione reductase activity was inhibited while CAT and POX activity were enhanced at higher concentration of Cd (50-250 µMol L-1). MDA content in all concentration was increased. RAPD technique was utilized to evaluate the genotoxicity effect of Cd on Jatropha. DNA polymorphisms were observed at 100 and 150 µMol L-1 concentration of Cd where 6 and 7 new band were appeared respectively while 9 band were absent at 200 µMol L-1 of Cd compared to control. The results, suggest the importance of enzymatic and MDA content in response to cadmium toxicity and RAPD analysis revealed that the toxic effect of Cd at molecular level.

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Computer Networking and Information Security for the Small Business[ ]


Computer networking, and networking devices together, has become an interregnal part of today’s business operations. If a business does not have a secure infrastructure within its computer networking system, it can greatly impact a business daily operations and cause many problems within a business such as information loss, identity theft, stolen information, and other threats that can impede an organization. This study investigates the threats to businesses’ networking systems, level of annual incomes, and safety precautions.

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CRITICALRESEARCH & ANALYSIS PRIOR TO THE OPENING OF HOTELS IN ISTANBUL – TURKEY[ ]


The following study will make reference to important research and analysis required prior to the opening a hotel property. The research type used in this study will be quantitative.In this particular study a questionnaire will be designed to measure if prior research has been conducted by the companies before the opening of a hotel.

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DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP STYLES & ITS APPLICATION IN DAILY MANGEMENTOF A BUSINESS HOTEL IN ISTANBUL[ ]


The study undertaken will make reference to different styles of Leadership methods widely used worldwide and investigate how it is used in the day to day operation of a 5 star business hotel in Istanbul.

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Review on the Efficiency of Microorganism in Degrading HydrocarbonsPollutants throughBioremediation process[ ]


The environmental degradation that currently happening is caused by increasing number of anthropogenic activities such as the production of fossil fuels, accidental releases of petroleum products, ore mining, smelting, illegal chemicals dumping, agriculture runoffs, industrial and municipal waste disposal. According to numerous studies that been done on environmental degradation issues, oil contamination is recorded to have the biggest impacts on the environment. Oil contamination can affect the environment, human health and economy of the country. Bioremediation is a technique or process of using microorganism to degrade or transform the contaminants from hazardous substances to less hazardous or non-hazardous substances. Numerous studies have shown that multiple groups of microorganisms were used as agents in degrading pollutants starting from bacteria, algae, fungi and even plants which the process also known as phytoremediation. Bioremediation is a slow process which mainly depending on the microorganisms to digest the pollutants and convert them into non-harmful substances. Some studies regards bioremediation as a process of using microorganisms in immobilizing and destroying waste and harmful substances. This review will focus in detail on the bioremediation process and how this process can be improved for better and efficient pollutant degradation in our environment.

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Growth response of eggplant (Solanummelongena L.) toshading and cultivation inside greenhouseinatropical region[ ]


Shading is one of the cooling methods in the hot and sunny regions to modify microclimate and optimize crop growth. This study intended to investigate the effect of shading treatments at different growth stages of eggplant growth under greenhouse condition.

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Experimental investigation on effect of Automated internal process of a low cost 3D printer[ ]


The growing consensus of 3D printing technology will be one of the next major technological revolution. A lot of work already been carried out as to what there technologies will bring interm of product and process innovation, little has been done on their impact on business models and business model innovation. This research paper focus on investigation on the effect of automated internal process of a 3D printer by reducing the cycle time enhance productivity and decrease the cost of the product than conventional injection molding and machining and also assembly and integration of system interface to build the working model of 3D printer.

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Quality and Yield Assessment of sweeetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) Advanced Lines in Kano, Nigeria[ ]


An experiment was conducted to evaluate root yield potentials and nutritional composition of some improved sweetpotato lines obatained from National Root Crops Research Institute [NRCRI], Umudike, Nigeria. The lines were evaluated for root yield, Vitamins A and C, crude protien, carbohydrate and crude fibre. The root yields ranged from 2.5 t ha-1 for Laurdes to 28.5 t ha-1 for Danchina. Melinda had the highest vitamin A [49.73µmol/I] while T121 had the lowest [7.34µmol/I]. The vitamin C content ranged from 3.85 mg/dl for Gloria to 9.23 mg/dl for T121. The carbohydrate levels ranged from 41.71% for Mothers delight to 52.22% for T121. King J sweetpotato line recorded the highest crude protien content of 6.50%, while Sumai had the lowest [4.33%]. The study demonstrated wide variability of root yield and nutrional composition of improved sweetpotato lines. The significance of consuming nutritionaly rich sweetpotato lines on promoting health were highlighted.

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ASSESSMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OF ABA RIVER, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA[ ]


As rivers still serve as a major source of water supply in Nigerian rural and urban communities; the assessment of their quality has become a growing concern. In this study the physicochemical properties of Aba River, in Abia State, South-East Nigeria were investigated, for a period of six months, at seven sampling points. Descriptive analysis, variation plots, analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson Correlation (r) and Water Quality Index (WQI) were used to analyse data. Results show that turbidity, oil and grease (O&G), ammonia nitrogen, iron (Fe) and phosphates (PO4-3) exceeded the national permissible limits for aquatic life. There were significant spatial differences in levels of total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), and O & G between the control and other locations at p<0.05. Five principal components (PCs) formed the extraction solution with a cumulative variability contribution of about 88.46%. PCs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were highly correlated with Mg2+ (0.918), TSS (0.910), O & G (0.727), Nitrate (0.902) and temperature (0.791) respectively. The Water Quality Index revealed that the rating for the water quality across the sampling locations was between bad and average, with sampling point SLC having the least water quality. Proper treatment of industrial and domestic effluents before discharge into the river should be carried out, coupled with regular monitoring to prevent excessive buildings of pollutants in water body.

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Urban Drainage and Climate Change: Toward the Best Management Practices[ ]


It has become now clear that Climate Change (CC) is a reality across the globe. Regarding urban drainage (UD) and the CC, some studies have concluded that the risk of flooding in urban areas would increase in the future at least 2 times [1]. This will have a significant impact on maintaining the service level of the urban drainage systems.

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Recovery of Waste Cooking Oil Used in the Biodiesel Production in Ecuador[ ]


Considering that, the waste cooking oil in the river water causes oxygen levels to drop drastically, and that few data are currently available about the harnessing of these oils in the biodiesel production, and that nowadays, alternative fuels have received much attention due to the depletion of world petroleum reserves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and recovery of cooking oil used by the biodiesel production. To this effect, an alkali-catalyzed transesterification of 15 waste cooking oil samples, collected in Guaranda city, Ecuador was carried out in a laboratory scale. All samples presented accepted saponification values (from 268 to 274 mg KOH/g oil) to the transesterification process. Nine combinations (treatments) were analyzed and only one treatment (T2: showed high yield 63.15%. Parameters how capacity to produce heat, moisture content, specific gravity, flash point and viscosity, were quite like that obtained of the petrodiesel.

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Analytical Study on Intrusion Detection In differentiated domain[ ]


The network is a very famous thing in our life. Today most treatments achieve on the internet. So service provider should offer very good services so that win the confidence of the customers. Therefore service provider used multi-tools to save the customer resources from attack or steal or consume more than having; antivirus, firewall, intrusion detection. Intrusion detection systems (IDS) are systems attempt to detect attacks as they happen or after the attacks took a position. IDS can be rules-detection or anomaly detection based. This paper presents a study of IDS tools and presented architecture intrusion detection depends on the service level agreement parameters. This presented architecture detects any user attempt to consume the network resources or violation services. Service level management (SLM) collects the information (delay, packet loss, and throughput) from the in-gress-to-egress service provider to verify the violation service and detect the customer causing of this.

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Review of Wings-theory & few properties of wing-length with respect to N-equation[ ]


This paper contains the different properties of wing-length with respect to N-equation and using those properties it has been possible to establish a series of polynomial functions in a systematic manner that can produce a square integer only for once or twice or not at all known as square-free polynomials. For the ease of apprehension and to avoid drawing frequent references from earlier publications of ‘IJSER’, the whole N-equation properties of wings-theory has once again been reviewed and relevant parts are being projected as a ready reference along with all new findings. An index marking the heading points for new findings and minor corrections/modifications with respect to earlier publication is also furnished at the end of article under ‘Reference’.

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DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF FNAC IN SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS-A CYTO-HISTOLOGIC CORRELATION[ ]


Salivary gland lesions pose a diagnostic dilemma & are to be investigated cytologically to know the nature of the lesion. FNAC is a simple, quick & cost effective method to sample superficial lesions in head & neck region.

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PREDICTION OF MATERIAL PRICE USING PREDICTION TOOLS- A COMPARISION[ ]


The rate of some kinds of construction material can change every stages of time. the capability of a building contractor to exactly forecast upcoming construction material prices is critical to the achievements of his/her company. A building contractor with capacity to accurately predict future material prices can have a thoughtful benefit over their opponents when it comes to competing for future projects. Facts of upcoming material prices can give a contractor the assurance to be more abundant with their cost estimates. On the other hand, the competition will carry on being conventional with their estimates to account for the detail that they do not have a good knowledge what material prices will do in the future. Various ideal predicting tools are used to help the contractor to predict the material prices in construction projects. This paper discusses the function of Artificial neural network and Trend analysis prediction tools in the construction field for the prediction of construction material price. To achieve the main objective of this research artificial neural network and trend analysis involves the use of historic data to predict the future outcomes and the associated risks. Prices of aluminium were collected for the period from 2000 to 2015. In order to show the effectiveness of this approach, the result of this study compared using artificial neural network and trend analysis and proved that the artificial neural network is best predicting tool.

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Fusion of Multi Focus Images Using Multi Scale Transform and Sparse Representation[ ]


Multifocus image fusion is the process of integrating multiple source images having different focus of the same scene resulting in a single image,retaining the important information from each source image.In this paper we present a fusion method by combining Multiscale transforms(MST) method with Sparse Representation(SR).Source images are decomposed using MST to get low frequency components and high frequency components of source images.High frequency components are combined using absolute values of coeffficients and low frequency components are merged using SR based fusion approach.The resultant fused image is obtained by applying inverse MST.Here we use two popular MSTs ,Discrete wavelet transform(DWT) ,Laplacian transform(LP) with levels ranging from one to four.The proposed methods are evaluated by various metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio(PSNR),Mean Absolute Error(MAE),Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR),Structural similarity Index(SSIM).

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Niche Marketing Strategy Framework for SMEs: A Conceptual Framework[ ]


As the research shows thatsmall and medium enterprises are comprising of more than 90% of the business around the world. In the developing countries SMEs contribute to the GDP, poverty alleviation, creating jobs, and have many other benefits which are crucial. According to their significance to country side, human side, SMEs needs to be successful to improve the both sides. The niche marketing strategy is one of the most successful strategy applied by different companies around the world. And those who are using the strategy are enjoying the success of their organizations. For SMEs the niche marketing strategy is beneficial because the owner or manger can build a good relation with the consumers and suppliers. A good relationship is necessary for sale purpose and for reputation building.

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CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND ITS APPLICATION IN A LUXURY HOTEL[ ]


The study undertaken will make reference to Change Management and how it can be implemented to projects or organizations in need of changing their existing tasks and policies in order to become more efficient in doing business both locally & internationally. The study will focus on how change management can be planned and implemented in a Luxury Hotel located in Italy.

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An Comparative Study on various Java Compiler Optimization Techniques[ ]


Compilers can be designed to provide code optimization. Users should only focus on optimizations not provided by the compiler such as choosing a faster and/or less memory intensive algorithm. A Code optimizer sits between the front end and the code generator. Works with intermediate code Can do control flow analysis.Can do data flow analysis.Does transformations to improve the intermediate code. Optimizations provided by a compiler includes Inlining small functions ,Code hoisting ,Dead store elimination,Eliminating common sub-expressions ,Loop unrolling,Loop optimizations: Code motion, Induction variable elimination, and Reduction in strength.This paper deals with the Comparative Study on various Compiler Optimization Techniques.

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Ductile Fracture Simulation of Aluminum 6061-T6 Thin Sheet[ ]


Fracture toughness of thin aluminum sheet is of great intense in numerous areas of industrial fields especially in aerospace industry. Thus, this work aims to simulate the ductile fracture of aluminum 6061-T6 thin sheets which are widely used in many industrial and aerospace applications. Finite element analysis technique is implemented to simulate compact tension test specimen to reveal the fracture properties of thin sheets aluminum alloy 6061-T6. The finite element model carried out for compact tension specimen of thin sheets aluminum alloy 6061-T6 of 1 and 1.6 mm thickness to measure energy release rate (GIC). The test is applied at room temperature. The model measured the energy release rate (GIC) successfully and was acceptable considerably. The model showed that thickness effect is small as the specimen is a plan stress state.

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The dam reservoir of Bin El Ouidane (azilal, morocco) face to climate change[ ]


Morocco opted earlier, for a dynamic and anticipative dam’s policy. This policy has helped to face the water scarcity and hydro-climatic irregularity related to Climate Change (CC). In the aim of preparing the managers of these dams to a new management mode, that considers the potential impacts of CC, we’ve tried to analyse the climatic and hydrologic behaviour in the dam of Bin El Ouidane (Azillal, Morocco), and the water management practiced during the past decades and to deduct the trends that might help in future projections.The climate behaviour resulting follows the global trends described in the IPCC reports : A continue accelerated climate warming, associated to high evaporation, a global decrease of rainfall, characterized by an alternation of dry and wet periods and even sometimes very wet periods, as it is the case in Morocco since year. The reservoir water management has followed this hydro-climatic cycle. Assignments of water for irrigation depend on the amount of rainfall in each year. This water allocation has increased in general, considering the augmentation of water demand required for the development of the Tadla-Azilal.In addition, this analysis helped to show how the hydro-climatic context had evolved around this dam, with water supplies diminution in the period after 1975/76, compared to the period before. It is important to mention that between these two periods, a change was also identified in terms of the intra-annual evolution of water supplies. This can be explained in part by a change in the hydrologic behaviour upstream the dam, which loose progressively its pluvio-nival regime, to a regime much more pluvial. Concerning the water management in this reservoir, it was made reactively, and might be much more efficient, if the CC has not started to destabilize the climate of the region and its hydrologic system.

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Why do girls perform less well than boys in natural sciences in Zimbabwe? A case study of Makonde District[ ]


Research has shown that there is a decline in the uptake of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects all over the world. It is also even more worrying in the case of girls whose uptake in STEM is very low and the performance of the few is not as good as that of the boys in particular in Zimbabwe. The modern world demands that economic and social development be spearheaded by a STEM literate citizenry and the importance of gender equality in the development cannot be over emphasized. This paper focuses on the study that was done to explore the factors behind the low performance in natural sciences by girls in Zimbabwe. All the participants were day scholars in a co-education setting. A mixed methods research design underpinned by the micro, macro and institutional (MMI) theoretical frame work was used. Findings revealed that parental discrimination in terms of treatment and heavy workloads were among the top cited factors.

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The role of Tolerance, in maintaining immune Cells and Cytokines andas Immuno-modulatory Target in Cancer and Autoimmune diseases Treatment and Prevention[ ]


The immune system provides defenses against invading pathogens while maintaining immune tolerance to self-antigens. This immune homeostasis is harmonized by the direct interactions between immune cells and the cytokine environment in which immune cells develop and function.

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The role of Estrogen, inLeukocytes,in Mitochondrial, along with Cytokine Function and Regulation, and Cancer and Autoimmune diseases Treatment and Prevention[ ]


Estrogen is active both on vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells where functionally competent estrogen receptors have been identified. Traditionally, the actions of 17β estradiol are ascribed to two nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, which function as ligand-activated transcription factors.

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The role of IL-2, and IL-27, in combination with retinoic acid in the B cells, APC, CD4+ T cell subsets (Th1, Th17 and Treg), and CD8+ T cells response in EAE modele[ ]


Cytokines are critical players in the regulation of immune responses. With the help of these soluble factors, immune cells undergo proliferation, activation, differentiation, and inactivation or even cell death. Among various types of cells involved in immune responses, CD4 T cells play central roles in immune regulation.Immune-suppressive function and Differentiation of these T and B cell populations by Tregs, and B regs, cells is affected by various cytokines. These Tregs, and B regs, microenvironment interact in the process and context of Autoimmunity.

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A New Proposal of Single-Stage Power Conversion System[ ]


This paper introduces a new converter called flexible renewable solar converter (FRSC) for solar-battery application, particularly utility-scale PV-battery application. The main concept of the new converter is to use a single-stage three- phase grid connected solar converter to perform dc/ac and dc/dc operations. This converter solution is appealing for PV-battery application, because it minimizes the number of conversion stages, In this paper, a combination of analysis attractive performance characteristics of the pro- posed FRSC.

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Performance of sorghum cultivar in terms of forage yield and quality under varying planting patterns[ ]


Yield and quality of sorghum is also affected by the different planting pattern and varieties. Variety plays an important role in determining the yield potential of any crop.Therefore, field trials to find out most suitable sorghum variety for higher fodder yield in terms of quality and quantity in varying plating pattern was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement. The experiment was comprised of two factors. Factor Aincluded sorghum cultivar viz. (Jawar 2002, Sorghum 2011 and JS 2002), while factor B included three planting patterns (60 x 20 cm, 50 x 24 cm and 40 x 30 cm). Results revealed that maximum plant height, forage yield, dry matter yield, crude protein contents and ash contents were produced in cultivars sorghum-2011 with planting pattern 40 x 30 cm.While minimum plant height, forage yield, dry matter yield and crude protein was observed in JS-2002 with planting pattern (60 x 20 cm).It was concluded that cultivar Sorghum-2011 performed better with planting pattern (40 x 30 cm)by producing higher yield with higher quality under agro climatic condition of Faisalabad.

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Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in service firms: A model proposal to measure the impact of the implementation of CRM dimensions on Hotel Performance [ ]


The obvious lack of accepted and unified definition of Customer Relationship Management may lead to failures in the implementation of CRM projects, particularly when organizations adopt the limited technology perspective (Payne & Frow, 2005, p.168). In an attempt to review the different perspectives of CRM, this research paper focus on the definition that suggests that CRM implementations typically involve the four dimensions: (1) customer orientation (2) managing knowledge (3) organizing around CRM (CRM organization), and (4) incorporating CRM based technology. Recent studies on CRM focused more on service sectors for the importance of these strategies in such industries. Yet, it has been noticed that there is still a marked shortage of research on CRM in the hospitality industry (Luck and Stephenson, 2009; Wu and Lu, 2012). This research tends to investigate the impact of CRM dimensions on hotels performance. The impact of CRM dimensions on firms performance was assessed from several perspectives, including customer satisfaction (Abdulateef et al., 2010), market effectiveness and financial performance (Sin et al., 2005), customer performance and financial performance (Akroush et al., 2011), and customer retention and sales growth (Yim et al., 2005). One of the main measurements used to assess the overall performance of hotels is the occupancy rate. Therefore, a model proposal was developed to use the occupancy rate as a measure to evaluate the impact of CRM dimensions on hotel performance.

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Cholecystogastric Fistula In A 64 Years Old Female Patient : A Case Report[ ]


A 64 years old Saudi female, a known case of Diabetes and Hypertension on medications, diagnosed as a case of chronic calcular cholecystitis before 2 years. She is on regular follow up, found to has a rare complication of chronic cholelithiasis which was cholecystogastric fistula.The patient is operated and her condition improved without any complications.

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An effect of 110Hz to 523Hz sound vibrations on plant growth: An empirical study[ ]


There are around 7.4 billion people are in the world. An agriculture industry is continuously serving for those people. Every year many engineers, Researchers and farmers are working hard to increase the productivity and quality of the agriculture products. Many researchers till now are working to find how many and what parameters are responsible for plant growth. as an outcome of their work different fertilizers, chemicals have been invented. Now a days these solutions itself having its own hazards impact on plant as well as human life. Hence people are looking forward for the natural way to increase the productivity and quality of plants. I am strongly motivated by Dr. J.C.Bose’s Experiments which proves Plants are also a leaving being and has emotions. My proposed research work is centered with a thought that plants are alive ,has emotions,they response light, sound. And hence they have different responses to different sounds. We are attempting to find out those sound frequencies which will enhance plant growth for these we are giving A3(110Hz) to C5(523Hz) Musical notes (Healing Sounds) to First group of plants. Second group of plants Are expose to Traffic Sound. And Third Group of plants are placed in normal conditions. Different parameters such as height of plant, Appearance, Area of leaf, No. of leafs etc are measured. Area of leaf is calculated by using image processing technique.

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Series Solution For a Peristaltic Flow of a Magneto-fluid Through a Taper Eccentric Cylinders[ ]


In this paper the magneto-hydrodynamic peristaltic flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid was investigated between two eccentric tubes. The problem is measured in cylindrical coordinates. Geometrically, we considered two eccentric tubes in which the inner tube is rigid while the outer tube is tapered and have a sinusoidal wave generated on its walls. The governing equations are observed nonlinear second order partial differential equations under the conditions of long wavelength approximation. The problem has been solved with the help of the homotopy perturbation method. The obtained results are then plotted to see the influence of the different physical parameters on the velocity, pressure gradient and pressure rise expressions. The velocity profile is drawn in the two and three dimensions. The trapping boluses are also discussed through the contour plot of the streamlines.

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Reassessment of the old but still employed theories of Universe through database checking[ ]


The goal of the article is to reassess, exclusively with the evidence from the available databases, old but nowadays dominant theories of star evolution, thermonuclear combustion (fusion) of matter needed for the heat of stars, the effect of the gas cloud collapse speed to the temperature and age of stars.

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