IJSER Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2011
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A Dynamic Construction Algorithm and Verification of the Grafcet[Full-Text] [References]
Marcellin Nkenlifack, Emmanuel Tanyi and Janvier Nzeutchap

This article proposes an approach of interactive construction of Grafcets. We especially studied the problem of the research of a verification method and of holds it of the consistency, and we arrived to formulas and an algorithmic method of interactive construction and progressive checking of this characteristic that we present. This algorithm has been implemented and has been examined on convenient examples. The developed environment includes in more, a module of description and a module of simulation. The object approach and the UML language have been put to profit during the process. We illustrate functionalities of the simulator to specifics systems

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An Agent-Based Approach for Supporting Ubiquitous Learning[Full-Text] [References]
Luiz Cláudio N. da Silva, Francisco M. Mendes Neto, Luiz J. Júnior, Raphael de C. Muniz

A mobile learning environment provides students with a teaching method that would be not possible to be performed in a conventional web-based course. The use of Learning Objects (LOs) in a standard way consists of an effective way to allow, among other features, content reuse and interoperability between different Learning Management Systems. However, a problem that occurs frequently is the unsuitability of the content to the context in which the student is inserted. A context-aware mobile learning support environment allows to solve this problem. Thus, this paper presents an agent-based approach to context-aware recommendation of LOs in order to enhance the teaching process in mobile learning.

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Automatic Reordering Rule Generation Based On Parallel Tagged Aligned Corpus for Myanmar-English Machine Translation[Full-Text] [References]
Thinn Thinn Wai, Tin Myat Htwe, Ni Lar Thein

Reordering is important problem to be considered when translating between language pairs with different word orders. Myanmar is a verb final language and reordering is needed when it is translated into other languages which are different from Myanmar word order. In this paper, automatic reordering rule generation for Myanmar-English machine machine translation is presented. In order to generate reordering rules; Myanmar-English parallel tagged aligned corpus is firstly created. Then reordering rules are generated automatically by using the linguistic information from this parallel tagged aligned corpus. In this paper, function tag and part-of-speech tag reordering rule extraction algorithms are proposed to generate reordering rules automatically. These algorithms can be used for other language pairs which need reordering because these rules generation is only depend on part-of-speech tags and function tags.

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A Word Sense Disambiguation System Using Naïve Bayesian Algorithm for Myanmar Language[Full-Text] [References]
Nyein Thwet Thwet Aung, Khin Mar Soe, Ni Lar Thein

Natural Language Processing has been developed to allow human-machine communication to take place in a natural-language. Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) has always been a key problem in Natural Language Processing. WSD is defined as the task of finding the correct sense of a word in a specific context. Several methodological issues come up with the context of WSD. These are supervised and unsupervised WSD approaches. Supervised WSD approaches have obtained better results than unsupervised WSD approaches. There is not any cited work for resolving ambiguity of words in Myanmar language. Using Naïve Bayesian (NB) classifiers is known as one of the best method for supervised approaches for WSD. In this paper, we use Naïve Bayesian Classifier to disambiguate ambiguous Myanmar words with part-of-speech 'noun' and 'verb'. The system also uses Myanmar-English Parallel Corpus as training data. The WSD module developed here will be used as a complement to improve Myanmar-English machine translation system. As an advantage, the system can improve the accuracy of Myanmar to English language translation.

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Building Bilingual Corpus based on Hybrid Approach for Myanmar-English Machine Translation[Full-Text] [References]
Khin Thandar Nwet, Khin Mar Soe, Ni Lar Thein

Word alignment in bilingual corpora has been an active research topic in the Machine Translation research groups. In this paper, we describe an alignment system that aligns English-Myanmar texts at word level in parallel sentences. Essential for building parallel corpora is the alignment of translated segments with source segments. Since word alignment research on Myanmar and English languages is still in its infancy, it is not a trivial task for Myanmar-English text. A parallel corpus is a collection of texts in two languages, one of which is the translation equivalent of the other.Thus, the main purpose of this system is to construct word-aligned parallel corpus to be able in Myanmar-English machine translation. The proposed approach is combination of corpus based approach and dictionary lookup approach. The corpus based approach is based on the first three IBM models and Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. For the dictionary lookup approach, the proposed system uses the bilingual Myanmar-English Dictionary.

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Analysis of Ammonia-Water (NH3-H2O) Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System based on First Law of Thermodynamics[Full-Text] [References]
Satish Raghuvanshi, Govind Maheshwari

The continuous increase in the cost and demand for energy has led to more research and development to utilize available energy resources efficiently by minimizing waste energy. Absorption refrigeration systems increasingly attract research interests. Absorption cooling offers the possibility of using heat to provide cooling. For this purpose heat from conventional boiler can be used or waste heat and solar energy. Absorption system falls into two categories depending upon the working fluid. These are the LiBr-H2O and NH3-H2O Absorption Refrigeration system. In LiBr-H2O system water is used as a refrigerant and LiBr is used as an absorbent, while in NH3-H2O system ammonia used as an refrigerant and water is used as an absorbent, which served as standard for comparison in studying and developing new cycles and new absorbent/refrigerant pairs. The objective of this paper is to present empirical relations for evaluating the characteristics and performance of a single stage Ammonia water (NH3-H2O) vapour absorption system. The necessary heat and mass transfer equations and appropriate equations describing the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid at all thermodynamic states are evaluated. An energy analysis of each component has been carried out and numerical results for the cycle are tabulated. Finally the variations of various thermodynamic parameters are simulated and examined.

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A New Scientific Approach of Intelligent Artificial Neural Network Engineering for Predicting Shelf Life of Milky White Dessert Jeweled with Pistachio[Full-Text] [References]
Sumit Goyal and Gyanendra Kumar Goyal

This paper highlights the capability of artificial neural networks for predicting shelf life of milky white dessert jeweled with pista-chio. Linear layer (train) and generalized regression models were developed and compared with each other. Neurons in each hidden layers varied from 1 to 30. Data samples were divided into two sets, i.e., 80% of data samples were used for training and 20% for validating the network. Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, Coefficient of determination and Nash - Sutcliffo Coefficient were applied in order to compare the prediction performance of the developed models. The experimental shelf life is 21 days and the developed intelligent artificial neural network model predicted 20.15 days shelf life for milky white dessert jeweled with pistachio

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Antagonistic activity evaluation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil in control of algae and associated microorganisms[Full-Text] [References]
Ali M. Najem, Abdul Latif M. Jawad and Ayyad W. Raof

These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for IJSER JOURNALS. Use this document as a template if you are This study includes isolation, purification, and identification of algae from different environmental places (Tigris River and canal around Al- Jadriah) during February 2008. Nine unialgal cultures were obtainedwhich included 4 species of blue-green algae, 4 species of green algae, and 1 species of diatoms. However, contaminant bacteria and fungi were isolated from 4 of these algal cultures which were Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Scenedesmus quardicauda and Chlorella vulgaris. The contaminant bacteria included nine different species which were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Bacillus polymyxa which isolated from all the selected algal cultures, while the rest Kocuria varians/rosa, Aerococcus viridians, Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus capitis, Kocuria kristanae and Staphylococcus cohnii varied in their presence and absence in these algal cultures. The contaminant fungi of the four algal cultures were Aspergillus flavus which was isolated from M. aeruginosa culture, Asp.niger isolated from C. vulgaris culture , Cryptococcus albidus that isolated from S. quardicauda culture, whilst Penicillium sp. isolated from A. circinalis culture. However, Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil was extracted and subsequently showed highly activity when tested against six species of the isolated algae and against the isolated contaminant bacteria and fungi species. Chemical composition of the extracted oil was analyzed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography).

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Assessing of Groundwater Contamination by Toxic Elements through Multivariate Statistics and Spatial Interpolation, Wadi Fatimah, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia[Full-Text] [References]
Mohammed Amin M. Sharaf and Ali M. Subyani

Groundwater is present in the shallow alluvial and fractured bedrocks aquifers of wadi Fatimah, west central Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia. The impact of human activities and natural processes on groundwater quality is one of the major serious problems for sustainable development in this area. 80 well-representative groundwater samples were analyzed for the total 17 water quality descriptors (variables) including toxic elements which are not considered in traditional techniques for water quality assessments. This study was to assess the levels of groundwater contamination of toxic elements and their spatial distribution in the region, and to identify possible anthropogenic and natural sources of contamination in the area. Multivariate statistical techniques were performed in this study. Cluster analysis in both R and Q modes was used. R-mode analysis is interpreted and there are three major groups. Q-mode shows three main groups related to the same geological formation. Factor analysis revealed that the first three factors account for 85% of the total variance. Factor 1 revealed high loading of Al, Li, B and Cd, suggested interaction between water and geological formation. The second factor represented high loading of As, Pb and Hg, suggested human and agricultural activities. Factor three represented high loading of Si and Fe, which may be resulted from water/weather rock interactions.

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A Study Of Web Navigation Pattern Using Clustering Algorithm In Web Log Files[Full-Text] [References]
Mrs.V.Sujatha, Dr.Punithavalli

Web user navigation pattern is a heavily researched area in the field of web usage mining with wide range of applications. Web usage mining is the process of applying data mining techniques to the discovery of usage pattern from data extracted from web log files. Discovering hidden information from Web log data is called Web usage mining. The aim of discovering frequent patterns in Web log data is to obtain information about the navigational behavior of the users. This can be used for advertising purposes, for creating dynamic user profiles etc. In this paper four types of clustering approaches are investigated in web log files to improve the quality of clustering for user navigation pattern in web usage mining systems, for predicting user's intuition in the large web sites.

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Comparison of women's self -esteem, self- concept and locus of control between the sexual and none-sexual delinquent women in Prisons of Guilan province[Full-Text] [References]
Dr. Shohreh Ghorbanshiroudi, Dr. Javad Khalatbari, Leila Jamshidi, Fatemeh Ezattalab Moghaddam, Mohammad Mojtaba Keikhayfarzaneh

A review in the multiplicity of crimes in our country shows that the criminal behavior is one of the big present problems in societies and crime is as a permanent event in societies. So the purpose of this research is to compare women's self- esteem, self- concept and locus of control between the sexual and nonsexual delinquent women in prison of Guilan province.The present research is a non- probationer research of causal- comparative kind. The sample of research consisted of 40 sexual delinquent female and 40 non-sexual delinquent female selected by random sampling method from Prisons of Guilan Province. The instruments of research were Cooper smith Self-Esteem inventory. To analyze the statistical data, was used of t-test to comparison of two groups and X2test for the nominal data.The research results showed that the most frequency of sexual guilty women are among 15- 25 ages. The most frequency is among 25-34 ages. 63.75 % of the guilty women have been married. Most of them have studied elementary and guidance school and academic education had the least frequency with 8 people. 46.3 % of the total tastes of the research have had high self- esteem and 53.8 % of them have had low self- esteem, 23.8 % of the total guilty women have had positive self- concept and 76.3 % of them have had weak and negative self- concept, 46.3 % of the women have had internal locus of control and 53.7% of the women have had external locus of control.The rate of the sexual delinquent women's self-esteem and of the nonsexual ones is different. The type of the sexual delinquent women's self-concept and of the nonsexual ones is not different. The type of locus of controlling asexual delinquent and nonsexual ones is not different.

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Cost-Based Query Optimization with Heuristics[Full-Text] [References]
Saurabh Kumar,Gaurav Khandelwal,Arjun Varshney,Mukul Arora

In today's computational world,cost of computation is the most significant factor for any database management system.Searching a query from a database incurs various computational costs like processor time and communication time.Then, there are costs because of operations like projection, selection, join etc.DBMS strives to process the query in the most efficient way (in terms of 'Time') to produce the answer.In this paper we proposed a novel method for query optimization using heuristic based approach. In the proposed algorithm,a query is searched using the storage file which shows an improvement with respect to the earlier query optimization techniques. Also, the improvement increases once the query goes more complicated and for nesting query.

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Design of Control unit for Low Power ALU Using Reversible Logic[Full-Text] [References]
Ravish Aradhya H V, Praveen Kumar B V, Muralidhara K N

Technology advances in VLSI designs offer exponentially shrinking device dimensions and exponentially growing circuit complexities. However, device scaling is critically limited by the power dissipation; demanding for better power optimizations methods. Reversible Logic is becoming more and more prominent special optimization technique having its applications in Low Power CMOS designs, Quantum Computing and Nanotechnology. ALU is a fundamental building block of a central processing unit (CPU) in any computing system; reversible arithmetic unit has a high power optimization on the offer. By using suitable control logic to one of the input variables of parallel adder, various arithmetic operations can be realized. In this paper, as a part of ALU design, a Reversible low power control unit for arithmetic operations is proposed. In our design, the full Adders are realized using synthesizable, low quantum cost, low garbage output Peres gates. In this paper data transfer, addition, subtraction, increment, decrement and many other Arithmetic operations are realized using reversible gates

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Determine the uptake of lead in Chlorella vulgaris isolated from Tigris River in Baghdad city[Full-Text] [References]
A.S. Dwaish, D.Y. Mohammed, A.M. Jawad and A.A.AL-kubaicy

Chlorella vulgaris was isolated from Tigris River in Baghdad city. The isolated strain was identified according to its morphological characteristics as Chlorella vulgaris. The isolate was able to grow in broth medium in the presence of heavy metals. In this paper we present initially the Scanning electron microscopy techniques coupled to Energy Dispersive X-ray will be used to determine if this strain is able to uptake lead which has been detected in Tigris River as a toxic pollutant. The results indicate that Chlorella vulgaris has affinity for lead, and this technique could be very useful for the identification process in contaminated Rivers. The result shown the ability of chlorella vulgaris to uptake the lead with various concentration and it was between(2.2 ,2.7 ,3.2 ,3.7) µg /mg for living cells while it was between (2.3 ,4.1 ,6.8 ,7.9) µg /mg for non living cells in concentration of lead (3,6,12,18) µg /ml respectively, the result shown that the non-living cells have high affinity to uptake lead from the aqueous solution than the living cells .

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Effect of Serifeed a feed supplement enriched feed of silkworm Bombyx mori L. on its nutritional and economic parameters[Full-Text] [References]
M. D. Ananda Kumar and Ann Sandhya Michael

The feed supplement "SERIFEED" dusted (1g/sq.ft.) mulberry leaves were fed to the silkworm at four different levels in adult age. The experiment were carried during 5th instar, resulted increased ingesta in control, improved digesta even as larval weight, assimilation rate efficiency, efficiency of conversion of ingested food, efficiency of conversion of digested food, cocoon parameters and cocoon yield significantly increased in treated batches. Among the treated batches one time applied/day batch gave a significant increase in the thought-out parameters when compared with the control. The results of present study clearly designate the effectiveness of feed supplement ingredients on metabolic process and nucleic acid synthesis in silk gland cells there by improves the silk content in cocoon shell of silkworm. Bombyx mori. L, (Kolar Gold - PM X CSR2).

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Effect of Sowing Dates, Plant Spacing and Nitrogen Application on Growth and Productivity on Cotton Crop[Full-Text] [References]
Hakoomat Ali, Mohammad Naveed Afzal, Fiaz Ahmad, Shakeel Ahmad, Maqbool Akhtar, Raheel Atif

The investigation were carried out to quantify the effect of sowing date, plant spacing and nitrogen application on plant growth, seed cotton yield and its components. The present studies were conducted to determine the effect of sowing dates and potential of nitrogen fertilizer with different plant spacing under and arid sub-tropical continental climate, on silt loam soils during the three consecutive crop seasons (i.e. 2005, 2006 and 2007). Cultivar CIM-473 was planted at three plant spacing (15, 30 and 45 cm) with four nitrogen levels of 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1. Observations were recorded for plant height, number of bolls m-2, boll weight (g) and seed cotton yield (kg ha-1) and data were analyzed by using M STAT software, which showed that crop sown on May 10 and nitrogen application at the rate of 150 kg ha-1 with narrow spacing (15 cm) produced taller plants with higher boll number and weight (g) that resulted higher seed cotton yield (kg ha-1).

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Effect on Strength of Involute Spur Gear by Changing the Fillet Radius Using FEA[Full-Text] [References]
Ashwini Joshi, Vijay Kumar Karma

Gearing is the special division of Mechanical Engineering concerned with the transmission of power and motion between the rotating shafts. Gears not only transmit motion and enormous power satisfactorily, but can do so with very uniform motion. It is the best and the economical means of achieving this transmission. Gear teeth fails due to the static and the dynamic loads acting over it, also the contact between the two meting gears causes the surface failures. The gear fails without any warning and the results due to this failure are catastrophic. Since the requirements are broad and are of varying difficulty, gearing is a complex and diversified field of engineering. It includes gear mathematics, geometrical design, strength and wear, material and metallurgy, fabrication and inspection. Therefore for all the reasons mentioned, this work is of more practical importance. To get the gear of more durability we can use improved material, hardening the gear surfaces with heat treatment and carburization, shot penning can be done to improve the surface finish, to change the pressure angle by using asymmetric teeth, introducing the stress relieving features of different shape, changing the addendum of the spur gear and altering the design of root fillet are the other methods. Present work deals with the effect on gear strength with variation of root fillet design using FEA. Circular root fillet design is considered for analysis. The loading is done at the highest point of single tooth contact (HPSTC).

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Effects of Process Parameters on Depth of Cut in Abrasive Waterjet Cutting of Cast Iron[Full-Text] [References]
M.Chithirai Pon Selvan, Dr.N.Mohana Sundara Raju, Dr.R.Rajavel

Abrasive waterjet cutting has been proven to be an effective technology for processing various engineering materials. This paper investigated the effects of process parameters on depth of cut in abrasive waterjet cutting of cast iron. Four different process parameters were undertaken for this study; water pressure, nozzle traverse speed, abrasive mass flow rate and standoff distance. Experiments were conducted in varying these parameters for cutting cast iron using abrasive waterjet cutting process. The influence of these process parameters on depth of cut has been studied based on the experimental results.In order to correctly select the process parameters, an empirical model for the prediction of depth of cut in abrasive waterjet cutting of cast iron is developed using regression analysis. This developed model has been verified with the experimental results that reveal a high applicability of the model within the experimental range used.

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Embedding Soft processor based USB device driver on FPGA[Full-Text] [References]
Prof. Shashank Pujari

Embedding a System on a Programmable Chip with in the constraint of available resources brings out ingenuity of a SoPC designer. The paper covers an efficient Soft processor based USB communication device driver implementation on FPGA using a 10% foot print so as to set aside the rest 90% of the logic resources of the programmable chip for other compute and control intensive tasks. Using a Soft processor on FPGA to interface a peripheral is a convenient choice so that the task of the device driver development can be off loaded to a software developer. Software developer takes a black box approach and uses the programmer model of the Soft processor and this is where things can go wrong. SoPC designer looks critically at the device driver requirement and brings in hardware/software co-design approach to think out of the box to meet the challenges of the constraint aware embedded design in terms of cost, size, memory, performance and time to market.

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Enhancing the signal strength using Novel approach with Directional Antenna in Integrated Mobile Adhoc Network[Full-Text] [References]
Ashish Bagwari, Sourabh Bisht

As we know in Mobile Ad hoc network our Nodes are highly mobile. They move around the Network. Due to this network topology and number of neighboring nodes in each node frequently change. Movement of nodes from one to another network also affect to the communication between them. As the number of nodes increases complexity of MANET increases in various issues. We remove the limitation using the Cluster Head Gateway node (CHG) [1], As we know in Booster Approach [2,3] if CHG nodes move or far away from other nodes (CHG or Cluster Node) then using booster technique, communication can takes place between nodes. But establishment of communication is no sufficient we should maintain and require relevant and reliable communication having less packet drops give better QoS. Considering all these points we are focusing over antenna i.e. Directional antenna with Novel booster approach in order to enhance the signal strength. The directional antenna radiates data in a particular direction. By applying this approach we will reduce the interferences, data loss, overhead [4], try to reestablish the break link between nodes and increase the performance (throughput and SNR) and QoS for an ad hoc network and also prevent link break during CHG Nodes mobility at data transaction time in order to maintaining the communication link between nodes. Finally, this paper conducts simulation experiments in the conditions where we are connecting CHG to CHG or cluster nodes using same or different networks.

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Implementation of Generic Algorithm Using VHDL on FPGA[Full-Text] [References]
Prashant Sen, Priyanka Pateriya

Architecture. The development of a flexible very-large-scale integration (VLSI) for GA has been proposed in this paper. For the hardware architecture, we has develop on a random number generator (RNG), crossover, and mutation based on flexibility structure. This structure can dynamically perform to the 3 types chromosome encoding: binary encoding, real-value encoding, and integer encoding. The overall structures has been designed and synthesized by VHDL (VHSIC hardware description language), simulation by ModelSim program, and then implemented on FPGAs (Field programmable gate arrays). This hardware architecture that our design work very well flexible for the 3 groups problem examples: combinatorial optimization problems, function optimal problems.

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Improving Waiting Line Characteristics in Sales Points Using Computer Simulation: A Case Study[Full-Text] [References]
Said Ali Hassan El-Quliti

This paper focuses on predicting and economically scheduling the number of sales executives in sales points for Mobily Company for increasing customer satisfaction. The main goal is to determine the suitable number of workstations in order to decrease customers waiting time while considering the cost as a vital factor. An Arena simulation model is built; the best scenario attained a net profit of SR 1,509,506 with an average total system time of 453 seconds with a decrease of 72% compared with the current situation. Number of unsatisfied customers was decreased by 77%, number of satisfied customers increased by 374%, and net profit increased by 6.2% despite increasing the number of employees.

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Interference Reduction in CDMA using SIC[Full-Text] [References]
Sukrita Swarnkar, Nipun Mishra, Mohan Awasthy

In a code division multiple access system, multiple access interference coupled with near-far problem is one of major factors limiting system performance. To overcome these issues, various multiuser detection schemes have been proposed multiple access interference limits the capacity of Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access systems. In CDMA systems MAI is considered as additive noise and a matched filter bank is employed. Traditionally, multiuser detector code-matched and a multiuser linear filter are used which increases the complexity of the system due to its nature of operation. Multiuser detection is an approach which uses both these filters for the optimization. However, the main drawback of the optimal multiuser detection is one of complexity so that suboptimal approaches are being sought. Much of the present research is aimed at finding an appropriate tradeoff between complexity and performance. These suboptimal techniques have linear and non-linear algorithms. In this work, we introduce Successive Interference Cancellation which is a nonlinear suboptimal method of MUD and is based upon successively subtracting off the strongest remaining signal. Further analysis is to be carried out and simulations to be done for better understanding of SIC.

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Low Temperature Magnetotransport in 2D GaN Quantum Wells[Full-Text] [References]
Arindam Biswas, Aniruddha Ghosal, Hasanujjaman, Sahnawaj Khan

Hall mobility of the two dimensional electron gas in GaN quantum wells are calculated in the temperature range 1K-14K incorporating deformation potential acoustic, piezoelectric, background and remote ionized impurity scatterings. The Boltzmann transport equation is solved by a numerical iterative technique using Fermi-Dirac statistics. The variations of longitudinal magnetoresistivity with magnetic field and temperature agree with the available experimental results at temperature T=1.38 K. The Hall mobility is found to decrease sharply at low magnetic fields and the variation becomes less sensitive to higher field values. Hall mobility at such low temperatures has agreed with the results obtained by other researcher.

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Medical Image Compression Using Multiwavelets for Telemedicine Applications[Full-Text] [References]
R.Sumalatha, M.V.Subramanyam

In this paper we propose an efficient region of interest (ROI) coding technique based on multiwavelet transform, set partitioning in hierarchial (SPIHT) algorithm of medical images. This new method reduces the importance of background coefficients in the ROI code block without compromising algorithm complexity. By using this coding method the compressed bit stream are all embedded and suited for progressive transmission. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed algorithm gives better quality if images using multiwavelets compared to that of the scalar wavelets. The performance of the system has been evaluated based on bits per pixel (bpp) , peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR)and mean square error (MSE).

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Ontology Based Text Categorization - Telugu Documents[Full-Text] [References]
Mrs.A.Kanaka Durga, Dr.A.Govardhan

In this paper, we introduce a new method of ontology based text classification for Telugu documents and retrieval system. Many of the text categorization techniques are based on word and/or phrase analysis of the text. Term frequency analysis signifies the importance of a term within a document. Two terms within a document can have the same frequency, but one term may contribute more to the meaning of the sentence compared to the other term. Our aim is to capture the semantics of a text. The model we worked enables to capture the terms that presents the concepts in the text and thus identifies the topic of the document. We have introduced the new concept based model which analyzes the terms on the sentences and documents level. This concept-based model effectively discriminates between non-important terms with respect to sentence semantics and terms which hold the concepts that represent the sentence meaning. The limitations of key-word based search are overcome by usage of Ontology which is a motivation of semantic IR. The retrieval model is based on an adaptation of the classic vector-space model. The concept of ontology is associated with the related words and their weights from the pre-classified documents as a learning stage. In the main process, the words and their mutual relations are extracted from the target documents. The concept of Ontology is used to map the target document. A detailed description of the test results is illustrated in the paper and we explained thoroughly how the concept based classification is far more superior when compared to the word based classification for telugu documents.

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Optimal Thinning Algorithm for detection of FCD in MRI Images[Full-Text] [References]
Dr.P.Subashini, S.Jansi

Thinning is essentially a "pre-processing" step in many applications of digital image processing, computer vision, and pattern recognition. In many computer vision applications, the images interested in a scene can be characterized by structures composed of line or curve or arc patterns for shape analysis. It is used to compress the input data and expedite the extraction of image features. In this paper three different thinning algorithms are applied for MRI Brain Images to estimate performance evaluation metrics of thinned images. Image thinning reduces a large amount of memory usage for structural information storage. Experimental result shows the performance of the proposed algorithm.

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Performance Investigations on DWDM-OADM Optical Ring Network for CRZ Data Format at Different Fiber Length[Full-Text] [References]
Sarbjit Singh, Love Kumar

In this paper the investigations on DWDM-OADM optical ring network for six nodes, 12 wavelengths on unidirectional non linear single mode fiber at data rates of 10 Gbps for CRZ data format has been reported. The performance of the system is reported on the basis of eye diagram, optical OSNR, optical power and noise power. It is reported that the variation of OSNR at wavelength 1.5550 nm is 2.5868, 2.5125 and 2.5399 dB at fiber length of 50, 75 and 100 km and maximum variation at wavelength 1.5528 nm is 9.0459, 9.3128 and 9.1299 dB at fiber length 50, 75 and 100 km.

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Privacy Anxiety and Challenges in Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Networks and its Solution[Full-Text] [References]
Krishan Kant Lavania, G. L. Saini, Kothari Rooshabh H., Yagnik Harshraj A

Mobile Ad hoc networks are recent wireless networking model for cellular phone hosts. Ad hoc networks do not rely on any stable infrastructure because they are independent. As an alternative, to remain network connected hosts rely on each other. It signifies complex distributed systems that encompass wireless mobile nodes. These nodes can freely and dynamically self-organize into uninformed and provisional, ''ad-hoc'' network topologies. This topology allows citizens to effortlessly interconnect in areas where no pre-existing communication infrastructure. In this paper, we talk about security issues, challenges and their solutions in the mobile ad hoc network. There are numerous security threats that disturb the development of mobile ad hoc network because of the exposed nature of the mobile ad hoc network. We have first studied the prime vulnerabilities in the mobile ad hoc networks, which have made our work much easier to endure from attacks than the usual wired network. The security criteria of the mobile ad hoc network and the main attack types that exist are explained in this paper. As a final point we analyzed the recent security solutions for the mobile ad hoc network

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Profitability analysis at regional level of the economic entities listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange[Full-Text] [References]
Iulia JIANU, Cristina Venera GEAMBASU, Ionel JIANU

The role of economic entities in regional development is very important due to the multiple relationships that the economic entity has with all members affected by the business: creating jobs at regional level; supporting the activities performed by the economic entity's customers and suppliers; paying taxes to local authorities; providing support, in the form of donations and sponsorships, to local actions carried out at regional level. The economic entity must primarily be performing in order to have a sustainable activity. The most important indicators to measure the performance of an economic entity are the profitability indicators. This study aims to analyze the performance, at regional level, of the economic entities listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange based on three main rates of profitability measurement: return on profit, return on assets, and return on equity. The findings of the study will be reflected in presenting a ranking of the regions in Romania considering the profitability of the economic entities listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange

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Relationship between Internet Using Mental health of Internet Users[Full-Text] [References]
Dr. Hossain Jenaabadi, Mohammad Mojtaba Keikhayfarzaneh

Internet is a harmless tool by itself, however limitless and improper use of it may lead to the risk of addiction to internet and the present article aims to examine the relation between Internet Using Mental healths of Internet Users.Statistical community of the study consisted of internet users in cafes of Zahedan city, That 120 persons (60 men and 60 women) were selected by accessible sampling method as the sample of study. The users were divided in two groups of ordinary and addicted users, using internet addiction test (IAT, Yang, 1998). General health of these two groups was compared using general health test (GHQ-28, Goldberg.1987). The results of research was analyzed using Pearson's coefficient of correlation, independent (t), (x2) .The results of pearson correlation showed that there was a significant correlation between addiction to internet and mental health.

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Route Failure Management Technique for Ant Based Routing in MANET[Full-Text] [References]
S.B.Wankhade, M.S.Ali

In this paper we describe route failure management technique for ant based routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET), inspired by Ant colony Optimization and enhanced by Fuzzy logic technique as failure management. In Ant based route discovery, the transmission delay of each link, processing delay at each node, the available bandwidth capacity of each link, and the number of hops visited are collected by the ant agents to estimate the path preference probability. Then the route with higher preference probability is established. For failure management, the node mobility and the link disconnection are predicted using the fuzzy logic and based on this predicted results, route or node failure is identified. Then an alternate path can be established. By simulation results, we show that the routing protocol attains good packet delivery ratio with less packet drop and delay.

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Scalable ZigBee-Based Smart Authentication and Access Control System Design Using XMOS Programmable Chips[Full-Text] [References]
Wael Hosny Fouad Aly, Haytham Aboulabbas M., Moustafa H. Aly, Hossam Eldin Moustafa

In this paper, an efficient, inexpensive, scalable, and ZigBee-based smart authentication and access control system is proposed. The system consists of a central node and remote nodes. The central node holds a database of authorized users and it is mesh-networked to a set of remote nodes which are spread throughout the premises of an enterprise. For each remote node, a radio frequency identification (RFID) reader is mounted which is used to communicate with the RFID tags. User identification is performed by reading the RFID tag number and authentication is done by means of a password entered by the user through a keypad that resides on the remote node. This data is then transmitted through the wireless 802.15.4 interface to the central node for verification. An event log file with date/time stamp is created for each user that is granted access to the system. It maintains footprints of all users' movement activities within the premises and it is stored on an SD card mounted to the central node. Moreover, the central node can be connected to a computer via the serial port, where the real-time event logs will be visualized on the screen along with the ability of automated parsing and storing the received information directly to Excel without the need of any additional programming requirements. This paper is based on a prototype development of the proposed system. It presents both hardware and firmware design aspects.

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Six Sigma an Excellent Tool for Process Improvement - A Case Study[Full-Text] [References]
Sushil Kumar, P.S. Satsangi and D.R. Prajapati

Six Sigma is an organized & systematic method for strategic process improvement that relies on statistical & scientific methods to reduce the defect rates and achieve significant quality up- gradation. A case study is carried out for a foundry, where Six Sigma methodology is implemented for the defect reduction. The optimized parameters are considered to perform the practical run for the differential housing castings. Proposed techniques optimized control factors, resulting in superior quality and stability. This study aims to implement a novel approach to improve the quality (reducing the defects) of a foundry by Six Sigma methodology on the selected projects.

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Skew Detection Technique for Various Scripts[Full-Text] [References]
Loveleen Kaur, Simpel Jindal

This paper includes the information about the technique used to detect Skew which are introduced during the scanning of the documents. It also discusses about the tool which have been used to implement the technique. The algorithm has been implemented on various scripts. The method provides a very efficient way to calculate the Skew. Correction in the skewed scanned document image is very important, because it has a direct effect on the reliability and efficiency of the segmentation and feature extraction stages. The method deals with an accurate measure of skew, within-line, and between-line spacings and locates text lines and text blocks. The noises and the deviation in the document resolution or types are still the main two challenges facing the Arabic Skew detection and correction methods.

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Some Aspects of Performance Improvement of Pelton Wheel Turbine with Reengineered Blade and Auxiliary Attachments[Full-Text] [References]
Suraj Yadav

Pelton wheel is the only hydraulic turbine of the impulse type in common use, is named after an American engineer Laster A Pelton, who contributed much to its development around the year 1880. Therefore this machine is known as Pelton turbine or Pelton wheel. It is an efficient machine particularly suited to high heads, many modifications is being suggested up to now the major modification was near 1903 after that no major modification is being implemented. The author in this paper with his noble and native concept tried to increase the efficiency of the turbine with the modification in the blade and with some auxiliary attachments which will lead to less wastage of the head and result in better efficiency

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Study of the Adverse Effect of Aircraft Noise in Nigeria & Discovered Solutions[Full-Text] [References]
Engr. C. O. Osueke, Engr. I. O. Ofondu

This paper reports on the noise pollution generated by aircrafts, the effects of the pollution on the people living around the airports. Ways to calculate the noise generated by the aircraft was also discussed so as to know the annoyance rate of the people around the airports. Finally some solutions were discussed which will help to reduce the noise of the aircrafts thereby reducing the pollution created by it.

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The Cultural Sociology of Sanai's age and its impact on Sanai's thinking and Mysticism[Full-Text] [References]
Dr.Ahmad Reza Keikhay Farzaneh

when the social stations of the literary works is brought into consideration, in fact the exact definition of cultural sociology and literature is examined. Literature is a social entity which is indicated by the studying and identifying the literary works contents of its creator's social station. Not only is literature influenced from society, but affects on it in an irrefrangibly link. In this research, it is tried to present a graphic image of Sanai's thoughts and mysticism by showing a general view and aspects of society in Sanai's age

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Variability in the Geotechnical properties of some residual clay soils from southwestern Nigeria[Full-Text] [References]
I. A. Oyediran and H. F. Durojaiye

Some residual clay soils from southwestern Nigeria have been investigated with a view to elucidating their geotechnical prop-erties and determine the possible variations in these properties in relation to the sampling distance.Eight bulk residual soil samples from two test pits separated 30m apart at intervals of 0.5m up to a depth of 2.0m were analyzed in the laboratory to determine specific gravity, grain size distribution, consistency limits, linear shrinkage, unconfined compressive strength and compaction characteristics. The data generated were subsequently subjected to statistical analysis. The investigations revealed that the soils are generally well graded, inorganic, with medium to high plasticity and hence compressibility and are of the same geologic origin. Statistical T-test showed no significant difference exists between the soils in terms of specific gravity, liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, linear shrinkage, % clay size fraction, amount of fines, unconfined compressive strength and optimum moisture content. However the maximum dry density of the soils from both pits differed significantly. Although most of the parameters examined are not as varied and showed insignificant difference, the equations generated provide an option in the estimation of properties considering the close sampling distance.

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Verification of document with social values using watermark exclusion[Full-Text] [References]
Mukesh Kumar

Cryptography ensure the authenticity and integrity of a document but after encryption it is helpless but watermark prove all such aspects with legitimacy and ownership of document at all levels. Digital watermarking is a technique for inserting information (the watermark) into an image, which can be later extracted or detected for variety of purposes including identification and authentication purposes A watermark is a pattern made in high-quality papers by means of an improved or worst design that comes in contact with the paper; it is approximately 90% water and 10% fibers. The watermark designs are spaced at specific intervals (depending on the frequency of appearance required in the finished sheet) along the surface of a skillfully crafted wire roll called a "Groovy roll". As the revolving groovy roll comes in contact with the fibers, the designs displace with the fibers and produce the pattern visible in the finished sheet known as a watermark. Most people are familiar with two types of document watermarks which can be found in banknotes or on cheques. In banknotes, these are recognizable designs that are put into the paper on which the documents are printed, while in cheques they tend to be specific patterns. These watermarks are normally used to prevent people from being able to make fake copies, and, therefore, to be confident that the banknote or document is authentic. Our aim to remove all the vulnerability by checking the genuineness of documents with social values through such methods that verify the legitimacy of documents

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Wheat disease identification using Classification rules[Full-Text] [References]
A.Nithya, Dr.V.Sundaram

Many techniques have been developed for learning rules and relationships automatically from diverse data sets, to simplify the often tedious and error-prone process of acquiring knowledge from empirical data. Decision tree is one of learning algorithm which posses certain advantages that make it suitable for discovering the classification rule for data mining applications. Normally Decision trees widely used learning method and do not require any prior knowledge of data distribution, works well on noisy data .It has been applied to classify Wheat disease based on the symptoms. This paper intended to discover classification rules for the Indian Wheat diseases using the c4.5 decision trees algorithm. Expert systems have been used in agriculture since the early 1980s. Several systems have been developed in different countries including the USA, Europe, and Egypt for plant-disorder diagnosis, management and other production aspects. This paper explores what Classification rule can do in the agricultural domain.

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Relevance of Branding in Insurance Sector[Full-Text] [References]
Prof. Deepali Singh, Rahul Priyadarshi ,Snehal . Kannaujia, Puneet Kumar

In the changing market scenario, insurance companies have realized the inherent value of brands and consider them 'valuable assets'. Brand equity is the value buildup in a brand due to the positive perception of customers. The value of brand equity is the expected future revenue from the branded product as compare to unbranded product as there is proliferation of brands in the market place; insurance companies try to protect their brand equity by suitable brand differentiation and other means.Brand is a multidimensional construct involving the blending of functional and emotional values to match consumers, performance and psychological needs. One of the goals of branding is to make brand unique on the dimensions that are both relevant and welcomed by customers. Branding is a key function of branding that means much more than just giving the product name. Branding at corporate level is essentially about enhancing and managing the relationship between the insurer and its customer as well as the General public.

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Recent geomorphological changes in Ebrié lagoon, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa[Full-Text] [References]
Monde Sylvain, Toure Mamadou, N'guessan Yao Mathieu

- Ebrie Lagoon has been under heavy pressure (natural forcing and antropogenic) since the digging of the Vridi Canal in 1950, which made the circulation of water more complex. Morphological changes in the lagoon between 1962 and 1998 were assessed from bathymetric maps. The sedimentary budget of the estuarine bays of Abidjan was estimated at 950 m³ over the past 50 years.

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Studies on preparation and characterizations of CaO-Na2O-SiO2-P2O5 bioglass ceramics substituted with Li2O, K2O, ZnO, MgO, and B2O3 [Full-Text] [References]
M.R. Majhi, Ram Pyare, S.P.Singh

The bioactive glass 45S5 (Hench glass), having composition 45 SiO2 - 24.5 Na2O - 24.5 CaO -6 P2O5 (wt %) were prepared with substituted Li2O, K2O, ZnO, MgO, and B2O2 by conventional melting process in an electric globar furnace at 1400±10 °C. The Controlled crystallization were carried out to convert the bioglasses to their corresponding bioglass ceramics. Nucleation and crystallization regimes were carried out by differential thermal analysis. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the bioactive glass-ceramics were show the presence of two main crystalline phases of sodium calcium silicate (Na2CaSi3O8, Na2CaSi3O9). The effect of introduction of B2O3 in place of SiO2, to the bioactive glass (45S5) lead to the formation of a new crystalline phase of calcium sodium borate (Na2CaB5O10) and the effect of introduction of ZnO and MgO in place of CaO, to the bioactive glass 45S5 there is no additional crystalline phases were developed other than two main crystalline phases of sodium calcium silicate (Na2CaSi3O8, Na2CaSi3O9). The bioactivity of the prepared glass and glass ceramics were done by infrared absorption and reflection spectrometry before and after immersion in the simulated body fluid for different periods of time at 37.8 °C. The Chemical durability of bioglass and bioglass ceramics were determined by pH measurement methods and it was found that pH of the solution varies with change in compositions after immersed in SBF solution from 1 to 30 days.

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Comparison of Variational Iteration Decomposition Method with Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic of 12th Order Boundary Value Problems[Full-Text] [References]
Mukesh Grover, Dr. Arun Kumar Tomer

In this work, we consider special problem consisting of twelfth order two-point boundary value by using the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method and Variational Iteration Decomposition Method. Now, we discuss the comparison in between Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method and Variational Iteration Decomposition Method. These proposed methods have been thoroughly tested on problems of all kinds and shows very accurate results. A numerical example is present and approximate is compared with exact solution and the error is compared with Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method and Variational Iteration Decomposition Method to assess the efficiency of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method at 12th order Boundary values problems.

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Comparison of CMOS and Adiabatic Full Adder Circuits[Full-Text] [References]
Y.Sunil Gavaskar Reddy, V.V.G.S.Rajendra Prasad

Full adders are important components in applications such as digital signal processors (DSP) architectures and microprocessors. Apart from the basic addition adders also used in performing useful operations such as subtraction, multiplication, division, address calculation, etc. In most of these systems the adder lies in the critical path that determines the overall performance of the system. In this paper conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and adiabatic adder circuits are analyzed in terms of power and transistor count in 0.18um technology.

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Static ATC determination in deregulated Power market using AC distribution factors[Full-Text] [References]
Devendra Kumar Tiwari, Shishir Dixit, Laxmi Srivastava

Recent blackouts in the United States and many other parts of the world provided a growing evidence that certain actions are urgently needed to ensure that the power system always remains secure, in permitting maximum power transactions over interconnected power system. Therefore the need for estimation of Available transfer Capability (ATC) is very important in deregulated power market as the correct estimation of ATC yields economically efficient operation of the restructured power system. This paper presents formulation of a set of AC distribution factors for Static ATC determination and assesses the security of the power system to reliably transfer bulk amount of power bilaterally and multilaterally over the interconnected transmission network from one area/region to another. These set of distribution factors are derived from AC load flow results and are used to check whether any of the lines flow (MW) limits and bus voltage magnitude (Volt) limits are not violated. The solution algorithm is tested on IEEE 6- Bus system and IEEE 30-Bus system to assess the ATC.

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Design of cooling fan for noise reduction using cfd[Full-Text] [References]
G.V.R. seshagiri rao, Dr.V.V.subba rao

Cooling fans are one of the main noise sources in pumps. Tonal noise produced at a multiple of the rotational frequency of the fan, the so-called blade passing frequency (BPF) and its higher harmonics generally dominate fan noise. Noise reduction is perhaps one of the most important parameter in pumps. Every noise reduction process starts with identification of noise sources and ranking of sound sources from the machinery. After the initial identification of typical noise sources, the noise levels are to be eliminated or reduced either by modifying noise producing equipment or redesigning. In the present work, a cooling fan system of a sea water pump is considered. CATIA software is used to model the system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are implemented for the analysis. In the first phase, CFD analysis procedure is developed and implemented to the baseline fan to designate the sound levels at inlet and outlet. Experiments are conducted for the same baseline fan in anechoic chamber and noticed high frequencies. The numerical results obtained through CFD are corroborated with experimental results and they are found to be in good agreement. After validating the theoretical procedure, an attempt is made to redesign the existing fan with National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) series by way of changing geometrical parameters to reduce noise levels. The noise levels are computed and compared with the baseline fan results. The redesign fan results indicate that the noise levels are low by 5-10dBs.

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Growth Of Small Enterprises In India[Full-Text] [References]
Miss. Vanipriya .R, Dr.D. Venkatramaraju

Small scale industry is widely recognized as a powerful instrument for socioeconomic growth and balanced sectoral development. One of the distinctive characteristics of small scale sector is that the development of these industries would create broader employment opportunities assisting entrepreneurship and skills development and ensure better use of scarce financial resources and appropriate technology. Furthermore, they can play a main role in achievement of national economy and sociopolitical objectives, the gestation period is very short and they need small amount of capital to start. I also help in the dissemination of production capacity unlike the large scale industries which tend to concentrate in a few hands. This apart, establishment of such industries in rural areas and small towns helps to check the influx of population into bigger towns. A rewarding feature of economic development in India has been the impressive growth of modern small scale industries. The small enterprises have by now established their competence to manufacture a wide variety of sophisticated goods in different product lines requiring a high degree of skill and precision

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Automated Learning in Medical Sensor System[Full-Text] [References]
Ayoni Mukherjee, Sanjit Setua

Automated learning in medical sensor system for health care monitoring application is presented in this paper. We worked mainly on cardiology and have tried to integrate the benefits of medical instruments of the said domain. We have used multi-disciplinary concept of learning from different domains like philosophy, sociology , psychology , education apart from computer science. The system uses the concept of expert system , though it overcomes the limitations of any traditional rule-based expert system. The system is designed considering all constraints of a sensor network. It is a real time application and expected to take decision and upgrade its performance in a reactive way.

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Developing University Ontology using protégé OWL Tool: Process and Reasoning [Full-Text] [References]
Naveen Malviya, Nishchol Mishra, Santosh Sahu

The current web is based on html which can display information simply. Researchers are working towards the semantic web which is an intelligent and meaningful web proposed by Tim burner's lee. Ontology and ontology based application are its basic ingredients. With the ontology we can focus on only main concepts and its relationship rather than information. Protégé is a most popular tool for ontology editing and for developing ontology. It has a GUI which enables ontology developers to concentrate on conceptual terms without thinking about syntax of an output language. Protégé has flexible knowledge model and extensible plug-in architecture. This paper explains the terms of university through university ontology. We will focus on creating an university ontology using protégé. Rajiv Gandhi Technical University Bhopal, India has been taken an example for the ontology development and various aspects like: super class and subclass hierarchy, creating a subclass instances for class illustration, query retrieval process visualization view and graph view have been demonstrated.

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Heat Transfer In Unsteady Axisymmetric Rotational Flow Of Oldroyd Liquid[Full-Text] [References]
A. Mishra, G. S. Ray, S. Biswal

This paper deals with the study of heat transfer in unsteady axsymmetric rotational flow of Oldroyd liquid. Constitutive equations of the problem have been developed and solved by applying Laplace transform technique. Expressions for fluid velocity, temperature, skin-friction and rate of heat transfer are obtained. After computerization with the numerical values of fluid parameters, the velocity and temperature profiles are plotted. Numerical values of skin-friction and rate of heat transfer are entered in tables. It is observed that elasticity of the fluid reduces the phase of oscillation and the increase in Prandtl number decreases the temperature of fluid.

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A Study on Shelf life Extension of Carambola Fruits[Full-Text] [References]
Ashok Rathod., Shoba, H and Chidanand, D.V

The freshly harvested Carambola (Averrhoa Carambola L.) fruits were packed in different packaging matrials like high density polyethylene (HDPE) with a 1% and 2% ventilation with a pretreatment 2 % CaCl2 stored at ambient and also in refrigerated conditions the temperature was in the range of 18.0 to 21.0° C and Relative humidity of about 86 per cent. To evaluate the storage condition and pretreatment on Carambola fruits. The result showed that, the Carambola fruits stored in 200 gauge HDPE polyethylene bag with 1 % ventilation stored at refrigerated temperature conditions and pretreatment with 2 % CaCl2 showed an encouraging result with respect to biological properties and organoleptic evaluation when compared with the other treatments.

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A Fuzzy Based Evalutionary Multi-objective Clustering For Overlapping Clusters Detection[Full-Text] [References]
K.P.Malarkodi, S.Punithavathy

The term clustering refers to the identification of natural groups within a data set such that instances in the same group are more similar than instances in different groups. Evolutionary algorithms have a history of being applied into clustering analysis. However, most of the existing evolutionary clustering techniques fail to detect complex/spiral shaped clusters. They suffer from the usual problem exhibited by evolutionary and unsupervised clustering approaches. In this thesis we proposed two different approaches to resolve the overlapping problems in complex shape data. The proposed method uses an evolutionary multi objective clustering approach with Genetic Algorithm (GA) using variable length chromosome and local search (memetic) and a Fuzzy based Multi objective Algorithm with variable length chromosome and local search (memetic). The Experimental results based on several artificial and real-world data show that the proposed Fuzzy based Evolutionary Multi objective Clustering for Overlapping Clusters (FEMCOC) can successfully identify overlapping clusters. It also succeeds obtaining non-dominated and near-optimal clustering solutions in terms of different cluster quality measures and classification performance. The superiority of the fuzzy based EMCOC over some other multi-objective evolutionary clustering algorithms is also confirmed by the experimental results.

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Attack on RSA Cryptosystem[Full-Text] [References]
Sachin Upadhyay

The RSA Cryptosystem developed in 1977, by three peoples: Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir & Len Adleman which is based upon the difficulty of factorization of two large primes. The cryptosystem is most commonly used for providing privacy and ensuring authencity of digital data. These days RSA is deployed in many commercial systems. It is used by web servers and browsers to secure web traffic, it is used to secure login sessions and it is at the heart of electronic credit card payment systems. So we can say that RSA is very frequently used in some or the other applications. The RSA Cryptosystem has been analysed for vulnerability by many researchers. Although the past work has proven that none of the attacks on RSA cryptosystem were dangerous. Indeed most of the dangers were because of improper use of RSA. Our goal is to survey some of these attacks and describe the underlying mathematical tools they use. Throughout the survey we follow standard naming conventions and use Alice and Bob to denote two generic parties wishing to communicate with each other. We use Marvin to denote a malicious attacker wishing to eavesdrop or tamper with the communication between Alice and Bob.

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WiMax and Wi-Fi in Current World[Full-Text] [References]
Vikas Solomon Abel, Rodney Rambally

This paper discusses two of the latest wireless technologies, namely Wi-Fi and WiMAX technology. The intent in this paper is to provide a brief description of each of these technologies as well as the benefits and risks involved in their implementation. Real world applications of these technologies are also briefly discussed.

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Application level load balancing in a web switch or security oriented filtering based on the content signatures for deep packet inspection and delayed input DFA[Full-Text] [References]
Madhuri Katabathuni, Suman Maloji, Rajasekhar Rao Kurra

There is a growing demand for network devices capable of examining the content of the Data packet in order to improve the network security and provide application specific services. Most high performance systems that perform deep packet inspection implement simple string matching algorithms to match packets against a large but finite set of strings .However there is a growing interest in using regular expressions based pattern matching. Since regular expressions offer Superior expressive power and flexibility. DFA representations are typically used to represent the regular expressions. However the DFA representation of regular expressions sets arising in network applications requires large amount of memory, limiting their practical application

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Wireless power transmission "a novel idea"[Full-Text] [References]
Vikash choudhary, Abdul kadir, Satendar pal Singh

We cannot imagine the world without electric power.Generally the power is transmitted through wires. This paper describes an original idea to eradicate the hazardous usage of electrical wires which involve lot of confusion in particularly organizing them.Imagine a future in which wireless power transfer is feasible: cell phones, household robots, mp3 players, laptop computers and other portable electronics capable of charging themselves without ever being plugged in, freeing us from that final, ubiquitous power wire. Some of these devices might not even need their bulky batteries to operate. This paper includes the techniques of transmitting power without using wires with an efficiency of about 95% with non-radiative methods.Due to which it does not affect the environment surrounding.These techniques Includes resonating inductive coupling in sustainable moderate range. The coupling consists of an inductor along with a capacitor with its own resonating frequency. In any system of coupled resonators there often exists a so-called "strongly coupled" regime of operation. If one ensures to operate in that regime in a given system, the energy transfer can be very efficient. Another technique includes transfer of power through microwaves using rectennas.This is particularly suitable for long range distances ranging kilometers.With this we can avoid the confusion and danger of having long, hazardous and tangled wiring. This paper as a whole gives an effective, high performance techniques which can efficiently transmit the power to the required area vary in given distances for the power transmission through induction.

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Managing Human-Leopard Conflicts in Pauri Garhwal, Uttaranchal, India using Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing[Full-Text] [References]
Manoj Agarwal, Devendra S. Chauhan, S. P. Goyal and Qamar Qureshi

Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing have played a vital role in conservation and management of the natural resources and in enhancing our understanding of human-wildlife conflicts. Recently, there has been increase in man-animal conflicts in different parts of the country due to habitat degradation and human encroachments in forest areas. The Wildlife Institute of India has initiated a study to assess the level of ongoing human-leopard conflict in Pauri Garhwal District of Uttaranchal in relation to landscape characteristics. Remote sensing and GIS have been used to estimate the severity of human-leopard conflicts in relation to vegetation categories. The IRS LISS III satellite data was used to prepare thematic map using hybrid classification method. Broad vegetation classes like Oak, Pine, Sal and Scrub were delineated. Spatial database in GIS domain comprising digital elevation model and settlements were also developed at 1:50,000 scale. To study the conflict zones a spatial grid of 2 km x 2 km was generated. In each cell of the grid, conflict level and associated landscape characteristics were recorded. Area was categorized into different conflict categories such as low, medium, high and no conflict areas

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