Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2013 Edition


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Study of the quaternary aquifer of Abidjan through hydrodynamic parameters evaluation[ ]


The quaternary aquifer of Abidjan city, is often subjected to pollution because groundwater occurs at shallow depths (<6 m). However, this water is increasingly sought by one part of the population. Unfortunately the properties of this aquifer are not well known to define a management plan. This work aims to study quaternary aquifer through the hydrodynamic properties determination (porosity, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention curve) by prediction methods (Kozeny Carman, Kovac's modified and Brooks and Corey).The methods for predicting hydrodynamic properties tested gave good results. These methods have the advantage of using the physical properties of soil easy to measure. This is an original approach to the study of the hydrodynamic properties of the very extensive aquifers like the quaternary aquifer of Abidjan. These parameters are difficult to measure in situ.This work also highlighted risk areas for human settlements and infrastructure construction. Indeed, it is created permanent moisture above the water table in the fine sands. This moisture is the result of capillary rise which is important in fine soil particles.

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Power Quality Improvement of Grid Interfacing Inverter Using SRF Algorithm for Renewable Energy Sources[ ]


This paper presents a three-phase Active Power Conditioner to improve Power Quality of Grid Interfacing Inverter Using SRF Algorithm for Renewable Energy Sources. The grid interfacing inverter performs over all operation for the mitigation of harmonics. The synchronous reference method is used to detect the harmonics and generates the accurate value for grid interfacing inverter. The SRF based inverter constitutes the fast and dynamic response for the mitigation of harmonics and improves the power quality. The grid interfacing inverter manages the active and reactive power that harvested from the renewable energy sources. The Simulations using MATLAB / SIMULINK are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed model . The results shows the control strategy improves the dynamic response, high accuracy of tracking the DC-voltage reference frame wind generator, and strong robustness to load parameters variation.

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Preparation and Characterization of Ni(II) and Mn(II) Complexes of Semicarbazone and Thiosemicarbazone of m- Hydroxy Benzaldehyde and p- Hydroxy Benzaldehyde[ ]


Ni(II) and Mn(II) complexes were synthesized with m- hydroxy benzaldehyde semicarbazone (L1= m-HBSC), m-hydroxy benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L2= m-HBTSC), p-hydroxy benzaldehyde semicarbazone (L3=p-HBSC), p-hydroxy benzaldehyde thio-semicarbazone (L4=p-HBTSC). The ligands were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR. While that of complexes were characterized by elemental analysis , molar conductance, magnetic moment, IR, electronic, 1HNMR and EPR spectral studies. On the basis , the complexes were found to have general composition [M(L)2X2] (where M=Ni(II), Mn(II), L=L1,L2, L3, L4 and X=Cl-,Br-,NCS-,SO42-). On the basis of IR, electronic and EPR spectra of complexes, octahedral geometries were found with planar coordination of ligand around metal ion and the anions occupies axial position.

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The State of Art on Navigational Algorithm for Path Optimization of a Mobile Robot[ ]


Mobile robots are vital for automation industries, surveillance and mapping, hazardous operation like nuclear plants, landmine detection etc. The path of such robots is controlled by a navigational algorithm. Several algorithm have been proposed and tried out for navigation of an autonomous mobile robot (AMR) around the globe .Some of these determine the path which is feasible to reach the destination without collision, while other also tries to optimize .Key parameters of the navigation are distance and time (either or both) to reach the destination or cost of reaching the destination. The prevalent algorithm have used various technique like fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, dynamic programming, potential field method, bug algorithm, ant colony optimization etc. Many others have developed the specific algorithms in evolutionary manner stage by stage through various trials. This also includes a number of heuristic based algorithms. This article describes the important features of the current navigational algorithm for optimizing the path of an autonomous mobile robot (AMR).The relative merits and demerits and challenges of each of these have been identified with a view to obtaining a methodology of overcoming the challenges.

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Effect of slip condition on couple stress fluid flow through porous medium with stenosis[ ]


Steady incompressible couple stress fluid flow in a two dimensional uniform channel with stenosis has been investigated. Further, it is as-sumed that the channel is filled with porous material and the stenosis to be mild. The flow equations have been analytically solved using the slip condition and expressions for the resistance to flow and wall shear stress have been derived. The effects of various parameters on these flow variables have been studied. It is found that the resistance to flow as well as the wall shear stress increase with the height of stenosis .The effect of other parameters on resistance to flow and the wall shear stress have been considered.

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Designing a Multi-Level Controller in Aircraft Pitch Angle[ ]


Progress in aircraft designs heavily depend on Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS). In this work a fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed as a supervisory controller in aircraft pitch control systems and different control strategies to model a pitch controller based on design a pitch angle control in autopilot are invistigated. A performance evaluation based on time response specification between modern control Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and multi-level intelligent controller (based on Fuzzy Logic Controller, FLC and Supervisory FLC, SFLC) for a pitch control system is presented. The performances of pitch control systems are analyzed based on common criteria of step’s response in order to identify which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to the desired pitch angle. In this work, new approach, SFLC is presented to improve the performance of pure FLC in term of rising time and settling time. It is found that, LQR controller give the better performance compared to pure FLC, and SFLC gives the best performance.

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A Critical Review on E-Learning Prospective: With Special Reference to Migration from Web 2.0 to Web 3.0[ ]


E-Learning has gained importance as people have realized that the use of technology can improve the learning process. Consequently new learning environments have been developed. The paper focuses on various aspects of e-Learning: Activity Theory, Multi-Agent Systems and Web 3.0. A survey of literature has been done to provide an insight into the work that has been done by various researchers in the past.

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Comparison of Clustering Techniques for Microarray Image Segmentation[ ]


Microarray is new techniques to investigate the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously. Gene expressions provide information about the cell activity in an organism. cDNA (complementary DNA) microarray is one of the most recent and important technology for exploring the genome. By comparing gene expression in normal and abnormal cells, microarrays may be used to identify genes, which are involved in particular diseases. These genes may then be targeted by therapeutic drug. The segmentation step is important, because it considerably affects the precision of microarray data. This paper makes a fine distinction against the gene expressions in the microarray image processing. For this reason, the k-means and fuzzy c-means methods and observed the results. And the method of thresholding the intensity of each spot is calculated and the gene expression is observed

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Root Cause Analysis of Variations in Construction Tasks and Developing Effective Strategies to Reduce Variations[ ]


This paper is aimed at knowing the variations and causes of variation occurrence. The main objective of this research is to develop suggestive method to reduce such variation. The delays in planned work and actual work done during construction stage are considered as variations for this research purpose. The variation in construction task can affect the cost of the project to avoid this, it is necessary to improve organizational practices about delay problem in construction industry. The risk assessment matrix is used to know the effect of such causes on performance. This study helps in knowing the exact causes of delay occurrences with the help of preparing risk assessment matrix. The study is done on the residential sites for this research purpose. The method developed can be useful for minimize the delay occurrence. The implementation of this method results in increase of PPC (percentage planned completed) from 83.3% to 87.5%

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Analyzing the Impact of Onsite Material Transportation on Time and Cost of the Building Construction Project Using Semi-Mechanized Equipment[ ]


Automation and Robotics plays a vital role in construction industries. In India, such automation technologies can’t use at small scale con-struction projects because of highly expensive. Where construction projects are described by short design and build period, increased demands of quality and low cost. These problems can be approached by using semi-mechanized equipment at small scale construction projects. This work is undertaken to improve work efficiency of labourers working in small scale construction projects resulting in improved quality and reduction in project duration and cost. This semi-mechanized equipment (SME) can be used for lifting various on-site materials such as bricks, sand, cement bags, etc. In this report, the development and implementation of the semi-mechanized equipment is presented. Also a comparative study of SME with manual and SME with existing mini crane in the market is carried out for a defined unit task with respect to time, cost, net present value (NPV) and benefit cost ratio.

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Study of Cloud Computing in HealthCare Industry[ ]


In Today’s real world technology has become a domiant crucial component in every industry including healthcare industry. The benefits of storing electronically the records of patients have increased the productivity of patient care and easy accessibility and usage. The recent technological innovations in the health care is the invention of cloud based Technology. But many fears and security measures regarding patient records storing remotely is a concern for many in health care industry. One needs to understand the benefits and fears of implementation of cloud computing its advantages and disadvantages of this new technology.

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Evaluation of Cost Effective Material for Maintenance of Flexible Pavement[ ]


Pavements represent an important infrastructure facility in all countries. Two important parameters for good pavements are pavement design and materials. A good design of bituminous mix is expected to result in a mix which is adequately strong, durable and at the same time environment friendly and economical in order to maintain the pavement. This work is undertaken to prepare cost effective material for maintenance of flexible pavement. By using industrial wastes steel slag and foundry sand as a replacement material for fine aggregate in bituminous mix and ground granulated blast furnace slag as a replacement material for fillers in bituminous mix. Fillers play an important role in engineering properties of bituminous paving mixes. Conventionally stone dust, cement and lime are used as fillers.

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Comparative Survey on Load Balancing Techniques in Computational Grids[ ]


Grid is the system which provides a new, powerful and innovative platform that caters the need of massively computational or data intensive applications from its pool of resources like processors, memory, data, services etc. It differs from traditional computing systems because of its heterogeneous nature and back ground workloads. Performance and utilization of the grid rests on the optimal balancing of load among the available nodes which is very complex and highly dynamic in nature. Finding optimal solution in load balancing for such an environment using the traditional method is an NP-hard problem whereas heuristic approaches will provide near optimal solutions. Algorithms that could capture the dynamic need and complexity have to be developed for solving wide range of load balancing scenarios. Heuristic and artificial life techniques have the power of providing near by solutions from large search spaces since it deals real world scenarios with the capability of handling very large dataset and combinations. In this study, suitability and performance comparison are discussed with various heuristic and agent based techniques. Genetic Algorithm, Tabu Search, Ant Colony Optimization, Particle swarm Optimization are analyzed with their merits, demerits, solutions, issues and improvements towards load balancing in computational grid. Similarity in their nature towards load balancing motivates the attempts in the experimentation to get near optimal solutions from unpredictable information. Performance comparison is analyzed with algorithms like min-max, max-min and Sufferage embedded with Genetic Algorithm and Tabu search. Another heuristic method, Ant Colony Optimization algorithm is suitable for scheduling in grid environment which in tern balances the load. For the same purpose particle swarm optimization algorithm is also adopted. Particle Swarm Optimization is one of the latest evolutionary optimization techniques by nature which has the better ability of global searching leading to minimal makespan time due to the linear decreasing of inertia weight in it. From the literature, it could be understood that it was successfully applied in training the neural network and optimized result was been obtained. These techniques were studied with their successful results and analyzed. Agents can also be applied for handling grid resources and multi-agent approach can be applied for balancing the load through out the system. Agents can co-operate each other in making the decisions to balance the load among them through advertisement, discovery and distribution. Many results are proving that intelligent agents are effective enough to achieve resource scheduling, load balancing, execution performance and better resource utilization.

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Spatio-Temporal Representation of Disaster System[ ]


Modernization in information technology has enabled the collection and processing of vast amounts of spatial data. Spatial data mining extracts previously unknown , potentially useful patterns from huge amounts of spatial data. Spatial data are collected from the spatial objects. The collected data is preprocessed (for replacing the missing values) using the WEKA data mining tool. For the preprocessed data, association rule ( apriori algorithm) is applied for identifying the frequent item sets. Disaster affected areas were identified. Visualization of the spatial data on Geographical Information Systems (GIS) using different colored pinpoints per quarter of a year. From that area at high risk of disaster were analyzed , then the predicted spatial data will be forwarded to health organizations for conducting campaigns. Our focus is to predict the disaster , design the spatio-temporal trees per quarter of a year and to visualize the knowledge in GIS.

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Regression and Neural Networks Models for Prediction of Crop Production[ ]


Neural networks have been gaining a great deal of importance since the last few years. They have been used in the areas of prediction and classification; the areas where regression and other statistical models are traditionally being used. In this paper, a comprehensive review of literature comparing mainly feedforward neural networks; feedforward neural networks and traditional statistical methods viz. linear regression with respect to prediction of agricultural crop production have been carried out. This study takes care to present useful insight into the capabilities of neural networks and their statistical counterparts used in the area of prediction of crop yield.

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Exploitation of Low Cost Coal Fly Ash Adsorbent with Coagulants for the Treatment of Industrial Complex Nature Dyes Wastewater[ ]


Dyes manufacturing industries are disposing of 100 tons of toxic dyes into water per annum which generates highly toxic wastewater, which harm the marine and aquatic life. Present research study was conducted to optimize the pollutant reduction rate of dyes wastewater using hybrid process of chemical coagulation and adsorption. Low cost and prepared an adsorbent which was more effective from coal of Lakhra Power Plant Jamshoro’s waste through physical and chemical treatment and was utilized in conjunction with commercial coagulants such as Ferric Chloride (FeCl3), Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) and Alum. Treatment efficiency of individual and combined process was analyzed for the reduction of turbidity, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Color and total suspended solids (TSS) from dyes wastewater. Overall treatment efficiency of FeCl3, FeSO4, Alum and Ash adsorbent was determined by 57%, 20%, 63% and 58% respectively. Hybrid process of FeCl3-CFA, FeSO4-CFA and Alum-CFA have reduced the concentration of pollutants by approximately 73%, 60% and 68% respectively. The adsorptive capacity and adsorption percent of Ash adsorbent was determined. The adsorptive capacity of adsorbent declined on the ever-increasing adsorbent quantity. The adsorption behavior of Ash adsorbent in dyes wastewater pollutants removal was measured using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Freundlich model with isotherms found appropriate for the effluent pollutants adsorption.

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New Antimicrobial Schiff base Polymers derived from 6, 6-Methylenebis (1-Napthaldehyde)[ ]


This paper presents new antimicrobial schiff base polymers derived from 6, 6-Methylenebis (1-Napthaldehyde). Four new Schiff based Polymers (SBPs) Poly Methylenebis(1-napthaldehyde) Thiourea (PMBNTU), Poly Methylenebis(1-napthaldehyde) 1, 2-Phenylenediimine (PMBNPh), Poly Methylenebis(1-napthaldehyde) Semicarbazide (PMBNS) and Poly Methylenebis(1-napthaldehyde) Thiosemicarbazide (PMBNTS), were prepared from bis(1-napthaldehyde) through polycondensation of a monomer methylenebis napthaldehyde with diamines in 1:1 molar ratio. The monomer was prepared by a general method by Marvel and Torkoy by treating it with 1,3,5-trioxane by addition of H2SO4 and CH3COOH respectively. The solubility level of reported polymers was found poor in organic solvents, and attributed to its quality of being a hindrance. The structure of Schiff bases was confirmed by CHN, FTIR, UV-Visible Spectroscopy, TGA/DTA and Viscosity measurements. All the Schiff base polymers revealed a qualitative change or a shift in band position as compared to monomer due to conversion of Carbonyl to Azomethine group. An observable increase was found in the values of reduced and intrinsic viscosities than the corresponding monomer that could be due to the formation of polymers. The monomer and the prepared Schiff base polymers possessed significant antimicrobial activities against various microorganisms.

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Review paper: Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations Modeling[ ]


The Cerebrovascular system is characterized by complex interactions between various control mechanisms and physiological processes. Different approaches are used to provide better diagnostics and physiological under-standing and medical planning. The mathematical description and modeling of the human cerebrovascular system plays nowadays an important role in the comprehension of the genesis and development of cerebrovascular disorders by providing computer based simulation of dynamic processes. Intracranial Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) constitute usually congenital vascular anomalies of the brain. AVMs are composed of complex connections between the arteries and veins that lack an intervening capillary bed. A brain AVM (BAVM) is a set of abnormal vessels comprising feeding arteries; draining veins and a collection of arterialized veins called the Nidus. The AVM model with vessel dilation is more similar to clinical observations than those without vessel dilation. In this paper, we reviewed various types of simulations / Modeling suggests the physician that models are useful tools to study hemodynamic problems of the cerebral circulation. This review paper on modeling is created from the acquired images from CTA, and MRA AND DSA and also how the model help the doctors to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions to avoid brain hemorrhage. This paper aims to give an overview on lumped parameter models that have been developed by many researchers all over the world, to simulate the blood flow in systemic arteries. Surveying various references we make a review of different approaches to arterial tree modeling and discuss on the applications of such models.

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Rapid, Economical and Selective Complexometric Determination of Iron (III) in its synthetic alloys using 3 hydroxy-3 phenyl-1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl) triazene.[ ]


The present study describes a simple, selective, rapid and economical method for the determination of iron (III) in its synthetic alloys using 3-hydroxy -3- phenyl-1- (2,4,6- tribromophenyl) triazene as metallochromic indicator in the P^H and temperature range of 2.5-3.0 and ?20 -60?^0 c respectively. The colour and shape of the synthesized indicator was light yellow shinning needles having melting point of ?59?^0 c. It was crystallized from ethanol. The results of elemental study showed that, the values of C, H, N obtained experimentally agrees very well with those obtained theoretically. The colour at the end point changes from violet to light yellow using EDTA as a titrant. There is no interference in either determination from common metal and anion ions other than Pb(II), Cr(II), Mo(VI), Mn(II), U(vI), Cu(II), Cd(II), F^-, ?PO?_4^(3-), ?C_2 O?_4^(2-), ?HPO?_4^(2-). Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 5.59 -1.12mg of Iron with relative error less than ±1.79% and standard deviation not more than 0.10%. The results of the test method and reference method (Atomic absorption spectrophotometric) showed that, there is no statistical difference in the results by the two methods.

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The Philosophy of “MARS Radiation”[ ]


MARS radiation shall be considered as the naturally available three phase radiant energy wave propagated from MARS region which is emanated from three fundamental neutrino particles. The three fundamental neutrino particles of the Universe shall also be called as GODLY PARTICLES or THREE-IN-ONE PARTICLES placed symmetrically and responsible for evolution of various planets, matters, life and continual existence of material Universe under equilibrium status. Mars region shall be considered as WEB of material universe where all planets, matters, life exists. MARS region shall also be called as TESLA REGION. EINSTEIN REGION related to electromagnetic wave theory shall be considered located much below the region of TESLA REGION.

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IMPACT OF A PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM FOR HVAC SYSTEMS IN HOSPITALS: A CASE STUDY OF KITWE CENTRAL HOSPITAL[ ]


The purpose of the research was to assess the benefits that come with implementing a preventive maintenance system in the hospital heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The run-to-failure maintenance strategy of the HVAC system practiced at Kitwe central hospital affected the quality of health operations considering the increase in demand due to population growth. The researchers set objectives focusing on minimizing downtime to sustain the reliability of the equipment, lowering utility costs and greatening comfort for the building’s occupants. Initially, the types of HVAC equipment at the hospital were identified and an inventory list was developed. The Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) of the equipment was then established together with the lead times of the inventory items. Finally, the design of a replacement program based on the gathered data was developed. With the implementation of the preventive maintenance program, the benefits of the research came doubled folded; the reliability of the HVAC equipment increased and high utility costs which were incurred due to the frequent breakdowns and poor utilization of machines and employees reduced significantly. The researchers recommend the preventive maintenance for the HVAC system not only to Kitwe hospital but to other hospital for operations enhancement in promotion of good health.

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Effect of Fiber-Reinforced Type on the Dynamic Behavior of Composite Plate[ ]


An experimental investigation had been done to demonstrate the effect of fiber-reinforced type on the dynamic behavior of composite plate. The composite plates are manufactured at (2, 4, and 6 layers), from unsaturated polyester as a matrix with the fiber at (30%) volume fraction. Three type of fibers reinforcement are used; i) E-glass woven roving, ii) E-glass mat chopped, and iii) carbon. The tensile strength and Charpy impact tests are used to evaluate the mechanical properties. In fatigue tests, the specimens are investigated to estimate the basic S-N Curve and deduced there relations. The plate was fixed from all sides. Two steel balls of 16g and 23g were freely dropped from height of 0.5 m. The dynamic response of the plate was measured using vibration data collector (TVC 200). The results showed that the mechanical properties and the endurance limits increased while the deflection decreased with using carbon fibers-reinforced in compare with using E-glass fibers-reinforced.

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Recent Trends In Industrial And Other Engineering Applications Of Non Destructive Testing: A Review[ ]


The field of NDT is a very broad, interdisciplinary field that plays a critical role in inspecting that structural component and systems perform their function in a reliable fashion. Certain standards has been also implemented to assure the reliability of the NDT tests and prevent certain errors due to either the fault in the equipment used, the miss application of the methods or the skill and the knowledge of the inspectors. Successful NDT tests allow locating and characterizing material conditions and flaws that might otherwise cause planes to crash, reactors to fail, trains to derail, pipelines to burst, and variety of less visible, but equally troubling events. However, these techniques generally require considerable operator skill and interpreting test results accurately may be difficult because the results can be subjective. This paper presents the reviews of different works in the area of NDT and tries to find out latest developments and trends available in industries and other fields in order to minimize the total equipment cost, minimize damages and maximize the safety of machines, structures and materials.

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Analysis of Phishing in Networks[ ]


Problem statement: Phishing is one of the growing internet crime and it becoming popular because these days, there is a huge black market out there of scammers and spammers, all of whom are willing to pay someone for providing them with details, such as Social security numbers, Driver’s license numbers, Names, date of births, etc. Credit card numbers, bank account numbers. Amazingly, a single valid credit card number can be sold on the black market for over $100 - which clearly shows you why there is an incentive for some people to participate in activities such as phishing. Wherever there is a profit to be made, people will flock to the industry - and in the case of phishing, it is people with very little conscience or very low morale. The draw of a quick buck is all it takes to turn an ordinary person in to a phishing professional. Approach: Here we approach some preventive measures and some technical tips to prevent and avoid phishing scam. Results: The results of phishing caused by phishing ranges from denial of access to e-mail to substantial financial loss. It is estimated that between May 2004 and May 2005, approximately 1.2 million computer users in the United States suffered losses caused by phishing, totaling approximately US$929 million. United States businesses lose an estimated US$2 billion per year as their clients become victims. Conclusion: Here we conclude with providing some preventive methods are User Education - Phishing exploits human vulnerabilities such that technical solutions can only block some of the phishing web sites, Anti-Phishing Groups and obtaining Legal Aspects.

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A Quantitative Performance Analysis of a 3G Wireless Cellular Network[ ]


This paper presents a qualitative performance analysis of a 3G wireless cellular Network.Some key traffic parameters like: Erlang traffic, blocking probability and throughput of the existing system in parts of southern and northern Nigeria were quantitatively analyzed and average blocking probability computed.This is to assist mobile operators to explore an optimized way of improving the network to achieve an acceptable threshold without compromising the Quality of Service (QoS).. The analyses are done using the Matlab.

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A Case Study Of Non-Technical Instituions-DEA Approach[ ]


In this paper we apply DEA techniques to evaluate the comparative ef?ciency of 25 Non -Minority Technical Institutions Under JNTUH, Andhra Pradesh. By using three inputs and two outputs at the institutional-level, we are able to identify the most technically efficient institutions that may work as benchmark in the sector. The results suggest that a great portion of institutions may be working inefficiently, contributing to a signi?cant waste of resources. Technical Institutions are playing an important role in making India a knowledge hub of this century. There is still great diversity in their relative performance, which is matter of concern to the education planner. This article employs the method of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to compare the relative efficiency. The identification of the strongest and the weakest parameters of various Technical institutions could be very useful in improving their efficiency and performance. DEA is essentially an optimization algorithm, which develops efficiency scores for all DMUs on a scale of zero to 100%, with units receiving 100% efficiency score being called efficient.

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Control chart for waiting time in system of M / M (a, b) / 1 Queueing model[ ]


Queueing models provide the basic frame work to get the optimum operating policies in production processes and service facilities. In transportation processes involving buses, aero planes, trains, ships, elevators and so on, bulk service queueing models are often encountered. Control chart technique analyzes the behavior of services and provides the prior idea about expected waiting time, maximum waiting time and minimum waiting time which in turn guarantees customer’s satisfaction. Keeping this in view, the construction of control charts for waiting time in system of M /M (a, b) /1 bulk service queueing model is proposed in this paper.

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LBG Vector Quantization for Recognition of Handwritten Marathi Barakhadi[ ]


Handwritten character recognition has been studied a lot in the past and involves various problems due to many reasons. In this paper, novel method of Handwritten Marathi Barakhadi Character Recognition with Shape and Texture features has been proposed. The Shape features and Texture feature are more unique, so a novel technique based on combination of these is derived and proposed here. For extracting shape features standard gradient operator such as Robert, Prewitt, Sobel, Canny and Laplace are used and vector quantization technique. The gradient mask images of the character images are obtained and then LBG vector quantization algorithm is applied on these gradient images to get the codebooks of various sizes. These obtained codebooks are considered as shape texture feature vectors for handwritten character recognition. In all 45 variations of the character recognition method are proposed using five gradient operators and 9 code book sizes (from 4 to 1024).The database consists of 2100 images which consists of 35 consonants barakhadi written by 5 different people. The crossover point of precision and recall is considered as performance comparison criteria for proposed character recognition technique.

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Evaluation of Cytotoxic Activity of Piper betle Linn. Using Murine and Human Cell Lines In Vitro[ ]


The medicinal properties of Piper betle are well known since time immemorial, and traditionally the leaves are used to treat various diseases like halitosis, boils and abscesses, conjunctivitis, constipation, swelling of gums, cuts and injuries and burns. Lot of research on the anti-bacterial, anti-protozoan, anti-fungal, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antimutagenic, antileishmanial and neurostimulatory properties of betel leaf and its essential oil has been carried out. However, not much data is available on the antitumor properties of betel leaves and their derivatives. In Our present investigation the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves was evaluated using murine (Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma and Melanoma B-16 cells) and human (HeLa, Raji) cancer cell lines by employing MTT assay and Trypan-blue dye exclusion method. It was observed that there was a concentration-dependent cell death in various cultured cell lines. Even though Piper betle displayed cytotoxicity towards both normal and tumor cell lines, the toxicity on tumor cells was far greater than that on normal cells indicating selective toxic effect of the plant extract on the tumor cells. This was evident from the finding that the IC50 values for tumor cells were comparatively very low than their normal counterparts, while the percentage inhibition of tumor cells was higher than that of normal cells. It was also indicative that Piper betle extract exhibited a dose dependent and time dependent cell killing. A significantly increased rate of cell death was observed with an increase in the concentration of the extract and the time of incubation with the extract, irrespective of the cell type. In both murine and human cell lines it was a general observation that the cells grown as suspension were comparatively more sensitive to the extract than the adherent cell types; the latter requiring a higher concentration of the extract to bring about the same rate of cell death.

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Using NFC and modified CS Algorithm based unified power quality conditioner for compensating power quality problem[ ]


At the present time, the power quality (PQ) related issues are more absorbed in power electronic devices. For compensating PQ disturbances the different types of power devices are used. Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is one of the power electronics devices that are used for enhancing the PQ. To reduce the PQ disturbances, the performances of UPQC must be improved. In this paper, neuro fuzzy controller (NFC) with modified cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed for improving the performance of UPQC, so as to reduce the power quality problem. Here, the error and change of error voltage of the system is applied to the neural network. The output of the neural network is optimized by the proposed algorithm. Using the output of proposed algorithm, the optimized fuzzy rule is generated and the discharging capacitor voltage is calculated from the bias voltage generator. The proposed technique is implemented in MATLAB working platform. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated and compared with the NN, NFC, FLC, ANFIS and ABC methods.

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Howrah Bridge and Second Hooghly Bridge: A Comprehensive Comparative Study [ ]


The Howrah Bridge and Second Hooghly Bridge has been serving the city of Kolkata in conjunction with each other by allowing the city to be well connected with the rest of the state and indeed the rest of the country. The bridges by themselves, the former being of balanced-cantilever form and the latter being cable-stayed, are marvels of bridge engineering with each being built in very different eras with tremendous variation in the technology that had been employed, all to serve the one purpose of improving communication and traffic conditions by releasing some of the volume exerted on each due to daily movement. The main issue of this research is to make a comparative review of the two bridges, mainly from strict technical points of views and also from the social and economic factors that arise out of them. The structural configurations, foundation characteristics, construction techniques and maintenance issues have been extensively discussed. Relevant statistical facts relating to traffic volume on the bridges and illustrations have been provided as and when required to verify some of the facts that has been discussed.

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Modeling and Simulation of Gene Regulatory Network: A Comprehensive Survey[ ]


The Gene Regulatory Network (GRN) specifies the series of regulatory interactions between different genes. A target gene is interacted by a signal which is originated from the expression of its regulator gene. A gene is known to be expressed when it synthesizes a protein and the degree of synthesizing the protein determines the level of its expression. The same gene can behave as a 'target' in one state of interaction and a 'regulator' in the next state. If there are many interacting genes in a biological system, a network can be formed out of them where the genes are treated as nodes and interaction between any two genes is treated as an edge. This network is known as Gene Regulatory Network. Simulation of GRN addresses the issue of reconstructing the network on the basis of the expression levels of the interacting genes. Various mathematical tools are used to design the system and different optimization techniques are used to find the optimal design. The process of designing starts with time-dependent (Time-series) and condition-dependent (Steady state) gene expression data, available from micro-array chips. The target gene is activated depending on the collective interactions made to it. The problem can be modeled using Neural Network and application of Fuzzy logic may improve the design. There are two issues to discuss. One is related to uncover the parameters involved in GRN called parameter estimation problem. The other is to predict the network structure step by step while learning the parameters. Applications of meta-heuristic algorithms are proved to be efficient in resolving both the issues.

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Physical Principles, Use of High b-Values And Clinical Applications of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Ischemic Stroke[ ]


Diffusion weighted imaging has been a highly sensitive technique and a great success in neuroimaging for the early detection of water diffusion in cerebral ischemia. A diffusion weighted image provides the contrast, based on microscopic molecular motion and shows the changes in MRI signal intensity that is not possible with conventional T1- weighted and T2-weighted images. The addition of two strong diffusion gradient pulses to the normal MRI pulse sequences, generate the images being water-motion sensitized in the direction of applied gradients. This process helps to determine the diffusion weighting of the images, characterized by gradient factor b. In images that are obtained with Fast Spin Echo Imaging (FSEI), Segmented Echo Planar Imaging (SEPI), Single Shot Echo Planar Imaging (SSEPI), like quick imaging modalities, bulk motion related artifact can be minimized. Consequently imaging time will be shortened and image quality would be better and much more enhanced. Conclusively, DWI is a non-invasive technique that provides exceptional information and the utility for monitoring and predicting response to treatment.

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Regression and Neural Networks Models for Prediction of Crop Production[ ]


Neural networks have been gaining a great deal of importance since the last few years. They have been used in the areas of prediction and classification; the areas where regression and other statistical models are traditionally being used. In this paper, a comprehensive review of literature comparing mainly feedforward neural networks; feedforward neural networks and traditional statistical methods viz. linear regression with respect to prediction of agricultural crop production have been carried out. This study takes care to present useful insight into the capabilities of neural networks and their statistical counterparts used in the area of prediction of crop yield.

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A Model for Predicting Movie’s Performance using Online Rating and Revenue[ ]


Blog reviews,discussion forums, different type of social sites have created a new type of marketing and communication that connects the gap between simple word-of-mouth and a viral form of opinions which can move virtual mountains for a business. In the Movie Domain, a single movie can have the variation between millions of rupees of profits or losses for a studio in a given year. It’s not surprising, therefore, that movie studios are intensely involved in predicting the performance of the movies. This paper work proposes auto regression method and adaptive networks of fuzzy inference system model for the prediction of movie performance. ARSA model is implemented using two inputs and one output. Two Inputs are online sentiment ratings and box office revenue and the output is category of the movie. Proposed ANFIS System uses Fuzzy logic design: input, Fuzzificcation, inference engine, defuzzification, and output. There are many sales prediction methods but the use of history data will be most efficient way to predict the quality future. Both the regression method and Fuzzy rules are formulated and applied on 145 Bollywood movies which are released in the year of 2010 to 2013. The prediction result is calculated on the basis of auto regression and ANFIS model. Both the ARSA and ANFIS model’s output is compared with actual output .The prediction accuracy are measured for both the models using forecast accuracy methods MAPE and MSE.

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Non Destructive and Rapid Analysis of Catechin Content in Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb.) Using NIR Spectroscopy[ ]


Quality of gambir is mainly determined by its catechin content. While trading in traditional market, catechin content of gambir is predicted by a treatment of expert experience which leads to subjective judgement. Meanwhile, quantitative analysis is carried out by using chemical method. However, this method is destructive, high cost and time consuming, thus not suitable for real time measurement. The objective of this study was to develop calibration model to predict catechin content in gambir non-destructively and rapidly using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with difference spectra pre-processing treatment and Partial Least Square (PLS) methods. Spectra pre-processing treatment method used were normalization between 0 and 1 (n01), first derivative Savitzky-Golay 9 points (dg1), second derivative Savitzky-Golay 9 points (dg2), combination between n01 and dg1, and combination between n01 and dg2. Determination of the optimum number of PLS factors was conducted based on value of consistency and Predicted Residual Sum Square Error (PRESS) of the validation set (V-set-PRESS). The best spectra pre-processing treatment method was n01 in combination with dg1. Evaluation of model demonstrated that the model could predict catechin content in gambir. The model had high value of correlation coefficient (r = 0.95), low values of SEC and SEP (3.56 and 3.27 respectively), and high value of ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD = 3.60). This study demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy had excellent potential as non destructive and rapid analysis to determine catechin content in gambir.

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Studies on Aluminium-graphite by Stir Casting Technique[ ]


Composite materials are now utilized for many industrial applications for its properties. The objective of this project, preparation of aluminium- graphite composite by stir casting technique with aluminium -graphite composites having 2%, 4% & 6% of pure aluminium 99.5% . An design of experiment technique is adopted to determine efficient Al-Graphite composite. Taguchi method is identified to reduce the combinations of different parameters that is to be used in manufacturing of Al-graphite composite. Minitab software was used for Taguchi optimization. The SEM analysis of the composites was studied to know the arrangement of matrix and hardness test.

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Open-System Predictive Assessment of Lead Extraction Rate during Biooxidation of Galena by Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans (ATF)[ ]


Open-system predictive assessment of lead extraction rate during biooxidation of galena by acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (ATF) has been carried out based on the leaching time and final pH of leaching solution using a derived model.

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Estimation of Undrained Shear Strength of Soil using Cone Penetration Test[ ]


This paper shows the determination of undrained shear strength based on cone resistance from cone penetration test for clayey soil. The test was carried out on ten different suspected clayey soil sites at Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo. The cone factor which is the most important for reliable estimation of undrained shear strength from cone penetration was evaluated considering the plasticity index of the soil. The result showed that the cone factor ranges from 11.26 at plasticity index of 12.7 to 16.19 at plasticity index of 30. The result showed an increasing trend. The result also showed quantity of combined clay and silt in the sites. The researcher recommends that the concerned bodies and organizations should insist on the use of the results of soil tests such as the cone penetration test for soil properties determination in the foundation designs of structures to avert structural foundation failures

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Performance with Voice over Internet Protocol[ ]


In future the Internet becomes the critical information infrastructure for both personal and business applications for fast and reliable. A voice over internet protocol is IP based packet-switched networks (i.e. Internet) with public packet switched networks (i.e. EIGRP). The key building block of a VoIP gateway is an IP Phone system that interfaces with the EIGRP, RIP, OSPF and converts analog signals from these protocols to digital signals that can be manipulated by a computer and vice versa. So we need these routing protocols to implement and maintain the performance of those applications in the presence of failures. Today’s exterior routing protocol, BGP and PSTN is known to be very slow in reacting and recovering from network failures. Many techniques have been focused on the performance and reliability of routing. However, those approaches require modifying BGP, SIP or PSTN which makes them impractical in the Internet. So in this paper, we proposed a simple and practical approach to strengthen the reliability and performance to reach a message and voice call by using interior routing protocols RIP, EIGRP, OSPF. Our experimental result reveals that it can reduce packet loss, cost and improve the performance during link failures significantly by using Cisco Packet tracer 5.3.3.

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SECURING FINGERPRINT DATABASE USING VISUAL CRYPTOGRPHY[ ]


Securing the database of biometric system is of paramount importance due to the potential threat of access by unauthorized and unknown person. Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data. In information technology, biometrics refers to technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics, such as DNA, fingerprints, eye retinas, irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and hand measurements, for authentication purposes. Biometric authentication is the automatic identification of living individuals by using their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Negative identification can only be accomplished through biometric identification if a pin or password is lost or forgotten it can be changed and reissued but a biometric identification cannot.

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ANALYSIS OF LATHE SPINDLE USING ANSYS [ ]


The machine tool spindle provides the relative motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece which is necessary to perform a material removal operation. In turning, it is the physical link between the machine tool structure and the workpiece, while in processes like milling, drilling or grinding, it links the structure and the cutting tool. This work deals with design and analysis of Lathe Spindle in which the material used for the spindle is alloy steel. The spindle is supported by two bearings separated by different spans. Bearings consist of balls with certain stiffness, which acts as a cushioning effect for the spindle and hence can be considered as a spring in the software (Ansys) for analysis.

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