Volume 14, Issue 4, April 2023 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 14, Issue 4, April 2023 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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Effects of Poultry droppings and NPK on the growth and yield of Carrot- Daucus carota L. []

ABSTRACT A field experiment on the effects of poultry droppings and NPK15:15:15 on the growth and yield of carrot was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture demonstration farm, University of Port Harcourt. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design of four treatments (Poultry dropping, NPK15:15:15, combination of Poultry droppings + NPK15:15:15, and control) with three replications. The result showed that the application of the treatments had significant influences (P=0.05) on all parameter studied (number of leaves, plant height, diameter of root, length of root, fresh weight of root, dry weight of roots, fresh weight of leaves, dry weight of leaves, gross yield, and marketable yield). The result revealed that the application of the Poultry droppings was found to be suitable for maximum gross yield and marketable yield (14.79 tha-1 and 14.65tha-1 respectively), while NPK 15:15:15 had better gross and marketable yield (17.14 tha-1 and 17.02 tha-1 respectively) and the combination of poultry droppings and NPK15:15:15 resulted in the best performance in gross and marketable yield (22.15 tha-1 and 22.04 tha-1 respectively).The net return (N6,211,800 ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (3.37) were maximum in the treatment with the combination of poultry droppings and NPK15:15:15.

Design and Construction of Bio-Sand Filtration System for Treatment of Influent Obtained from a Well and Stream []

This study used Bio-Sand Filter (BSF) to treat influent from well and stream. BSF was made of plastic container of average diameter 30.60 cm (33.6, 31.4, 30.30, 27) and 40cm length. Filter media were sand (0.425mm – 0.850mm, depth = 7cm), activated charcoal (4cm depth) and gravel (1.18mm – 2.36mm, depth = 9cm). Particle size distribution and specific gravity analyses were done for aggregates using Federal Ministry of Works and Housing Standard. Physico-chemical analyses were done for influent and effluent using American Public Health Association Standard, after 48hours retention. Mass lost in particle size distribution for gravel and sand were; 2.97g and 7.28g respectively, while specific gravity results for gravel and sand were 2.62 and 2.58. Physico-chemical analyses results for influent and effluent of well and stream were; pH [8.1, 7.6], [8.79, 8.0]; Electrical Conductivity [0.78, 0.73], [1.02, 0.89]; Turbidity [2.59, 1.43], [2.65, 2.51]; Nitrate [1.53, 1.10], [1.99, 1.91]; Phosphate [0.09, 0.04], [0.12, 0.08]; Calcium [0.08, 0.04], [0.15, 0.11]; Magnesium [0.27, 0.2], [0.31, 0.29]; Potassium [0.19, 0.1], [0.25, 0.22]; Hardness [120, 114, [106, 104]; Colour 1.29, 1.2], [2.0, 1.8]; Sodium [1.3, 1.0], [2.3, 2.2]; Manganese[0.02, 0.01], [0.48, 0.29]; Lead [0.04, 0.03], [0.06, 0.06]; Aluminium [0.03, 0.01], [0.05, 0.04]; Biochemical Oxygen Demand [0.4, 0.3], [0.5, 0.47]; Iron [0.011, 0.009], [0.006, 0.04]; Total Dissolved Solids [65, 62], [102, 96] in mg/l respectively. Well effluent results satisfied drinking water quality standards by World Health Organization. This work is applicable in sustainable water treatment for environmental protection. KEYWORDS: Bio-sand filter, Influent, Effluent, Well, Stream, Treatment

Architecture Students’ Adaptation of Their Home Space During Online Learning []

Adjusting space, redefining architecture, and transforming space elements have gained increased attention in architectural practice and research lately, due to the widespread of online and remote learning. These issues are hardly being discussed from the students' perspective, although involving them in the current situation may positively affect both the learning and early practicing outcomes. This paper presents junior architectural students' reflections on their personal (study - online learning sessions - living and sleeping) space within the family house that has been transformed according to emergent needs. The analyzed data are drawn from students' assignments as part of their work on the theories of architecture course. The paper categorizes the work of 138 students; through a qualitative approach. The assignment focuses on the course learnt vocabularies such as the space-defining elements and the configuration and functionality of the space. Samples are categorized according to presentation techniques (3D, 2D Autocad/ drawings/ sketches, essay format) and according to the implemented solutions (whether the spaces are adjusted, extended or migrated to another space). The discussion explores creativity in both the solution and the representation scale. The conclusion highlights some of the uniqueness of the Egyptian post-pandemic case. And it asserts the importance of problem-based research as an integrative method in theories of pedagogy to engage students with real-world challenges.

Contributions of Green Buildings to Sustainable Development of Kigali, Rwanda []

Abstract—This study aims at evaluating how green buildings contribute to Rwanda's sustainable development, in the city of Kigali. By 2050, 68% of the population of the world will be living in cities. The transition from rural to urban results in a 78% rise in energy consumption and 60% increase greenhouse gas emissions and this leads to an alarming rise in environmental awareness and concern. Green construction for a sustainable environment is a solution particulary for Rwanda which has more than 50% of the population being under twenty-five years old. The research has three main objectives including: Firstly, to identify the components of green buildings in City of Kigali; secondly, to examine the strategies for enhancing the green buildings practices adoption in Rwanda and thirdly, to determine the contributions of green buildings toward the achievement of sustainable development in Rwanda from 2016 to 2021.Different research methods were used interviews, observations, and questionnaire.Through observations, green buildings were identified in the city of Kigali and these are highly contributing to the protection of environment, promotion of social welfare and to the economic growth of Rwandans, particularly citizens of Kigali City through provision of job,better indoor air quality for occupants,wastes management and use of ecological construction materials.Components of green buildings were identified through questionnaire and interviews. The respondents highlighted improving practitioners' abilities, sustainable urban planning, supporting renewable energy sources, conducting energy audits on buildings falling under categories four and five, modifying building finishing methods, controlling stormwater, and certifying green buildings as strategies to promote the adoption of green buildings in City of Kigali. 90% of respondents revealed that green buildings contribute to sustainable communities and cities particularly in the city of Kigali. Additionally, green buildings support worldwide cooperation, responsible consumption and production, effective energy use, excellent health and wellbeing, and innovative and sustainable infrastructure. In the city of Kigali, around 90% of respondents said that green building practices included the use of renewable energy. In this study, respondents added that efficient building envelopes, lighting, ventilation, plumbing fixtures, building waste management, and organic gardening also as elements of green buildings in the city of Kigali.according to the findings, the green building policy should be enforced for multistoreyed buildings not easy for small houses. The research propose some recommendations to Government of Rwanda, investors, building developers and practitioners, and researchers. Index Terms— Green buildings, green building Concept, Sustainable Development, Conventional building, Environmental Sustainability, Sustainable Economic Growth, Urbanization.

Lateral torsional buckling capacity of steel beams with tapered web: FEA vs AISC(DG-25) []

Steel beams with tapered web often provide preferred option than web with constant depth duo to their higher strength to weight ratio which is better to resist variable moment along the beam. AISC Design Guide 25 (Frame Design Using Nonprismatic Members) offers provisions for the stability verification of members with tapered web. In this paper, the provisions of AISC Design Guide 25 regarding the lateral torsional buckling are firstly discussed in summarized steps. After that, the results are studied and validated against finite element analysis (FEA). The proposed FEA was built to simulate the behavior of steel beams under bending and having tapered web. Both material and geometrical imperfections were considered in the FEA. The FEA was verified using published numerical and experimental results, then a parametric study was carried out including the change of tapering ratio and beam length for different cross-section properties. Results of moment capacity from FEA are extracted and compared with AISC Design Guide 25 for the different studied cases. The conclusions of this comparison are presented.

Impacts Of Surface Mining on Guineas’ Industrial Development []

this paper is an article about mining in guinea and how it is effect the negative and positive side of the Guineas’ Industrial Development and contribute to the GDP. The solution to these challenges are captured in my article.


ABSTRACT This study was designed to assess the suitability the sanitary landfill site for waste disposal by evaluating hydrogeological and geochemical properties of rocks and soils within a designated area. The results and findings of this work would throw more light on the selection of solid waste disposal site and in prescribing whether the site could be given consideration for the disposal of waste or not. 20 soil samples were collected at 0.5m intervals to a depth of 3m within an area of 44,100m2 and analysed for mineralogical and chemical constituents which include pH, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and the clay mineralogy ( using X-Ray Diffraction method). Soil lithology from the geotechnical boreholes range from very dark brown, medium sandy silty clay to very hard mottled reddish brown and grey ferruginised sandstone. The pH values range from 4.5 to 5.9 (Acidic soil). The TOC values range from 0.233% to 0.778%. The values of the CEC ranges from 2.59 cmol/kg to 8.51cmol/kg. X-ray diffraction show Kaolinitic clays to have an average of 63% and Quartz with an average of 26%. Results of the major and trace elements analysis indicates the presence of SiO2, ranging from 37.00 % to 54.50 % and Al2O3 ranging from 23.00 % to 30.00 %. Based on these results and existing standards, the subsurface materials at Okpanam junction, Asaba with minimal soil enhancement is suitable for the construction of a geologically designed landfill. Keywords: Landfill, Total Organic Carbon, Cation Exchange Capacity, Kaolinite

Effect of BFRP Sheets on Strengthening Deep Beams with Openings []

In this study, the Basalt fibers from basalt rocks are used to strengthen openings in deep beams where this fiber is an environmentally friendly material that doesn’t produce any toxic reactions with air or water, and its surface is anti-explosion. Also, it doesn’t produce chemical reactions that may damage the environment or human health When it contacts other chemicals, it is safe for use in industry and has no pollution, the effect of strengthening deep beams with openings vertically by using these basalt fiber sheets is studied. A practical program has been developed to study the behavior of deep beams strengthened with basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) sheets. The practical program consists of 6 beams designed as American code, with various types of openings. The results of the tested sheets and results of beams such as deflection, cracking load, crack propagation, ultimate load, and failure character, are recorded. Also, nonlinear analysis and mathematical equations are used in this study. This research can achieve that the basalt fiber sheets could affect slightly on the behavior of the deep beam with openings in cracking loads, deflections, stiffness, energy capacities, and ultimate loads.

Application of the ecological system theory with respect to Bronfenbrenner’s perspective []

Abstract Experience interacting with world around us helps us learn. Behavior impacts learning as well as personality. Psychologists study learning in various aspects of our social and ecological environments, in addition to groups of individuals and individuals themselves, in order to understand human behavior. Developmental psychology is concerned with how people develop, learn and grow throughout the courage of the lifecycle, and adult learning is one area that developmental psychologists are increasingly making further inquire into. Developmental psychology has been shaped by three main theories: nature versus nurture, continuity verses stage, and stability versus change. However, another theory which has brought considerable debate and discussion within the field of developmental psychology is the Ecological Model that was first put forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner.


This paper discusses the usage of Information Communication on Hotel Promotion. The key attention is focused on the ICT application importance for the promotion of a Hotel. The paper emphasises on the Hotel Industry in one of the most popular tourist destinations in Rwanda. Northern Province, Musanze District, Volcanoes National Park. Our findings show that the most of hotels use ICT in their daily activities. Their staff are deeply aware of the ICT and its importance in the Promotion. The well-known importance is that it helps to improve the quality of service and speeding. But somehow, the level of ICT usage in hotel promotion is not on high level as it should be. It seems that there are some issues to handle. Key words: Information and communication technology, Hotel Promotion, Tourism, Hospitality, advertising, publicity, internet, computers, hardware and software.

Multiple forms of renewable energy []

There are worries that the world's oil as well as other energy reserves, particularly in recent decades, may soon exhaust itself. Several ways may be easily seen in which the environment has been affected by the widespread use of fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels continues to dominate the world's energy mix. They are responsible for more than 80% of energy use. Due to industrialization and population growth, our economy and technology today are highly dependent on natural resources that cannot be replaced

Experimental Study of Cooling System for Energy Saving and Shifting Using Phase Change Materials. []

Energy saving and shifting study to space cooling of a resident conventional test room situated in Iraq with dimensions of 3 x 2.5 x 3 m. A water evaporative cooler is used to produce cold water that is circulated inside the roof core by a pump. The air delivered from the evaporative cooler is directed to the outdoor A/C unit to minimize condenser temperature for COP enhancement. The Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is filled with Phase Change Material (PCM) paraffin. TES exchanges the heat (charging and discharging) with air forced by a fan through channels. An electric solar system operates evaporative cooling and the TES fan while the A/C is off. The solar panels are cooled by another air stream supplied by the evaporative cooler. Experimental work was carried out in the dry summer, from April, May, June, July, August, September, and October. The experimental results showed that the reduction in the percentage of heat gained through the ceiling using water was 3.44%,4.78%, 7.67%, 15.87%, 11.45%, 10.21%, and 6.23% respectively. The results also showed a reduction of power consumption by using paraffin for the summer months 3.8%, 6.65%, 7.34%, 8.57%, 5.85%, 4.77%, and 3.53% respectively as well as enhancing A/C COP, but only 9.01% of energy was saved due to the effect of improving A/C COP alone. Maximum heat gain participation was through the roof at 43% without operating the systems, and water circulation was minimized to 21%.


In India, usage of mobile money services is very poor due to several reasons including a lack of understanding of services, low financial literacy rate, and fear of losing their hard-earned money. Moreover, the association between perceived financial cost, perceived fraud, and mobile money adoption has not yet been examined comprehensively. Therefore, this study aims to assess the impact of perceived financial cost and perceived fraud on the adoption of mobile money services in India. This study carried out a cross- sectional survey using a standardized questionnaire to collect primary data from mobile money users in Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra states of India. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was employed to analyse the data. The study found that four factors namely, perceived financial cost, perceived fraud, perceived privacy and mobile money agents have a significant impact on the adoption of mobile money services in India. Perceived trust was also found to be a significant factor in mobile money adoption in the country. Moreover, the respondents reported that mobile money services save their time and reduce costs in performing financial transactions. The empirical findings of the study might be useful for policymakers and service providers in enhancing the usage of mobile money services among financially excluded segments of society.

Assessing the Quality of Operation Notes in a Teaching Hospital Taiz Yemen []

Background: With the increasingly litigious nature of medical practice, operation notes provide an insight into the operative process and a legal document of a surgical procedure occurring. This study aims to assess the quality of surgical operation notes in Taiz Hospitals against Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCSEng) guidelines, 2014 in order to improve our practice, patient care, and training process in surgery. Methods: Nineteen parameters based on the RCSEng ‘Good Surgical Practice’ 2014 guidelines used to assess the operation notes in Taiz hospitals during 2018-2019 retrospectively. The study consisted of 306 operation notes randomly selected including general surgery and other specialties. We assessed the overall compliance with the RCSEng guidelines, whether each parameter of RCSEng guidelines recommendations were clearly recorded in the operation notes, and legibility of operation notes. Results: 306 operation notes were assessed, 155 (50.7%) in private and 151 (49.3%) in public hospital distributed as 164 (53.6%) general surgery and 142 (46.4%) other surgical specialties. Overall, 50% compliance was achieved in 7/19 standards with respect to date (72.5%) documentation, (64.4%) diagnosis, (84%) name of operating surgeon and assistants’ names, (72.2%) name of anesthetist, (60.8%) incision, (59.2%) operative findings, (91.2%) and the signature that was the only standard attained. Legibility of operation notes was 78.8% and notably 56.6% of operative notes have been written by consultants. Conclusion: This study identifies key areas of weakness in our operative note keeping and there is a clear need to develop a systems that are part of the normal work flow to improve quality and compliance.

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