IJSER Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2011
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Recurrent Neural Prediction Model for Digits Recognition[Full-Text] [References]
Tellez Paola

There are three models of recurrent neural networks that can be used for speech recognition, but we do not know which one is the best suited for Spanish digits recognition. Each language uses different parts of the mouth to create sounds, so it is logical that we develop different parts of the brain to recognize these sounds. The best recurrent neural network to recognize Spanish digits is Jordan recurrent neural network. The next step is to improve the performance of Jordan recurrent neural network for Spanish recognition.

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The Applications of Causality in the Philosophy of Descartes[Full-Text] [References]
Maryam Hasanpour

Rene Descartes, the founder of a new philosophy in the west since the seventeenth century, founded his philosophy based on commanding skepticism and abandoning all his former beliefs, and gradually tried, by relying on an undeniable witness as "I think", to establish a philosophy to be a positivism from the beginning to the end. It will be shown, in this article, that though Descartes did not specifically make a discussion concerning causality in his works, he made use of causality in some parts of his philosophy. In this article, the principle of causality and its application will be initially analyzed in the Descartes principles of philosophy and then some logics will be presented for proving the ontology of God, and it will be seen that he had never been ignorant of the principle of causality.

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"TADS" Approach In Supply Chain Agility[Full-Text] [References]
M. Balaji, Dr.G.Karuppusami, R. Sudhakaran, A. Chobiya Ashwini

In the continuously changing and demanding market environment, the product capabilities alone are insufficient to retain the market hold. Rather, the supply chain must also keep changing accordingly. This may in turn help the firm sustain the market with the old products. It is certain that when the innovation in the product is quite infeasible or not cost effective, the firms should concentrate on their supply chain and its enablers and try to make existing chains flexible. To quantify the efficiency of the chain, a model called "TADS" is proposed. This paper discusses the functions of TADS, the prior works carried on it and enumerates the desirable effects of adapting TADS in the firms to make their supply chains more responsive in order to survive in the contemporary market scenario.

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Reducing Layer 2 Handoff Latency in WLANs using Advanced Context Distribution[Full-Text] [References]
Laeth A. Al-Rawi, Rosli Salleh, Ghaith A. Al-Rawi, Hassan A. Al-Rawi, H.Keshavarz

WLANs have experienced very fast deployment in both public and private areas over recent years. They provide nontrivial replacement for the complicated and high cost wired LANs. However, the Access Points that WLANs are build from do not have very wide coverage range (usually under 100m indoors). Consequently, many handoffs occur as the mobile host moves while accessing the network resources located at the distribution system. Unfortunately, these handoffs can disturb real time applications if they take too long (more than 50ms). In order to resolve this problem, this paper introduces a new mechanism for reducing handoff delay called Advanced Context Distribution (ACD). ACD is able to reduce re-association phase delay by eliminating Inter Access Point Protocol (IAPP) excess time consumed for transferring station context information from the old access point to the new associated access point (up to 40ms delay).

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Dynamic Contention Resolution Protocol for OBS Networks[Full-Text] [References]
Wael Hosny Fouad Aly, Halima El-Biaze

Optical burst switching (OBS) is a switching technique that was proposed as a hybrid switching technology to support the next generation Internet. In OBS, incoming IP packets are assembled into super-sized packets called data bursts. Burst contention is a well-known challenging problem in Optical Burst Switching (OBS) networks. Burst contention can be resolved using several approaches, such as wavelength conversion, buffering based on fiber delay line (FDL) or deflection routing Retransmission technique is used to reduce the Burst Loss Ratio (BLR) by deflecting dropped bursts. Segmentation also resolves contention by dividing the contended burst into smaller parts called segments. Combining deflection routing technique and retransmission technique outperforms both pure deflection and pure retransmission techniques to improve the performance. Previous work uses only static combination of retransmission and deflection of bursts to reduce contention. This paper proposes a dynamic protocol to resolve contention based on combining deflection, retransmission and delaying bursts to improve the OBS performance. Experiments were conducted to test the proposed protocol. The proposed technique was tested on complex models such as NSFNET and COST238 topologies. Results show that the proposed protocol outperforms existing techniques in terms of burst lost ratio.

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Mitigation of Harmonics in Distribution System Using D - STATCOM[Full-Text] [References]
E.Rambabu, E.Praveena, Dr.P.V.Kishore

This paper deals with the performance, analysis of, operating principles of a new generation of power electronics based equipment called Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM) aimed at enchancing the reliability, and quality of power flow in low voltage distribution network. The model is based on the Voltage Source Converter (VSC) principle. The D-STATCOM injects a current into the system to mitigate the voltage sags.LCL Passive Filter was then added to D-STATCOM to improve harmonic distortion and low power factor.

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Data Compression using Huffman based LZW Encoding Technique[Full-Text] [References]
Md. Rubaiyat Hasan

Data compression is of interest in business data processing, both because of the cost savings it offers and because of the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. A method and system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise free. Both the LZW and Huffman data compression methods are lossless in manner. These methods or some versions of them are very common in use of compressing different types of data. Even though on average Huffman gives better compression results, it determines the case in which the LZW performs best and when the compression efficiency gap between the LZW algorithm and its Huffman counterpart is the largest. In the case of Hybrid compression it gives better compression ratio than in single compression. So, at first I wanted to compress original data by Huffman Encoding Technique then by the LZW Encoding Technique .But it did not give better compression ratio than in single LZW compression. At that time I have found that if we compress the data by Huffman first and then by LZW all the cases it gives better compression ratio. Then it named as "Data compression using Huffman based LZW Encoding". Its compression ratio most of the cases above 2.55 and in some cases it becomes above 3.25 or more. It will provide cheap, reliable and efficient system for data compression in digital communication system.

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Investigation on Octagonal Microstrip Antenna for RADAR & Space-Craft applications[Full-Text] [References]
Krishan Kumar, Er. Sukhdeep Kaur

In this paper octagon shape planar microstrip antenna is presented. Octagonal antenna can find applications in Radar and Space-crafts. The antenna is fed by a 50 O microstrip line and printed on a dielectric Fr4 substrate of dimension (22mm X 22 mm) permittivity er =4.4 and height h = 1.6 mm. The optimization on the planar octagonal microstrip has been done to accomplish an -10 dB return loss bandwidth. Moreover, in comparison with a simple rectangular shaped antenna, the proposed design enhances the bandwidth and improves input return loss. Better than 83.54 % radiation efficiency has been achieved in the range 3.1 to 15 GHz. The parameters like substrate dimension, feed size and ground plane which affect the performance of the antenna in terms of its frequency domain and time domain characteristics are investigated.

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Performance Evaluation of Adaptive Modulation Techniques and Offered Load in OFDM-based WiMAX Network by Considering Cyclic Prefix[Full-Text] [References]
Pratyush Sharma, Abhishek Sharma, Kailash C.Bandhu

WiMax uses orthogonal frequency division multiple access technique in wireless communication. Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDM) is what puts the max in WiMAX, OFDM delivers a wireless signal much farther with less interference. This technique uses Adaptive modulation coding (AMC) on physical layer of WiMAX. Adaptive modulation technique uses the concept of cyclic prefix that adds additional bits at the transmitter end. The receiver removes these additional bits. Cyclic Prefix is used to combat intersymbol inter-ference (ISI) and intercarrier interference (ICI) introduced by the multipath fading channel. This paper investigates the performance of WiMAX network by varying physical layer parameter such as modulation and coding scheme and cyclic prefix. It also investigates the performance of WiMAX network by increasing traffic (number of downloading nodes) in network with different cyclic prefix. The performance of WiMAX network is measured in terms of throughput and goodput

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A Stochastic Simulation of Optimized Access Strategies for a Distributed Database Design[Full-Text] [References]
Rajinder Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Varinder Pannu virk

This paper highlights a design of a probabilistic solution to the operation allocation problem of Distributed Databases. Most of the present day commercial vendors of Distributed DBMS use deterministic procedures along with certain heuristics on exhaustive enumeration procedures like Dynamic Programming, Greedy Techniques, Randomized strategies etc. These procedures have a lot of scope for improvements when problem domain is increased from the point of view of 'number of sites' or 'number of joins' involved in a distributed query. Recently great interest has been shown by researchers to apply Genetic Algorithms to achieve this. This paper highlights design and implementation of one such model, Genetic Algorithm for Subquery Allocation (GA_SA), which is a modest effort to stochastically simulate optimization of retrieval transactions for a distributed query.

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Comparative Evaluation Of Nutritive Value Of Maggots[Full-Text] [References]
B.O. Odesanya, S.O. Ajayi, B.K.O Agbaogun and B. Okuneye

Conventional animal feeds ingredients are mostly imported into Nigeria, occasionally becoming scarce and very expensive. This has encouraged the search for possibly cheaper alternative nutrient sources with no concomitant reduction in nutrition value to the animals. The short life cycle of maggots- the larval stage of flies of the order Diptera (houseflies- Musca domestica) and their production in large biomass (quantity) from materials regarded as waste make them a viable option to explore. This study is an attempt to complement earlier studies on the nutritive value of maggots with a view to establishing average values for the nutrient composition of maggots for use in animal and fish feed using formulations. The maggots in this study were bred on fresh deep litter poultry wastes. The proximate analysis indicated 86.0 ±0.47% moisture content, 10.03 ± 0.44% ash content, 5.89 ± 0.05% crude fibre, 48.0 crude protein, 31.76 ± 0.02% crude fat, 3755 ± 190 kcal/kg energy. Gas Chromatographic analysis of the fatty acids profile revealed lauric acid (69.92%), palmitic acid (2.09%), oleic acid (15.25%) and stearic acid (12.75%). Colorimetric determination of amino acids gave lysine (5.03%) and methionine (2.58%).

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Analysis of Blocking Probability in OBS Networks[Full-Text] [References]
Hardeep Singh, Dr. Jai Prakash, Dinesh Arora, Dr.Amit Wason

The quality of an optical signal degrades due to physical layer impairments as it propagates from source to destination. Due to this signal quality at the receiver or destination may be degraded, leading to increased call blocking. A performance indication of an All-Optical Network is the call blocking probability. The goal is to achieve a low overall blocking probability at an affordable cost and at the same time to make sure that other performance measures are within reasonable limits. This blocking probability can be affected by many factors such as network topology, traffic load, Routing and Wavelength Assignment(RWA) algorithm employed and whether wavelength conversion is available or not. In this paper, the performance of the some wavelength assignment algorithms is calculated in terms of blocking probability. Further, a new wavelength assignment algorithm "wavelength reservation" is proposed in this paper. The performance of this proposed wavelength reservation algorithm is compared with some other algorithms. The blocking probability is calculated to observe the effect of number of channels, number of nodes and load(in Erlangs) on each link in network.

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Effective e-learning approach for Students with Learning Disabilities[Full-Text] [References]
Kodihalli Ramanna Anil Kumar, Prof. Dr. S. Ravi, Prof. Dr.S.K. Srivatsa

This paper describes an approach to create accessible contents for e-learning objectives dedicated to people with Learning Disabilities. In the present century, the differences between normal and people with Learning Disabilities become more obvious due to rapid growth of digital information technologies. Contrary to what some people think, this difference is not about their body deformity or disability to hear or talk. The difference is just in their accessibility level to digital information through computers and networks. Information and communication technology (ICT) provides great opportunities to improve the quality of learning process of people with Learning Disabilities. In this paper, we discuss a technique to facilitate human and computer interactions. Using the proposed technique, e-learning contents will be more accessible for people suffering from arm muscle disorders, Parkinsonism also. Parkinsonism is a disease. The people who are suffering from this disease will have neurological problems. This disease is also known as Parkinson's disease.

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A New Method to Secondary Caries Detection in Restored Teeth[Full-Text] [References]
A.Sadeghi Qaramaleki, H.Hassanpour

Dental caries appear in both primary and secondary caries. Secondary caries are created below the restored teeth and is not visible by naked eye. Therefore to diagnose this type of caries, the dental radiography images are used. In dental radiography images, the secondary caries of restored teeth are appeared as radiolucent areas. In this study a new method to secondary caries diagnoses in restored teeth is proposed. In this paper after image quality enhancement by Gamma correction, by threshold selection on cumulative frequency diagram, the teeth with secondary caries are diagnosed. Due to technical limitations in radiographic instruments the nonlinear changes on pixels is caried and this changes are revised with Gamma correction process. This method carried on 100 dental radiography images and the results demonstrate that the maximum accuracy rate for secondary caries diagnosis is 82% and minimum error rate is 18%.

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Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Discharge Machining Process through Response Surface Methodology[Full-Text] [References]
S. S. Baraskar, S. S. Banwait, S. C. Laroiya

Proper selection of manufacturing conditions is one of the most important aspects in the die sinking Electrical Discharge Machining process, as these conditions determine important characteristics such as Surface Roughness, Material Removal Rate and Tool Wear Rate. In this work, mathematical models have been developed for relating the Surface Roughness, Material Removal Rate and Tool Wear Rate to machining parameters like discharge current, pulse-on time and pulse-off time. The developed models predict the machining conditions from rough machining region to finish conditions within the experimenral domain. Response Surface Methodology has been applied for developing the models using the techniques of Design of Experiments and multi linear regression analysis. Central composite rotatable design was used to plan the experiments. Second order response surface models were found to be the most suitable in the present work. The developed models have been validated by conducting confirmation experiments.

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Identifying weak subjects using association rule mining[Full-Text] [References]
Anuradha.Tadiparthi, Satya Prasad.R, Tirumala Rao S.N

Many educational institutions in India today are concentrating on identifying the weak students and the subjects in which those students are weak in the current semester for improving their student results. They are even appointing a faculty member as a counselor to identify the weak students and to know in which courses the student is weak. After identifying this, this information will be given to the faculty who is teaching those courses so that he/she can take a special interest on those students or even conduct special classes to those students. In this paper we propose that the data mining technique called association rule mining can be applied to identify the subjects in which the students are weak in the current semester using previous semester's results.

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Carbon black polymer composite gas sensor for electronic nose[Full-Text] [References]
Fauzan Khairi Che Harun, Andik Marwintan Jumadi, Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood

Nowadays, electronic noses (E-nose) become popular in industry. There are a few types of E-noses which are used to detect odorant and gases such as surface acoustic wave (SAW) device, optical sensor, metal oxide semiconductors (MeOX), and carbon black polymer composite. Electronic nose is a device that can be mimicking biological human nose, which can detect and differentiate types of odorant. This work focuses on how to fabricate carbon black polymer composite gas sensor. In addition, constant current source circuit has been designed to act as interface circuitry so that the change of resistance when exposed to the gas can be observed via LabVIEW. Besides that, the characteristics of each sensor were observed and study. This is to ensure the fabricated sensor gives the same responds with actual sensor. The result from the experiments shows that the fabricated carbon black polymer composite gas able to detect and gives respond just like the actual gas sensor.

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Necessity of Environmental Education in Iranian Universities (Case Study: University of Tehran) [Full-Text] [References]
Ali Hamidian

Environmental education and public awareness especially in developing countries is a way to conserve environment and natural resources and to decline development impacts. In this paper 300 students of B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. of University of Tehran were be asked. In every group, number of males and females were equal. After collection of questionnaires, the data were analyzed in Excel software. The results show that %21 of students don't attend to the environment. Also %95 of students are interested in Ecotourism. According to the results, %88 of students alert others to conserve the environment. The results show that only %15 of students have a satisfactory level of environmental knowledge. Also only %18 of students always follow environmental News. TV and Radio are sources of environmental News of %54 of students. %39 of students use Internet to follow environmental News. Newspapers and magazines are choices of %6 of students. Also %1 of students are aware of environmental news through posters and brochures. %50 of students said that don't have any lesson that associates to the environment in the university. According to the results %75 of students are agree with taking part in environmental courses. The results show that %53 of students are agree with passing environmental acquaintance lesson. The results show that female students have better results in 6 index(attention to environment, membership in NGOs ,interested in Ecotourism, Environmental knowledge, be agree with passing environmental acquaintance and be agree with passing environmental courses). But male students follow environmental News more than female students. Also Ph.D. and M.Sc. students have better results in whole of indexes in comparison to B.Sc. students. So To have an environmentally developed country it is necessary to extent environmental education programs in the universities especially for male and B.Sc. students

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Assessment of Nigeria power sub-sector and electricity generation projections[Full-Text] [References]
Engr. C. O. Osueke (Ph.D), Engr. C. T. Ezeh

Nigeria is faced with continues electricity problem, which made goods and services to be very costly in the country because industries have to generate their power themselves. Residential homes not left out, since all most all Nigerian homes now has a standby generating set. Although Nigeria has abundant supply of natural resources like coal, hydro, natural gas, crude oil etc. yet cannot harness these resources for power generation, so that the power generated will match the demand which seems to be increasing daily.This problem can only be solved by building more power stations so as to meet the projected power demand by 2030 which is estimated to be 297,900MW and also by using available energy supply more efficiently.

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Application of Frictional Modeling In Simulation and Optimization of The Design And Performance Of A Cereal Thresher[Full-Text] [References]
Engr. C.O. Osueke (Ph.D)

To achieve a productive model, the operation processes need to be modeled, the model have to be properly packaged and the results thereafter should be compared and verified with other conventional models to prove validity. This forms the structure of the cereal thresher model developed. To achieve this, the processes were modeled mathematically using the various thresher and crop parameters (velocity of cylinder, crop feed rate, concave clearance, crop flow rate etc) and in-cooperating the frictional factor. After which the sub-models that characterizes performance was hence developed. The model was packaged using computer aided software based on VISUAL BASIC programming language. Using the model, the performance of the thresher was simulated and hence optimized based on minimum threshing loss. At 15% moisture level, the minimal loss is 11.78%, capacity is 211.52 kg/h and unthreshed grain flow rate of 0.021 kg/s while other performance characteristics are v= 18m/s, Q= 0.18kg/s, c= 0.02m. On validation with published data of past researchers, the model was found generally to fit well, taking R2 values which is highly significant at a= 0.001.

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Optimal Wavelet for Bangla Vowel Synthesis[Full-Text] [References]
Shahina Haque, Tomio Takara

Conventional methods uses Fourier Transform (FT) for Bangla vowel synthesis which has resolution problem. In order to produce better accuracy, we attempted Wavelet Transform (WT) with several wavelet families for analyzing and synthesizing the seven Bangla vowels. The parameters for performance evaluation for selecting optimal wavelet for Bangla phoneme synthesis are normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), signal to noise ratio (SNR), peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and retained energy (RE) of the first few coefficients of the first approximation decomposition. Our work is centered on the following wavelet families Daubechies, Coiflet, Symmlet, Biorthogonal and Reverse Biorthogonal. It is observed from our study that symmlet8(sym8) wavelet at decomposition level 5, stores more than 98% of the energy in the first few approximation coefficient with moderate SNR, PSNR and reproduces the signal with lowest NRMSE

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Different Pump Configurations for Discrete Raman Amplifier[Full-Text] [References]
Arwa H. Beshr, Moustafa H. Aly and A.K. AboulSeoud

In a discrete Raman fiber amplifier, the gain depends strongly on the difference between the pump and signal wave lengths. One of the major attractive characteristics of Raman amplification is that, it can be used over a very wide wavelength range by multiplexing different wavelengths together. This paper describes the net gain of the discrete Raman amplifier (DRA) as a function of the fiber length at different pump configurations: forward pumping (co-pumping), backward pumping (counter-pumping) and bidirectional pumping. Also, input pump power as function of span length is presented. The signal and pump wavelengths are, respectively, 1550 nm and 1450 nm

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Study the Impact of Fatigue and Optimizing Productivity of an Assembly Line of Garment Industry[Full-Text] [References]
Mahmud, Mahbubur, Dr. Nafis

Improving productivity is one of the main concerns of apparel industries. This paper provides the idea how productivity levels changes at different time during normal working hours in apparel industries. A noble approach is also proposed to optimize the productivity level. There are many factors which act as obstacles to higher productivity. Unskilled workers, physical fatigue from extended working hour without rest, misplacement of worker at workstation, lack of training, lack of knowledge, awareness are few factors related to worker which directly affect the productivity. Fatigue lowers average productivity, measured as output per worker hour, for almost all of the apparel industries. As the overall daily performance of each worker is not same and the change in their performance defer from one worker to another worker bottleneck creates in the assembly line. During the investigation attention is concentrated on how physical fatigue of workers influences the daily production rate and how to optimize the productivity. If physical fatigue exists, loss due to fatigue can be reduced to a remarkable label. Here, a study has been carried out to find out the effect of fatigue on productivity and to form a framework to improve the productivity based on the overall performance of workers by reducing fatigue.

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Real-Time Sky Color with Effect of Sun's Position[Full-Text] [References]
Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar

In the rendering of outdoor scenes in virtual environments, the sun's position, sky color, clouds, shadow, trees, grass etc play very important roles in making it realistic. In this paper Sky color and the sun's position are combined. Specific longitude, latitude, date and time are required parameters to calculate the exact position of the sun. The sun's position is calculated based on Julian dating; the sky's color is created by Perez modeling. A functional application is designed to show the position of the sun and then sky color in arbitrary location, date and time. It can be possible to use this application in commercial games for outdoor rendering and for teachers to teach some part of physics about earth orbit and effect of the sun on the sky and it can be used in building design.

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Web-based Land Records System - The case of Ghana[Full-Text] [References]
N.D. Tagoe, S. Mantey

In Ghana, there is general indiscipline and lack of transparency in the land market. This is characterized by multiple sales of residential parcels, land encroachments and haphazard development. Land records form the bases of all land reforms and therefore regular online update of land records is essential.The objective of the web-based land records system therefore was to provide a quick, secure and transparent access to land records and land registration via the Internet and other communication devices. This will de-centralize the land registration process and thus reduce the workload on the land registration offices.This will also encourage land registration or legal parcel documentation due to the flexibility and simplicity of the system. The methods employed involve (1) providing GIS data access through MapObject and ODBC Driver, (2) integrating Google Earth (GE) with GIS application using COM API: (3) importing GIS data into Google Earth: (4) linking GIS data with KML: (5) accessing external tabular data through 'relate' and (6) querying and visualizing land records online using Google Maps.The outcome of this study is a user-friendly web-based land records from which authorized users and subscribers can visualize and access a secured land records in the country. The new system will bring transparency and improve the way land records are maintained and administered in the country. The system will not only simplify the process of land registration and land records keeping, but will also provide many collateral benefits

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Modeling of spatially based street gazetteer in cor-relation with e-government and civil registration[Full-Text] [References]
Perparim Ameti

Information about land is widely used by stakeholders for different purposes both in public and private sector as well as by the citizens. The users need data about location of certain land areas or real property, and the attribute data related to that specific area or real property such as address information. This information enables many government and public institutions to mange with their daily activities and customers requests. Each organization will have different business drivers and data requirements but one area where there is likely to be commonality is the spatial element associated for example with addresses but also other data elements. Development of a national street gazetteer will provide the benefits to relevant institutions and to the citizens, which will accrue in areas such as healthcare, education, security, census etc. A fully functioning street gazetteer system will be the effective mechanism through which residents of Kosovo become eligible for social services, travel documents and much more. It is the mechanism through which Citizens become eligible to vote and to seek public office and the mechanism for defining disabilities and minorities.

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Application of Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for Robot Optimal Controller Design[Full-Text] [References]
Mohammad Pourmahmood Aghababa

In this paper, a modified shuffled frog leaping (MSFL) algorithm is proposed to speed up the convergence of the standard shuffled frog leaping (SFL) method. The MSFL approach is based on an adaptive accelerated position changing of frogs. This modification causes a fast convergence rate and consequently achieving a rapid adaptive algorithm. The proposed method is used to design the optimal controller parameters for a five bar linkage manipulator robot. Simulation results have verified the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method in practical issues. The features and the advantages of MSFL algorithm, such as escaping from local optima traps, global optimization, good robustness, simple mechanism and fast convergence, would make MSFL method as a promising optimization approach.

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Smart Interactive Comprehensive Learning Aid: Practical Application of Bruner's Theories in Primary Education[Full-Text] [References]
H.K.T.C. Halloluwa, A.P. Kaushalya, P.K.B.P.S. Bandara, K.D.S. Yapa, S. S. Sumanadasa

Smart Interactive Comprehensive Learning Aid (SICLA) is learning and teaching aid, implemented based on Bruner's theory on the development of the children (1996), in education. The main objective is to provide an automated interactive learning tool for children who can learn and acquire knowledge with minimum teacher support. According to the Bruner's theory, for effective teaching and learning can be done through three modes of representation: enactive representation (action based), iconic representation (image based), and symbolic representation (language based) and that is the main focus for this automated tool. This interactive solution focuses mainly the development of language skills, enactive skills and cognitive skills of a child through some software based activities. Activities selected carefully by focusing above underline skill and the level of knowledge that the child has and the age child is in. Therefore the selected activities leads to acquire new knowledge within interactive environment and the performance of the child evaluate with the aid of intelligent components of the software application. Some of the activities includes are the Letter identifier by object tracking, speech capturing, story builder and a smart story board, memory activities and innovative object designing. The implemented solution capable of expanding to capture new knowledge of parent/ teacher and that can be acquired by the child with or without their support. Advanced neural network techniques help to capture child knowledge and evaluate them with the constructive feedbacks in the execution time.One of the key intentions of this automated tool is to deliver a user friendly automated learning tool grounded with proven effective teaching techniques in affordable cost.

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An Overview of Ischemia Detection Techniques[Full-Text] [References]
Amit Kumar Manocha, Mandeep Singh

In recent years several researchers have put great efforts in biomedical engineering for improving the diagnostic techniques used by the physiologists. A lot of research has been done in biomedical signal processing which includes the signal enhancement, signal compression, artifacts and noise removal like power line interference removal, base line drift removal. For detection of cardiac arrhythmia and ischemia using ECG signal, many emerging techniques and algorithms have been proposed. Ischemia is one of the cardiovascular diseases which are responsible for almost 20% of the deaths around the world. Some of the recently developed algorithms by these researchers have given remarkable results for ischemia. In this paper we review these existing algorithms for detection of ischemia in terms of their performance and capabilities with respect to standard databases available worldwide.

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3-D Camera SoPC Design Architecture[Full-Text] [References]
Prof. Shashank Pujari

It is often seen that the available knowledge base within an organisation influences the selection of the design platform. The two major contenders for signal processing hardware platforms are DSP processor and FPGA. DSP processor offers high compute intensive complete embedded product where as FPGA offers high flexibility to a System on Programmable Chip (SoPC) designer for proof of concept at formative stage of the system design leading to manufacturable prototype at a later stage before the final ASIC implementation. The constraint aware design brings forth many challenges in terms of cost, size, memory, performance and time to market. The paper highlights the design cycle of finding the right platform after weighing the pros and cons of the design constraints and the design space exploration by way of a project based case study of a 3-D camera controller SoPC design on FPGA.

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Application of Wavelet Transform for Power Quality Studies of Signal Notches in Weak AC System[Full-Text] [References]
S.Debdas, M.F.Qureshi

The emergence of power quality as a topical issue in power systems in the 1990s largely coincides with the huge advancements achieved in the computing technology and information theory. This unsurprisingly has spurred the development of more sophisticated instruments for measuring power quality disturbances and the use of new methods in processing the measurements. Fourier theory was the core of many traditional techniques and it is still widely used today. However, it is increasingly being replaced by newer approaches notably wavelet transform and especially in the post-event processing of the time-varying phenomena. This article reviews the use of wavelet transform approach in processing power quality data. The power quality disturbances like sag, swell, notch, spike, transients and chirp and analyzed using various transform techniques such as Chriplet transform, S-transform and Wavelet transform. Wavelet transform has received greater attention in power quality as this is well suited for analyzing certain types of transient waveforms. In this paper, Multi-Resolution Analysis technique (MRA) is used to decompose the disturbances. The detection of signal notches in weak utility system is a difficulty of power quality detection. Also it is the focus of power quality detection research. A new strategy of wavelet transformation is used to realize the detection of power quality disturbance is mentioned. Daubechies wavelet transformation and dyadic filter based multi resolution algorithm are used in wavelet arithmetic. This paper will demonstrate an application of wavelet transform in this area which is superior in many respects to the earlier methods.

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Adsorption - Desorption of Metolachlorand 2,4-D on Agricultural Soils[Full-Text] [References]
Rounak M. Shariff

Adsorption - desorption behavior of metolachlor [ 2-chloro-N- (2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide)] which is nonionic herbicide, and 2,4-D (2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) as anionic herbicide have been studied, by performing batch equilibrium experiments on six agricultural soil samples which has different texture. The adsorption processes of metolachlor and 2, 4-D on the soil solid matrix exhibited moderate rate of accumulation with 20.30% and, 24.71 % respectively after 0.5h. Data revealed that the adsorption- desorption of metolachlor and 2, 4-D on the selected soil samples followed the first order rate law. Linear and Freundlich models were used to describe the adsorption- desorption of the two pesticides. Variation in adsorption affinities of the soils to the pesticides was observed, distribution coefficient Kd values for adsorption process varied between 1.882 - 3.025 mlg-1 and 2.123- 3.989 mlg-1 for metolachlor and 2,4-D respectively , and for desorption process varied between 4.222- 10.986 and 4.755- 14.54 mlg-1 for metolachlor and 2,4-D respectively. Freundlich coefficient KF for metolachlor and 2,4-D ranged between 0.105-0.312 and 0.119-0.355 mlg-1 for adsorption processes. The value Freundlich coefficient for desorption process KFdes ranged from 0.479 to 1.130 mlg-1 and 0.284 to 1.012 mlg-1 for metolachlor and 2,4-D respectively. Values of equilibrium constant Ko conducted by the ratio between the constant rate of adsorption to the constant rate of desorption, equilibrium constant for metolachlor and 2,4-D on selected soil samples were in the following from 1.345 to 1.572 and from 1.157 to 1.706 respectively. All desorption isotherms exhibited hysteresis. Higher desorption hystersis (for metolachlor and 2,4-D was less readily desorbed).

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GSM Based Smart Data Logger System[Full-Text] [References]
K. Immanuvel Arokia James, M. Jagabar Sathik, M. Praveen

The aim of this paper is the faculty should maintain the punctuality to enter the class rooms. In any organization, the staff monitoring can be done by a manually or with help of finger print. It requires like Personal computer, more man power, man power cost and time delay. In this paper discussed about automatic monitoring system. The device will send the pre-message to the faculty about class time, if the fail to present on class staring time or if they leave the class room the before class end time it will send the message to the higher authorities of the institutions and we can maintain the database with help of external memory card slot. We have designed only for Educational Institutions.

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GSM based Multi node Pressure Sensor in Barometric Altimeter - A Survey[Full-Text] [References]
K. Immanuvel Arokia James, K. Sudheer

Our proposed project was mainly based on GSM networks and controller. Barometer is a well-organized tool for determining atmospheric pressure. The altimeter is a tool which calculates the vertical distance in accordance with a reference level. The barometric altimeter, computes the altitude according to the atmospheric pressure. Accuracy and size are the major issues in altimetry. MEMS based Barometric Altimeter is implemented using the following two terminals of embedded barometer Module. Even though the size of the MEMS based Barometric Altimeter is reduced, it provides more accuracy. The measured parameters are transmitted through commands using GSM modem from the controller to the mobile network. In the other end the GSM data is received and the readings are compared and the corresponding adjustments are made by the controller by vertical wheel adjustments. This process will be continued to achieve the equal level. This methodology can be used to measure the altitude at different places by means of separate arrangement.

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Visualization Approach to Effective Decision Making on Hydrological Data[Full-Text] [References]
Faudziah Ahmad, Khairul Bariah Ahmad, Azliza Othman

Temporal data is by nature arranged according to the sequence of time where the order of the data is very significant. Thus in order to visualize a temporal data, the order of the data has to be preserve that will show certain trends or temporal patterns. Most visualization technique however uses technical visual representation such as bar chart and line graph. This approach is suitable and can be easily comprehended only by technical users. In order to reduce the learning curve in understanding the prototype develop and facilitate decision making, metaphor based visualization approach was used for representing temporal hydrological data. To evaluate the correct of decision making similarity test was conducted by using data mining approach, specifically incorporating case-based reasoning. The test case or new data was compared with the case extracted from previous operation data and the case closely was examined by exploring the detailed data. Results were evaluated through usability testing and similarity testing. The prototype was demonstrated to a group of users specifically three DID staff involved with the dam operation directly and indirectly. The feedbacks received from the users are positive where the interface objects used took a short time for them to learn and understand due to the familiarity of the representation. One look at the map, it will give them the overall picture of the situation patterns of the dam water level and rainfall around the catchments area according to the time frame chosen. The metaphorical representation based visualization is used as a basis to represent temporal and multi-variate data using icon based technique and colour code to enhance interface usability and usefulness. This type of representation can be easily understood by a non-expert from the domain. The visualization actually assists users in the process of decision-making by representing the patterns in form close to the mental model of a user by using metaphor. This help speed up data exploration thus decision-making process. In critical situation speed and accuracy is vital in the decision making process.

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Performance Evaluation of Vacuum System: Pump-down Time[Full-Text] [References]
Vishal D. Chaudhari, Avinash D. Desai

Vacuum system finds applications in number of industries like process industry, pharmaceutical industry, petroleum industry, material handling industry, etc. In most of its applications it is used as vital part of the system. A suboptimal performance in vacuum system may result in inferior overall system performance. The performance of vacuum system is practically gauged in terms of time required to achieve the requisite low pressure. This time is referred as pump-down time. Among the number of factors affecting pump-down time important are pressure to be achieved and configuration of the system (length and diameter of tubing used to connect vacuum tank and pump). In this paper theoretical procedure for calculating pump-down time is explained for the given pressure and configuration of the system. These theoretical calculations are compared with the actual observations taken from the system. Graph of evacuation pressure vs time is drawn for theoretical and actual observations and it is analyzed

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A Comparative study of COCOMO II and Putnam models of Software Cost Estimation[Full-Text] [References]
T.N.Sharma, Anil Bhardwaj, Anita Sharma

Project planning is one of the most important activities in software projects. Poor planning often leads to project faults and dramatic outcomes for the project team. If cost and effort are determined pessimistic in software projects, suitable occasions can be missed; whereas optimistic predictions can be caused to some resource losing. Nowadays software project managers should be aware of the increasing of project failures. The main reason for this problem is imprecision of the estimation. The accurate prediction of software development costs may have a large economic impact. As a consequence, considerable research attention is now directed to understand better the software development process. The objective of this paper is to provide an example base study of two software cost estimating models (COCOMO II and PUTNAM). By the case study, it is observed that Putnam model is very sensitive to the development time: decreasing the development time can greatly increase the person-months needed for development whereas COCOMO II is more realistic because it is based on functions points and object points of the project.

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Enhancement and Characterization of Indoor Propagation Models[Full-Text] [References]
Er. Neha Sharma and Dr. G.C. Lall

Radio signal attenuation and path losses depend on the environment and have been recognized to be difficult to calculate and predict. Past studies of the signal propagation, in an indoor environment have used several models with varying degrees of success and complexity. The aim of this paper is, by a precise description of the analytic model for an indoor environment, and uses it for determining the signal strength in an indoor environment. From the characterization, we propose improving existing channel models by building partitioning technique. Experimental data in this paper were processed in MATLAB. The result shows that the RSS values Vs distance help in determine Path Loss, Free Space path Loss, The results explains the variation in multi-wall model and single wall model, comparison between the empirical model with building partitioned model.

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A Survey of Fuzzy Techniques in Object Oriented Databases[Full-Text] [References]
Praveen Kumar Shukla, Manuj Darbari, Vivek Kumar Singh, Surya Prakash Tripathi

Exact information has become crucial part of the modern database applications and next generation information systems to make them more human friendly. In order to deal with information inexactness, fuzzy techniques have been extensively integrated with different database models and theories. But, object oriented database systems are extremely capable to represent and manipulate the complex objects as well as complicated and uncertain relationship existing among them. They are also much suitable for engineering and scientific applications, dealing with large data intensive applications. In this paper, a survey of different approaches regarding integration of fuzzy techniques in object oriented databases has been sketched, under numerous categories of conceptual data modeling, querying, indexing etc.

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A Wireless Based Real-time Patient Monitoring System[Full-Text] [References]
Sowmyasudhan S, Manjunath S

The paper demonstrated gives the complete idea on a system which uses four smart sensors to detect the respective four pathological parameters of a baby or a person and interfacing the cell phone to this system to alarm the doctors. The smart sensors senses the biomedical signal of the subject under study (here subject means a baby or a person with pathological disorders) and executes with the controlled coding of the mother processor that is microcontroller and further it hooks the wireless cell phone and using the application software, TEXT application protocol of the cell phone to alarm the respective doctors. With this idea to save energy by consuming the cell phone battery and to help out people below poverty line to contact experienced doctors, who are out of reach and they by analysis is done perfectly. No external source is used for triggering the alarm. Using wireless-based low cost to monitor real-time pathological parameters of the subject and say it as a simple biomedical-caring system. The system keeps an extra eye on the pathological parameters of subject under test/babies at home/ICU. The intelligent system consists of detector circuit and mobile display unit at the receiver section. The detector circuit uses different application sensors to detect health condition of the subject at the source. The mobile display unit is used to visualize the health situation by using the text based application on the cell phones by a doctor or concerned person. The standard for mobile telephony that has been used in this project is wireless communication. The ubiquity of implementation of the wireless standard has been an advantage to both consumers, who may benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without replacing phones, and also to network operators, who can choose equipment from many wireless equipment vendors. Wireless also pioneered low-cost implementation of the short message service (SMS), also called text messaging, which has since been supported on other mobile phone standards as well. The standard includes a worldwide emergency telephone number feature. So, the main aim of this project is to get information about the condition of the critical subject which needs to be monitored round the clock, which is in ICU through wireless. The wireless Transmitter sends the details about incubator's temperature, voice level , heart rate and its movement to the destination point which is a doctor's mobile and these details are displayed on the mobile screen in the form of SMS's, so that the doctor can analyze the condition from the place where he is sitting. This is the most basic foundation in the area of telemedicine application.

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Performance Comparison of Dynamic Mobile ad-hoc network on-demand multipath routing protocol with AODV[Full-Text] [References]
Archie Budhiraja ,Roopali Garg

Communication devices have become one of the most important instruments to stay in touch with each other. Over the years, engineers have been working to enhance the network protocols used by these devices for better communication. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are networks with dynamic topology and limited resources, where routing is highly correlated to their performance. Most routing algorithms focus on the establishment of a single path between the source and the destination. However, multiple routes have been proven beneficial, when used either for load balancing or as backup routing paths. In this paper we propose a novel routing algorithm which is based on the Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol and evaluate its performance in detail. Simulation results show that multiple paths can reduce the jitter and increase the throughput.

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Removal of Baseline Fluctuation From Emg Recordings [Full-Text] [References]
Sadhana Pal, Gyan Prakash Pal, Manish, Anupum Bhardwaj

Appropriate cancellation of the baseline fluctuation (BLF) is an important issue when recording EMG signals as it may degrade signal quality and distort qualitative and quantitative analysis. We present statistical and filter-design approach for cancellation of the BLF based on several signal processing techniques used sequentially. The methodology is to estimate the spectral contents of the BLF, and then to use this estimation to design a high pass Butterworth filter by using Bilinear Transformation that cancel the BLF present in the signal. Two merit figures are devised for measuring the degree of BLF present in an EMG record. These figures are used to compare both methods which naively consider the baseline without any fluctuation i.e. constant potential shift. Applications of the techniques on real and simulated EMG signals show the superior performance of our approach in terms of both visual inspection and the merit figures.

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Design of High Gain Folded-cascode Operational Amplifier Using 1.25 µM CMOS Technology[Full-Text] [References]
Er. Rajni Nagal

This paper presents a design of the Folded-cascode operational amplifier using 1.25µm CMOS technology, which leads to high gain as compared to a normal cascode circuit. The simulation of the cascode and folded cascode circuits is done using TSPICE simulation tool and the LEVEL-2, 1.25 µm parameters are used. A complete analysis of the circuit is presented in this paper which shows how this circuit leads to a high gain and resistance at output. A comparison between the cascode and Folded-Cascode op amps is described. We have also described their simulated and calculated results comparison individually. This paper provides a considerable insight into the overall operation and advantages of the folded-cascode circuit. This design overcomes some limitations and drawbacks of the various previously presented described architectures

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Traffic based Virtual Topology Design in a Small WDM Network with Comparative Analysis of Wavelength Dependent Cost of Established Lightpaths[Full-Text] [References]
Ms. Harmandar Kaur

In order to establish a virtual topology for a given physical topology, in a small WDM network i.e. with four to six nodes, we are considering traffic as the constraint. Another important factor is the virtual degree constraint, which is equal to the number of transmitters and receivers supported by a node in the network. The virtual topologies are designed using decreasing traffic sequence virtual topology design (DTS-VTD) algorithm and traffic independent virtual topology design (TI-VTD) algorithms, with varying virtual degree value. In the designed virtual topologies, the hops occur without violating the wavelength conflicting constraint. The topologies so designed are compared on the basis of their network traffic load satisfying capability and finally wavelength dependant cost effectiveness of the designed topologies is studied using the joint wavelength route selection algorithm in conjunction with the DTS-VTD algorithm and TI-VTD algorithm

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Pilot study of the osseous morphological changes in the temporomandibular joint in subjects with bilateral missing lower posterior teeth[Full-Text] [References]
Nasser Aly, Hasnah Hashim, Harlina Saleh, Dzuraida Abdullah

We evaluated osseous morphological changes in the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) in subjects with bilateral missing lower posterior teeth. We selected 13 men with class ? dental occlusion who fulfilled the study criteria. They were assigned to control group comprising 8 subjects with complete set of teeth, and test group comprising 5 subjects with bilateral missing lower posterior teeth. Two cephalometric radiographs were taken for each subject, one as base line and the other after 7 months for linear measurements of the mandibular condyle. The test group showed an increase in glenoid fossa depth (base line and after 7 months, median = 0.8600 and 0.7500, interquartile range (IQR) = 0.210 and 0.310 cm, respectively) and a slight decrease in the anterior-posterior dimension of the condyle (base line and after 7 months, median = 1.1300 and 1.1100, IQR = 0.575 and 0.505 cm, respectively). The control group showed an increase in glenoid fossa depth (base line and after 7 months, median = 0.8650 and 1.0550, IQR = 0.353 and 0.215 cm, respectively) and an increase in the anterior-posterior dimension of the condyle (base line and after 7 months, median = 1.1500 and 1.1700, IQR = 0.305 and 0.180 cm, respectively). Our findings do not support the hypothesis that loss of occlusal support causes osseous changes in the TMJ in men. However, this could be due to the small sample size and shorter study duration. We suggest that these changes be studied using a larger sample size to achieve stronger conclusions.

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A New Process of Oscillation of All Celestial Objects And The Universe[Full-Text] [References]
Anil Kumar Thanvi

No planet, and their moon also, star, black hole, galaxy i.e. all celestial objects and also universe do not rotate on its axis. The shape of all these celestial objects and universe oscillate between two shapes confocal oblate spheroids and concentric spheres geometrical shapes. Every celestial objects and universe oscillate from confocal oblate spheroid (E) to concentric sphere (S) and from concentric sphere (S) to confocal oblate spheroid (E) geometrical shapes. This oscillation theory of all these celestial objects and universe is called ESE oscillation theory. The base of this oscillatory theory is ideal geographical model and model of dark matter.

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Analysis of A Lens Based Antenna Using Spherical Modes[Full-Text] [References]
Prakash Biswagar, Dr. S.Ravishankar, S.Shashidhar

A fixed shaped beam antenna offers an excellent compromise between cost and system performance in high data rate systems operating in the frequency range of 5- 65 GHz. Shaped Dielectric Lenses perform the task of collimation and shaping, along with physically small feed antennas, to obtain multiple and shaped beams in a fixed set of directions. Lenses are inherently broadband, easy to fabricate, have lower dimensional tolerances, cost effective and act as radome for the primary radiators that are embedded inside or placed behind the lens. Earlier techniques for the analysis of shaped dielectric lenses, employed ray tracing methods of GO and PO, that are valid only in the far field of a primary point source type of radiator. But the dielectric lens is in the near field of finite sized primary radiators oriented at different angles and at different distances from the lens center. In this paper we discuss, a new accurate analytical procedure for the radiation pattern of a spherical lens excited by a rectangular patch. The lens is treated as a scatterer. Techniques for radial translation and spatial rotation of the small aperture Spherical Modal Complex Coefficients (SMCC) are utilized to align them to the phase center of the Dielectric Lens. The SMCC of the scattered fields due to the lens are then obtained by application of boundary conditions. Sample computations are performed to demonstrate the approach and supported by experimental results

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Electrical and Dielectric Properties of Aluminium Titanate[Full-Text] [References]
C.Sudheendra, and T.Subba Rao

Aluminum titanate (Al2TiO5) ceramics have a low thermal expansion coefficient, which results in excellent thermal shock resistance, low young's modulus, moderate strength, and low wettability by liquid metals. It is due to these properties that make the Al2TiO5 suitable for high-temperature applications where thermal shock resistance and thermal insulation is required, such as components of internal combustion engines, exhaust port liners, metallurgy and thermal barriers. Solid state diffusion method is the most commonly used for the preparation of titanates. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are the most commonly used techniques for the determination of crystal structure. Unit cell, cell parameters, crystallite size, stress, strain are the parameters that can be evaluated from the XRD data. Surface morphology i.e.grain size, grain boundaries, etc, dislocations, twin boundaries etc and the composition are the structural parameters that can be evaluated from the SEM and EDAX data. The Electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power measurements are used for understanding the conduction mechanism. The change of the dielectric constant (e) depends on the grain size affecting stress distribution in the grain. The grain size dependence of (e) has been investigated in ferroelectric materials.

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Development of SiC BJT Based PWM Inverter for Renewable Energy Resources[Full-Text] [References]
Dr.R.Seyezhai

Silicon Carbide (SiC) BJT switch is attractive for inverters because it does not have the thermal runaway and slow switching problems associated with Si BJTs. This paper investigates the potentials of SiC BJT based PWM inverter for renewable energy resources. The static and switching characteristics of SiC BJT are simulated using MATLAB. Comparisons are carried out with a state-of-the-art Si IGBT with the emphasis on total losses. The simulation results are verified with experimental data. It is found that SiC BJT has much smaller conduction and switching losses than the Si IGBT. A prototype of BITSiC1206 BJT inverter switched at 100 kHz has been developed by employing a novel inverted sine carrier PWM technique. This method is compared with the conventional PWM in terms of THD and switching losses. The proposed modulation technique is implemented using a FPGA processor so that better resolution is achieved in the control of inverter output voltage magnitude and it is verified experimentally.

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Normalization Completeness for Conceptual Model using Quantitative Fuzzy Functionality[Full-Text] [References]
Nayyar Iqbal, Akmal Rehan, Dr. Khalil Ahmed

In this new approach to measure normalization completeness for conceptual model is introduced using quantitative fuzzy functionality. We measure the normalization completeness for conceptual model in two steps. In the first step different normalization techniques are analyzed up to Boyee Codd Normal Form (BCNF) to find the current normal form of the relation. In the second step fuzzy membership values are used to scale the normal form between 0 and 1. This research is incorporating case studies to explain the normalization completeness measurement process. Normalization completeness is measured by considering completeness attributes, preventing attributes of the functional dependencies and total number of attributes. If the functional dependency is non-preventing then the attributes of that functional dependency are completeness attributes. The attributes of functional dependency which prevent to go to the next normal form are called preventing attributes.

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Ebja - America's Secret Love Child - An Exploratory Study[Full-Text] [References]
Dr. Onwuatuegwu Echezona

Ebja, sometimes written as Ebeye, is a one-of-a-kind city within the Republic of Marshall Island (RMI). With an inimitable cultural background and peaceful indigenes, Marshall Island has been known to house one of the most stable people in the world. Located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean and away from the rest of the world, this nation has become a highly interesting place for the United States. Not only has the US set up a rigid platform for the protection and defense of its friends and allies, but it has also signed an official treaty and compact agreement to provide for the Marshall Island people in terms of economic growth and development. While the symbiotic relationship between the two countries is thriving, there are silent protests and concerns amongst the hosts.

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Reengineering of Data Warehouse of Public Sector[Full-Text] [References]
Ashok Kumar, Anil Kumar

Data warehouse is a process of evolution and is a silver bullet of any one sector either public sector or private sector. As is universal truth, after specific time period database of these sector degrade its performance due to several reason, therefore reengineering of data warehouse is needed to increases the performance of data warehouse and reduces the risk associated with the modification of application

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BER Analysis of MIMO-OFDM System Using OSTBC Code Structure for M-PSK under Different Fading Channels[Full-Text] [References]
Lavish Kansal, Ankush Kansal and Kulbir Singh

MIMO-OFDM system has been currently recognized as one of the most competitive technology for 4G mobile wireless systems. MIMO-OFDM system can compensate for the lacks of MIMO systems and give play to the advantages of OFDM system. In this paper, a general orthogonal space time block code (OSTBC) structure is proposed for multiple-input multiple-output-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems for 8X8 antenna configuration. The signal detection technology used in this paper for MIMO-OFDM system is Zero-Forcing Equalization (linear detection technique). In this paper the analysis of high level of modulations ( i.e M-PSK for different values of M) on MIMO-OFDM system is presented. Here AWGN and Rayleigh channel have been used for analysis purpose and their effect on BER for high data rates has been presented. The proposed MIMO-OFDM system with OSTBC using 8X8 antenna configuration has better performance in terms of BER vs SNR than the other systems.

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Technique for Examing Epicyclic Gear Box[Full-Text] [References]
Krish Gupta, Ajay Sharma

This paper presents a method for analyzing epicyclic gearboxes by evaluating the speeds, torques and efficiency of the external elements in epicyclic gear mechanisms, as well as the total ratios of the gear box. The method is based on the equations that describe each epicyclic gear mechanism and rules that assign appropriate codes to the external elements. The method emphasizes how power flows are transmitted through the epicyclic gears. Analysis of an epicyclic gear box is performed to illustrate the proposed method.

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GA based optimal design of network architecture for desired connectivity and traffic demand[Full-Text] [References]
S.V.Uma, K.S.Gurumurthy, Manoj Kumar Singh

Designing of a network which could fulfill most of the requirements is always a challenging task for a researcher. Often this happens either with manual approach or by applying some kind of conventional methods. In both cases results do not have high level of optimality. Evolutionary computation is a beacon of hope in handling complex design problems in an efficient manner. To reduce the effect of congestion, various approaches can be applied at different levels namely over Architecture level and Protocol level. The performance of a protocol completely depends upon the facilities available with existing architectures which are stagnant. Hence our research aims at improving the connectivity according to demand in the network having minimum cost of architecture, which is a better alternative and a very efficient way to handle network congestion and reliability. Such kind of network design is a very tedious task. Hence involment of intelligence incorporated into the network design for automatic synthesis is a must. Automation of this design in this paper is done using genetic algorithm. This paper proposes a technique based on Genetic algorithm, which uses a new method of two point crossover, a different and efficient technique of fitness evaluation and tournament selection. The simulations yielded an automatic network architecture which satisfied the requirement of connectivity and minimum cost, fulfilling the traffic demand all along for varying number of nodes and connectivity constraints.

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Effect of Adding Input and Output Impedance Transformer on Wilkinson Power Dividers Performance[Full-Text] [References]
A. Al-Hindawi, S. Mahmood

Even though the two-stage Wilkinson N-way power divider is simple to design, realize and test, It has been used with strict restrictions in design and fabrication because it requires a very high impedance microstrip line, i.e., extremely low aspect ratio W/H or very thin line conductor width. To overcome this limitation in realizable characteristic impedance a quarter-wave length impedance transformer section between two lines is used. This research investigates the effect of adding quarter-wave lines impedance transformation to two-stage Wilkinson N-way power divider on the performance parameters.

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Audio Watermarking: A critical review[Full-Text] [References]
M. O Agbaje , A.T Akinwale and A.N Njah

The proliferation of digital audio file is costing loss of revenue to the owner of copyright information especially in the music industry. The paper brings to view works done by various on digital audio watermarking and using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) with chaotic watermarking towards carrying out investigation for real life application.

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Interval Linear Programming with generalized interval arithmetic[Full-Text] [References]
G. Ramesh, K. Ganesan

Generally, vagueness is modelled by a fuzzy approach and randomness by a stochastic approach. But in some cases, a decision maker may prefer using interval numbers as coefficients of an inexact relationship. In this paper, we define a linear programming problem involving interval numbers as an extension of the classical linear programming problem to an inexact environment. By using a new simple ranking for interval numbers and new generalized interval arithmetic, we attempt to develop a theory for solving interval number linear programming problems without converting them to classical linear programming problems

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Layer Based Intrusion Detection System for Network Security (LBIDS)[Full-Text] [References]
B. Uppalaiah, N. Vamsi Krishna, R. Rajendher

In this paper we present a general framework for an Intrusion Dection System which we called as Layer Based Intrusion Detection System (LBIDS). We base our framework on the fact that any network needs to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and/or services which can be compromised only sequentially one after the other, i.e. availability followed by authentication and authorization and finally leading to loss of confidentiality and integrity. Our framework examines different attributes at different layers to effectively identify any breach of security at every layer. This would have the advantage of reducing the computation and increasing the detection accuracy. This is attributed to the fact that oncesan anomaly is detected at a layer; it saves the computation required by subsequent layer(s) by simply blocking it at the point of identification. Detection accuracy can be increased as the features that are selected to be evaluated to make any decision at a particular layer are optimized to detect that particular attack category

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Optimization of Riser size of Aluminium alloy (LM6) castings by using conventional method and computer simulation technique[Full-Text] [References]
T.Nandi, R.Behera, S kayal, A Chanda, G.Sutradhar

Simulation is now well accepted as a scientific approach to casting methoding, ensuring design process parameters, internal quality, optimal yield and short development time of casting process. Method layout involves decisions regarding part orientation in mould, parting line, cores, cavity layout, feeders, neck and gating system. An improper method layout leads either poor quality or low yield, which affects the productivity. Method design is mostly carried out manually, using 2D drawing of the cast part. Then tooling is fabricated and the sample castings are produced to 3-4 trials to achieve sound castings, which involves lot of production cost in the from of wastage of manpower, time and hamper the day to day scheduled production. Computer simulation provides a clear insight regarding the location and extent of internal defects, ensuring casting are right as first time and every time.

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Designing and Knowledge Based Expert System for Handling Business Dynamics[Full-Text] [References]
Sunita Bansal, Manuj Darbari

This paper focuses on creation of Knowledge base for handling business dynamics using domain transformation by applying back propagation network

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Algorithmic Resolution of an ER Schema into Relational DDL Statements using Artificial Intelligence[Full-Text] [References]
Manuj Darbari, Hasan Ahmed, Sunita Bansal

The concept of this paper helps resolve an ER schema into an appropriate relational Data Description Language (herein standard SQL statements) while considering all the inherent complexity of such a schema. The algorithm resolves all the relationships between the concerned entities (even weak ones), their associated keys - primary and foreign, attributes - simple, composite and multivalued and relationships types from binary to n-ary. The algorithm (as implemented in ANSI C) is smart enough to consider the case of cascading weak entities

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Modeling of Age Specific Fertility Rates of Jakarta in Indonesia: A Polynomial Model Approach[Full-Text] [References]
Md. Rafiqul Islam

Modeling of ASFRs for Jakarta, Indonesia: A Polynomial Model Approach

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Comparative Study Of Steel Angles As Tension Members Designed By Working Stress Method And Limit State Method[Full-Text] [References]
Prof. Ravindra Bhimarao Kulkarni, Rohan Shrikant Jirage

The latest version of the Code of Practice for general construction in steel IS 800:2007 is based on Limit State Method of design. The design concept is totally changed in comparison to earlier IS 800:1984 which is based on elastic method. In the present work, the detailed study of structural components as tension members by designing using Limit State Method and Working Stress Method has been carried out and submitted the comparative study of the same in the form of graphs and charts, which highlights the actual economy achieved by Limit State Method over Working Stress Method for different structural sections. The observations made based on this study are very much useful to the practicing structural engineers.

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Geographic Information System (GIS) - for Business Analytics[Full-Text] [References]
Dr.Kavita KM, Prof Gouri Patil

Modern Commerce, advanced technologies and infrastructure stimulates business expansions. India being an emerging market finds its continuous expansion exhibiting the growth registered every year. This phenomenon of expansion in retail business is in the verge of sustenance as observed by the rapidly increasing number of Malls all over metros of India . However there have been instances in Navi-mumbai that the concept of retailing in the form of malls were not so encouraging ,but slowly customer buying behavior is changing and are becoming more and more receptive to what the market has to offer

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Student Attendance Software[Full-Text] [References]
Mrs.Dhanashree Amit Gupta

Attendance Management System is a software developed for daily student attendance in schools, collages and institutes. If facilitates to access the attendance information of a particular student in a particular class.The information is sorted by the operators, which will be provided by the teacher for a particular class. This system will also help in evaluating attendance eligibility criteria of a student.

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Natural resource inventory of Manbazar block (Purulia district) in the eastern plateau of India: Technology intervention for sustainable agricultural development[Full-Text] [References]
Aditi Sarkar, P.K. Ghosal, B. Mahato and Pabitra Banik

Natural resource base degradation, forest denudation, instability in crop production due to scarcity of water necessitates a thorough insight on sustainable agricultural development for conservation of natural resources not only for the present generation but also for the posterity. An attempt had been made to study the natural resource inventory of part of eastern plateau of India, using LISS III satellite imagery and Participatory Rural Appraisal Technique (procedure for rapid acquisition of sufficient knowledge with the involvement of rural people and household survey for development activity and decision making). Topo-sequence based micro-level study revealed that there were four types of land situations: upper terraces locally called Tanr, Bahri (land close to homesteads), Baad (middle terraces) and Garha (lower terraces). Adverse biophysical and socioeconomic conditions and age-old, traditional, unscientific agricultural activities in the region act as deterrents for crop production and natural resource management. Based on the study, it can be concluded that priority should be given to long term strategies encompassing: construction of water harvesting structure of different sizes for different land situations; silviculture or silvi-pastoral system (cultivation of trees and pasture simultaneously) on upland; cultivation of short duration flash flood tolerant high yielding rice variety for Aman (wet) season, and cold tolerant rice variety for winter season in low land areas; social forestry in degraded land; agro-ecologically suited cropping systems with suitable variety choice for problem areas; and judicious nutrient management in homestead gardens which may be ecologically suitable, socio-economically acceptable, technologically sound, and environmentally sustainable for future perspective.

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