Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2017 Edition


Publication for Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2017.


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The effect of NAD, FAD, and Pyridoxine in immune system, as Potential Therapeutic and Preventive in Cancer and Autoimmunity[ ]


NAD is the sole substrate for PARP enzymes involved in DNA repair activity in response to DNA strand breaks; thus, NAD is critical for genome stability. Several studies, mostly using in vitro and animal models, suggest a possible role for niacin in cancer prevention. Nevertheless, large studies are needed to investigate the association between niacin deficiency and cancer risk in human populations.

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The role ofNatural killer (NK) cells as APCs,Cytotoxicity, Immunoregulatory in Innate and Adaptive immuneas Potential Therapeutic and Preventive Target in Cancer and Autoimmunity[ ]


Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are critical in host defense and immune regulation. They are activated or inhibited through the ligation of germline-encoded receptors and are involved in mediating cytotoxicity, in producing cytokines and in providing co-stimulation to cells of the adaptive immune system.

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The role of Endothelial cells in innate and adaptive immune responses, and as Potential Anti-Inflammatory therapeutic and Preventive Target in Cancer and Autoimmunity[ ]


An effective immune response depends not only on the proper activation, regulation, and function of immune cells, but also on their distribution and retention in diverse tissue microenvironments where they encounter a number of stimuli and other cell types. Endothelial cells represent a highly heterogeneous population of cells with the ability to interact with and modulate the function of immune cells.

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The effect of Amifostine, in chemotherapy, radiotherapy, as potential Cytoprotectant, and Immunomodulatory, in Cancer and Autoimmunity Treatment and Prevention[ ]


It was investigated for its potential role in radiotherapy and chemotherapy by alkylating agents, organoplatinederivates and anthracyclines(1),(2), demonstrated that amifostine-pretreated normal tissues were protected from the non-specific toxicity of therapeutic radiation while tumour tissues were not. During the 1980s clinical studies of phase I and II accumulated evidence that amifostine could protect normal tissues not only from irradiation but also from chemotherapy(3).

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The effect of Lycopene as Immunotherapy and Immuno-modulatory in Lung Cancer, Tumor and Autoimmunity Treatment and Prevention[ ]


Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis.

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Evaluation of Salicylic Acid effect on antioxidant activity in chickpea stressed by fungi[ ]


Effect of pathogenesis stress on plants depends on different developmental stage and it significantly affects yield and other physiological traits. So it is possible to use different agro-techniques to increase total yield and maintain the components value of the crops, In this frame, a range of SA concentrations (0,05 and 0,5 mM) were useafor treatments. The seeds of chickpea cultivars (ILC 3279) were treated and subjects to Fusarium.oxysporium f.sp. ciceris). Also, Seedlings plants were inoculated by these fungi and sprayed with SA concentration for eight weeks.

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Assessment of genetic and environmental effects on growth traitsofTunisian local goat kids population[ ]


The study aims to investigate some environmental factors as potential variation source upon three growth traits of Tunisian local goat kids bred under rangelands’ irregular arid conditions. Data were collected on a local goat herd from 1998 through 2014. Means ± SE were 9.44±0.96 kg, 11.67±0.13 kg and 14.07±0.16 kg for kids’ weight adjusted respectively to 90, 120 and 180 days of age. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA procedure. The model included the effects of year and season of birth, sex, type of birth and age of dam at kidding, and two-way interactions between these factors on the assessed traits. Growth traits seem to be affected (p<0.01 or 0.05) by the factors related to the restrictions and the irregularities of the technical and natural environment of pastoral husbandry, which illustrates the local population genetic response towards environmental resources in arid zone. The interaction between year and season of birth and between type of birth and sex of kids have a significant effect (p<0.01) on all studied traits. A significant interaction (p<0.05) between year and type of birth existed for weight adjusted to 90 days of age. The interactive nature of ambient factors allows better correction of non-genetic effects and prevents genotypic evaluation bias. Also, the herd management needs to be flexible to face any harsh climate and feed scarcity situation to maintain a productive and profitable goat production system with local goat population.

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The effect of Ferulic acid asFree Radical Scavenger, Hepatoprotective, Neuroprotective, Radioprotective, as potential in Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular, and Autoimmunity Treatment and Prevention(Part One)[ ]


Ferulic acid (FA), a ubiquitous natural phenolic phytochemical present in seeds, leaves, both in its free form and covalently conjugated to the plant cell wall polysaccharides, glycoproteins, polyamines, lignin and hydroxy fatty acids.

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The role of Hypothalamus in Regulating Hormonal Signaling, and Transcription Factors as potential Target on Cancer, and Metabolic disorders Treatment and Prevention(Part one)[ ]


The hypothalamus is located in the medio-basal region of the brain and acts as a gateway between the endocrine and nervous systems. The hypothalamus consists of a highly diverse collection of Inter-connected neurons and supporting glial cells that allow this region of the brain to sense and respond to a diverse range of hormonal and metabolic signals .

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Computation of Electric Field from Lighting Discharges[ ]


The electric fields due to lightning at ground was evaluated for static cases using the coulombs law. The concept of electrical image was developed considering ground as a conducting grounded plane. A tri-pole model for the charge structure of thundercloud was developed and electric fields due to such cloud structure were evaluated. Variations of electric fields due to distance were assessed and the expression of reversal distance was introduced. The graph describing the reversal distance from lightning was introduced.

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Modeling the Application of Polymer Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery[ ]


Polymer flooding is chemical method employed by engineers to enhance the recovery of oil from oil reservoirs. The technique works mainly by increasing the viscosity of injected water to improve overall sweep efficiency. For this work, recovery by polymer injection was simulated using Schlumberger Eclipse. Natural depletion of the reservoir was run to 100bars. 5 vertical wells were used and a recovery of 30% was achieved with a production plateau of about 8years. This is preferred to the use of 4 or 6 producing wells which yielded a field efficiency of 25% and 30% respectively. The 5 and 6 producing wells cases were very similar as they both had 30% recovery, similar production plateau and water cut. The 5 wells case is the preferred choice as it is more cost effective to drain the reservoir with fewer wells. Polymer injection was simulated by commencing water injection as a secondary recovery mechanism after reservoir depletion to a bottom-hole flowing pressure of above 260 bar followed by a polymer flood. This gave a significant increase in oil recovery from 30% to about 53% with the production plateau sustained for 4.8 years. A total of 11 wells were used, 7 producers and 4 injector wells.

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2-Dimensional Modeling of Hot Water Injection Application in Thermal Recovery Processes, (A Frontal Advance Approach)[ ]


The frontal advance equation developed by Buckley-Leveret which is most widely used for the modeling of immiscible fluid displacement is analyzed in 2- dimensions for this study. The investigation takes into account the injection of hot water at a temperature of 250OF and the recovery mechanism is modeled as a thermal process. Some thermal parameters of the reservoir rock and fluid system are incorporated into the B-L equation under a variety of assumptions andthe resulting predictive model showed that a farther radius of invasion as well as improved heavy oil mobility is achieved when compared to conventional waterflooding process. A sensitivity analysis conducted also revealed that heavy crude viscosity reduces significantly with increase in the temperature of injected hot water. Percentage oil recovery and fluid saturation profiles after this process showed that hot water injection can be an alternative for convectional water injection as it tackles a variety of oil mobility difficulties.

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Incisional Hernia: Precipitating factors and Prevalence of Recurrency at King Fahd Hospital of University[ ]


Introduction and objectives: A hernia is a protrusion of an organ or part of it through the wall that normally contains it. It is a common complication of abdominal surgery with an incidence rate 11%-26%. After the primary surgery, 50% of the incisional hernias develop within the first two years and 74% develop after three years. Therefore, our study was designed to identify the precipitating factors associated with incisional hernia and the prevalence of recurrence. Methodology: A retrospective cohort study including all patients presented with incisional hernia and managed by the department of General Surgery over a period of 15 years starting from 1st of January 2000 till 1st of January 2015. The variables which are included in the study are the demographic data, co-morbidity, number of pregnancy, primary surgery, duration of hospital stay, type of hernia repair, and surgical site infection. Other types of hernias are excluded from this research. The variables were collected from the patients’ files. The study was approved by Institutional Review Board (IRB) of our hospital. Results: The sample of the study is 96 patients with mean age 45 years, out of which 63 were females, 33 were males. BMI above 30 is the commonest group which developed incisional hernia (52.3%). Regarding Co-morbidity, 21% of patients with incisional hernia were diabetic. Commonest surgery associated with incisional hernia development is C-section 26.9% followed by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy 19.4%. 12.8% of the primary surgeries that were complicated by incisional hernia were associated with surgical site infection. The prevalence of recurrent Incisional hernia was 22.1%, and the highest number of recurrence was 3 hernias in the same incision. Conclusion: Recurrence of incisional hernia is high and can be avoided. Current evidence suggests that the use of mesh, good wound care and the establishment of minimal invasive procedures have a significant role in reducing recurrence rate and decreasing the burden on the patients.

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Study on reducing briquetting iron ore with El-Dekhaila iron oxide waste by carbon together hydrogen gas[ ]


Reduction of El-Baharia iron ore mixed with El-Dekhaila iron oxide waste briquette by coke breeze and hydrogen was carried out in the temperature range 700 to 950 oC. In reduction kinetic study the most satisfactory model was to take the slope of the initial linear region of fractional reduction vs. time curve as a measure of rate constant (k). In k vs. 1/T plots were straight line from which Activation Energy was calculated.

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Deep Temporalis FasciaBlanketing Supra-SMAS(superficial musculoaponeurotic) layer Versus Sub-SMAS layer dissection and preservation in preventing nasal dorsal irregularities[ ]


Background:Rhinoplasty is a complex surgical procedure used to correct nasal deformities. The main aim of this procedure is to improve thefunction and aesthetic aspect of thenose, enhancing facial harmony and the symmetryof the nose .It isconsidered asone of the most challenging operations in the field of Otolaryngology practice. In primary rhinoplasty,the two common techniques used are sub superficialmusculoaponeurotic system (Sub-SMAS)layer dissection andSupra SMAS deep Temporalis Fascia (DTF)blanketing for prevention of dorsal nasal irregularities. The aim of this study is to compare the irregularity of the nasal dorsum after rhinoplasty between(DTF)blanketing supraSMAS layer and(Sub-SMAS) layer dissection and preservation inprimary rhinoplasty.Methods:The study wasapproved by institutional review board (IRB).A retrospective chart studywasconducted on(64) patients who presented to (ENT OutPatient Department) and underwent primary rhinoplasty at tertiary care, Saudi Arabia. Patients were divided equally into2 groups,50%(32) Patients underwent (DTF)blanketing.and 50%(32) patientsunderwent(Sub-SMAS) layer dissection. Data was collectedbyobserving the preoperative and postoperative dorsal aesthetic lines symmetry outcomes.Data were tabulated using Microsoft excel sheet,SPSS used for Statistical analysis.Comparison between groups made by Student’s, t-test and Chi square test for categorical values.Result:postoperative nasal dorsal aesthetic line symmetry observation scorewas given for both the groups rngingfrom (1,2,3,4,5), 1 means-0% marked dorsal aesthetic line symmetry,2- 25% symmetry, 3- 50% symmetry four 75% symmetry and 5-100% symmetry.It was seen that25.8% of patient with temporalis fascia blanketingsupraSMAS layer had a score (5), 12.9% had score (4), 38.7% score (3), 12.9% score (2) and 9.7% had score (1), while 36.4% of patient with(Sub-SMAS) layer dissection had score (5), 33.3% score (4) , 24.2% score (3) and 6.1 % score (2). The mean score in patients before (DTF)blanketingsupraSMAS.was 2.25 and 3.32 after the surgery, while the mean score in patients (Sub-SMAS) layer dissection group was 1.97 and 4 after the surgery. The postoperative dorsal nasal irregularity observation showed that 87.1% of patients with (DTF)blanketingsupraSMASlayer,have a regular nose while 12.9% of patients have irregular nasal dorsal.87.9 % of patient with (Sub-SMAS) layer dissection have a regular nasal dorsum.while 12.1 % of them have irregular nose as the t test was significant..Conclusion: (Sub-SMAS) layer dissection is superior to the (DTF)blanketingsupraSMAS layer.in the nasal dorsal aesthetic lines outcomes, while there is no significant difference in nasal dorsal regularity between the two groups.Sub-SMAS layer dissection is superior to the supraSMAS(DTF) blanketing as observed in this study , and also offers the advantage that it can be obtained from the same operative site rather than obtaining DTFfrom a different site.

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Phagocytic activity of macrophages and proliferation of testicular germ cells in hyperprolactinemia induced in male albino rats[ ]


The present investigation is planned to demonstrate the effect of elevated prolactin hormone secretion in the testicular phagocytic cells & proliferation of the spermatogenic cells of adult male ratsfor different durations by using metoclopramide (MCP). Rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control rats group that injected with saline solution i.p. for 10 weeks, (groups II, III, and IV) rats were treated with MCP i.p. in a dose of 2.2 mg/kg/ b.w daily for different durations 4, 7 and 10 weeks, respectively. The physiological results recorded a significant increase in the levels of PRL & acid phosphatase ofrats injected with MCP i.p. in a dose of 2.2 mg/kg/ b.w daily for different durations 7 & 10 weeks(groups III and IV). Immunohistolochemical study demonstratedintense immunoreactivity to CD68 in interstitial tissue and Lydig cells of HPRL rat groups for 4, 7&10 weeks in comparable to control group.

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The role of Macrophage as APCs,Phagocytosis, and a source of ROS, as Potential Therapeutic and Preventive Target in Cancer and Autoimmunity[ ]


Macrophages, the most plastic cells of the haematopoietic system, are found in all tissues and show great functional diversity. They have roles in development, homeostasis, tissue repair and immunity.

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Wavelet and Spectral Analysis of theTabla–an Indian Percussion Instrument[ ]


Tablais a percussion instrument, mainly used as an accompaniment in Indian classical music with vocalists, instrumentalists, and often with classical dance performers, for upholding and sustaining rhythm. The Tablacomprises two drums that are structurally different and produce a range of overtones. This paper describes the spectral characteristics of the most frequently played syllable Naover five Tablavariants viz. Kali 1 C Sharp (Tipe), Pandri 2 D, Pandri 1 C, Kali 5 G Sharp, andPandri 2 D (Dalya), using two different analysis techniques viz.1) Wavelet analysis using MATLAB,and 2) FFT using:a) Origin 8, and b) DSO in real time. Wavelet analysis is used in general for analyzing localized variations of power within a time series and to determine the frequency distribution in the time-frequency domain, while the FFT computes the transformation of the original time domain signal to a representation in the frequency domain. The FFT therefore, is used to determine the prominences viz. the overtones in the syllable played. Origin is used as it offers customizable graph templates and auto-recalculation on changes to data and analysis parameters.

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The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on the Improvement of Osteoarthritis activity in Taif Region[ ]


Knee OA is an insidious disease related to structural changes in the joint over years. It is considered a leading cause of morbidity and reduced quality of life. Epidemiological studies have provided preliminary evidence supporting the potential use of vitamin D for the treatment of OA, Raising serum 25-OH D to sufficient levels with supplemental vitamin D may decrease the rate of bone turn-over, suppress the PTH level, increase bone mass density and even decrease fracture risk in the elderly population. Data was collected in this study through a questionnaire in which the severity of pain, joint stiffness, and physical activity of osteoarthritis were assessed using The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). There was an association between vitamin D supplementation and the improvement of WOMAC score in pain and stiffness parameters (OR: 0.314, 0.174, 95% CI: 0.104-0.946, 0.053-0.566, P: 0.039, 0.003 respectively), but no association between vitamin D supplementation and the improvement of WOMAC score in joint malfunction parameter (OR: 0.411, 95% CI: 0.1343 - 1.2623, P: 0.120). The results above suggest there is a statistically significant clinical benefit to vitamin D treatment in patients with OA.

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Intelligent Dynamic Decision of Sustainable Supplier Selection[ ]


The purpose of this paper is developing dynamic strategies using proactive integration of decision criteria for Sustainable Supplier Selection. More specifically, we propose to solve a multi-objective problem with a Meta-heuristic, namely the Multi Ant Colony System. Our approach of Supplier Selection goes through several steps and several decision levels, namely strategic, tactic and operational levels. Our study adds particularly sustainability and risk criteria to the standard selection criteria. We model the problem with a multi-objective optimization approach using a new multi ant colony system. Our deployment model of supplier selection strategy is dynamic, adaptable to strategy changes that must always adapt to a dynamic socio-economic environment. Moreover, our smart and multi-objective model provides several scenarios available that can be used by decision makers. One of the implications of our work would be to make comparisons with other strategy deployment approaches, and extensions to decision making in an uncertain environment. To illustrate the approach and the algorithm we consider a didactic example of a company that has several potential suppliers. We have developed different strategies of multi-objective suppliers’ selection by the proactive integration of the decision criteria as risk. The example set out in our study is particularly concerned with sustainability, risks, in addition to the criteria of cost, quality, and time. Pareto Front provides several valuable decision supports to stakeholders.

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Ensemble Classifier and Clustering for Web Page Prediction[ ]


Web usage mining is the art of discovering navigation patterns of users from web log data. Next web page prediction, a task of web usage mining, is used to envisage future requirements of the user during surfing. This paper presents an ensemble prediction system, that uses ensemble clustering and ensemble classification. The proposed system uses heterogeneous clustering ensemble model to group similar browsing sequences together, which is then used by a heterogeneous classification ensemble model to predict future requests of the user. The goal of this combination process is to improve the quality of individual data clustering and classification. Experimental results demonstrate that the combination of ensemble is efficient in terms of prediction accuracy and can be used by web masters to attract users.

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A Retrospective Study on the Ecotourism Practices in Sri Lanka in tearms of Sustainable Rural Development[ ]


Sri Lanka is one of the developing countries in south Asia practicing ecotourism since the 1980s for ameliorating the socio-economic and environmental ills as well as for achieving socio-cultural, economic, and environmental sustainability of the country. According to ecotourism principles, it basically concerns the environmental, socio-cultural, economic, and tourism sustainability through visiting relatively undisturbed natural areas. Therefore, to achieve the objectives it has to fulfill its educational, environmental, local economic, socio-cultural, and tourism responsibilities. However within last three and half a decade of Sri Lanka’s ecotourism history, ecotourism has been practiced in deferent ways by different stakeholders at deferent places. Thus, it can be identified a spectrum of ecotourism destinations in terms of sustainable rural development. Despite few genuine ecotourism destinations (multi-responsible ecotourism-MRE) that complete its multi-dimensional responsibilities, there are many pseudo destinations (competitive market economy involved ecotourism-CMEIE) where marketing irresponsible tourism activities under competitive market economy with the label of ecotourism while deteriorating the existing socio-cultural, economic and environmental conditions of destinations. Between the aforementioned two ends of ecotourism spectrum (MRE and CMEIE) there are other types of ecotourism, such as environmental responsible ecotourism and environmental-local economic responsible ecotourism destinations, where partially fulfilling ecotourism responsibilities. Hence, responsible agencies should take necessary efforts to evaluate and classify ecotourism destinations periodically, and should take necessary measures to transform irresponsible and partially responsible ecotourism destinations toward multi-responsible ecotourism to achieve sustainable rural development through ecotourism.

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Knowledge of Colorectal Cancer Screening among men in AlAhsa, Saudi Arabia[ ]


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence is constantly rising in Saudi Arabia. It is the most common cancer among men and the third among women, accounting for 53.1% and 46.9% of all males and females diagnosed with cancer. Although its incidence is increasing, public awareness remains low, therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of CRC among Saudi males in AlAhssa region and their awareness regarding its risk factors, symptoms, screening and screening methods according to various demographic characteristics.

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Trends and Impact of Vehicular Tailpipe Emission using Big Data Analytics under Smart City Environment[ ]


Internet of things (IoT) was the transformation from embedded networking where the real focus likes in networking through real world objects. Intension of the conventional transformation is that it should be user friendly. As a vehicle user most of us are unaware when the vehicle has to be serviced and maintenance. If there is an automatic indicator that the vehicle emission level is above the standard then everyone will understand the need for maintenance. Such that the vehicle will be serviced regularly and the emission level can also be reduced. Unique identification of every object was a major burden and resolving their identity was the issue. Identity in the sense where the object is, how the object can be accessed, what are actual data we are concentrated from those object, when those data has to be transferred to the end point intern its time interval. When we speak about the above mentioned four w’s there comes the role of technology which projects in the research direction.If I can sit somewhere control some other object which is not nearer, we say we are working towards smartness. Integration of smartness with the real time networking object was the key role as part of smart city concept. Getting to a smart city meant it can be any application, we are confined to but this research paper focus on smart self-automobile monitor and control application which has recent discussion in the day of pollution environment. The paper provides the detailed view to the reader about the need for the pollution analysis, networking in the vehicular transmission and the big data analytics.

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The role of Auto ZelK BRIDGE Hard wares, in Biomedical and Space Science Advanced Research and New Vaccine and Drug for cure Discovery and Development[ ]


Modern biomedical, space science research and health care are provided by multidisciplinary teams in which biomedical engineers contribute to the advancement of knowledge equally as medical professions. Biomedical engineering represents one the most rapidly growing branches of industry in the developed world.

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Optimization of an electrochemical water disinfection cell PV power supply depending on the installation climatic zone[ ]


The optimization of a power system for anElectrochemical Water Disinfection cell is presented. The aim of this work is to perform a flexible self- sustainable energy supply, based on solar photovoltaic energy source. As main characteristic, the EWD cell is designed to work mostly independently from the emplacementand over a wide range of electrical conductivity natural waters. Experimental measurement of free chlorine generation level is considered the leading variable for disinfection performance characterization. Solar power elements have been selected and tested in real sun conditions. To evaluate merit parameter variation along the effective lifetime, a simple battery ageing procedure has been performed under controlled conditions.Two PV power supply configurations, with and without accumulation support are analysed. A sample of three representative climatic zones has been identified and separately studied. The best compromise between water flow production and system cost constitute an unbiased estimator to optimize the power support selection. The results can be generalized in terms of local solar irradiations characteristics through a decision-making power design structure based on economic context, climatological characteristics and water production rates.

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Urbanisation Effect on the Occurrence of Urban Heat Island over Kano Metropolis, Nigeria[ ]


The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is a phenomenon of higher atmospheric and surface temperatures occurring in urban areas than in surrounding rural areas happening majorly as a result of urbanisation and industrialisation. The effect of urbanisation on the occurrence of UHI in Kano metropolis was investigated. Landsat images of the study area for the years of 1986, 1998, 2006 and 2016 sourced from the archives of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) were utilised in this study. Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) maps for the years of 1986, 1996, 2006 and 2016 were estimated using Model Maker in Earth Resource Development Assessment System (ERDAS) Imaging 14 software. The urban city centre exhibit higher surface temperatures compared to its sub-urban counterparts thus, indicating the presence of the Surface UHI over Kano Metropolis. Urbanisation accounted for 80.5% increment in the LST of Kano Metropolis, thus indicating a very strong positive relationship between urbanisation and UHI. Conclusively, urbanisation is identified as the major factor that leads to the occurrence of surface UHI in Kano Metropolis. Recommendations include afforestation programmes, adoption of green and cool roofing technologies, proper spacing between houses, and accommodation of green areas and open spaces and continuous monitoring of weather events.

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A Fault Tolerant Framework to Detect Routing Failures in Air Pollution Monitoring MANET Using 2ACK[ ]


This paper proposes routing fault detection in MANETs using 2ACK scheme. Routing protocols for MANETs are designed based on the assumption that all participating nodes are fully cooperative. However, due to the open structure and scarcely available battery-based energy, node fault may exist. In the existing system, there is a possibility that when a sender chooses an intermediate link to send some message to a destination, the intermediate link may pose problems such as, the intermediate node may not forward the packets to destination, it may take very long time to send packets or it may modify the contents of the packet. In MANETs, as there is no retransmission of packets once it is sent, care must be taken not to lose packets. We have analysed and evaluated a technique, termed 2ACK scheme to detect and mitigate the effect of such routing fault in MANETs environment. It is based on a simple 2-hop acknowledgment packet that is sent back by the receiver of the next-hop link. 2ACK transmission takes place for only a fraction of data packets, but not for all. Such a selective acknowledgment is intended to reduce the additional routing overhead caused by the 2ACK scheme. Our contribution in this paper is that, we have embedded some security aspects with 2ACK to check confidentiality of the message by verifying the original hash code with the hash code generated at the destination. If 2ACK is not received within the wait time or the hash code of the message is changed then the node to next hop link of sender is declared as the misbehaving link. We simulated the routing fault detection using 2ACK scheme to test the operation scheme in terms of performance parameters.

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Indicators of Sustainable Housing Development (SHD): A Review and Conceptual Framework[ ]


A conceptual framework that incorporates all relevant indicators of sustainable housing development (SHD) had been developed through literature reviews of related previous studies. The focus of the review is to gather indicators of sustainability used by previous researchers in studying sustainability, particularly in the housing development. It was found that many previous studies focused only on one or two specific dimensions of sustainability. This can affect the overall assessment of housing sustainability and actual sustainable outcomes. The reviewed indicators and conceptual framework can be employed in assessing housing development comprehensively.

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A Health Survey On Vitamin D Among Saudi Female University Students[ ]


Objective: To assess the knowledge of female Saudi students on; the causes leading to vitamin D deficiency and the foods rich in vitamin. Methods: Female students of Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were the study population. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done by adopting non-probability consecutive sampling technique. Sample size was 500. A closed-ended questionnaire was designed focusing on different causes of vitamin D deficiency and the food items rich in vitamin D. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Results: Normal range of vitamin D in the blood was known by just 32.6% of students. Right time for sun exposure to get adequate vitamin D was known by just 8.6% of students. Regarding the diet rich in vitamin D, for milk the response was 30% while for other items as fatty fish, egg yolk, beef liver, cod liver oil and cheese, the percentages were very negligible. Only 3.4% marked lack of proper sun exposure as a contributory factor for its deficiency, similarly just 17% knew that lack of fortified diet is one of the factors leading to vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: The knowledge of Saudi university students on, the food rich in vitamin D and the role of sun exposure in the synthesis of this vitamin, is poor. Effective health education programs should be started at the earliest to control this major health issue.

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Relationship between Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiovascular Diseases : a review of literature[ ]


Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a globalhealth problem. It affected approximately 1 million people worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, it is highly prevalent, ranges from 65 to 100%.Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) estimated 31% of all deaths globally. In Saudi Arabia, CVD estimated among 5.5% of Saudi population. Recent evidences indicatevitamin D deficiency association with several cardiovascular diseases andtheir risk factors such as obesity.

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Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of transition metal complexes of pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde with glycine[ ]


The schiffbase ligand was prepared by condensation of pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde with glycine. Cu(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) complexes of above ligand was synthesised as well. The synthesised ligand and complexes have characterized by Powder XRD, SEM and EDAX. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized ligand and its complexes have been tested for their antibacterial activity against bacterial species Basillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonaos aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and fungal species Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The result found that the metal complexes were more active than the ligand. Antioxidant and SOD activites of metal complexes have also been studied.

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Portable ECG (Electrocardiograph) Device[ ]


An electrocardiogram (ECG) is used to monitor the small electrical changes in the human body caused by heart activities. At least 24 hours of ECG registration is required to get accurate information about the health status of people. In this study, a compact portable ECG device has been designed by integrating two SOC chip with a Neurosky, a cardio chip BMD101 and NRF51822 chip which contains a 32 bit ARM® Cortex™ -M0 processor with embedded Bluetooth® low energy (BLE4.1 compatible with BLE4.0). The resulting biomedical signals can be viewed from the smartphone via the Android software interface. A prototype was designed, and its verification was done with real ECG data collected from the human body.

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Motor Impairments and Mobility Limitations influencing community participation among Stroke Survivors at Three Months Follow up[ ]


Stroke is damaging the motor system which included either blood supply or brain hemorrhage. Due to that damaging in the motor system, stroke individuals suffer from major impairments like mobility limitations. Mobility limitations in preforming daily life activities can prompt tosedentary lifestyle and reduced activity tolerance. Literatures show that 90% of stroke survivors couple with mobility limitations such as imbalance and muscle weakness. The findings help health care provider to understand which factors could improve community participation in stroke patients such as mobility. Also, it taking in consideration the factors that might improve stroke survivor mobility and community reintegration.

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Summary of NFC and providing a method to improve security at NFC[ ]


For the first time, the idea of NFC introduced in 2004. In fact, this technology developed for smart phones and the similar devices to define a simple communication. The devices equipped with NFC technology can act as contactless smart cards; also they are able to read and write the data. Electronic payments are one of the most important applications of the NFC. This article classifies the applications and the problems ofthe NFC technology,thenproposes and examines a new way to improve the security of electronic payments.

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Classification of emotional intelligence of sentiment polarity[ ]


Opinion mining or emotional intelligence is the calculation the learning of the consumer’s emotions and their sentiments by considering their reviews in the type of document. Now a day, this is the dynamic investigating field of information processing and mining techniques. Since it is based on opinions and as all the humans make decisions depending on other opinions its popularity is increasing day by day. In this paper, our ultimate goal is to attempt the difficulty of emotion divergence categorization, the most common problems of opining mining. In this work, Sentiment polarity classification is proposed with explaining the specified procedure. The datasets that are utilized in this work containing online goods reviews accumulated from online sites like the Amazon. Necessary evaluations for the level of sentences and review-level categorization are achieved with the promising conclusions. In the end, we also provide within reach for the potential predictions of emotional intelligence.

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Relationship between sleep disorders and diabetes mellitus :a review of literature[ ]


Background :Body functions need good quality and quantity of sleep. Glucose regulation is affected by numerous types of sleep disorders. Shorter sleep duration was found to be associated with increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies link sleep deprivation with increased risk of diabetes. Through alternation of the glucose metabolism and increase obesity .

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