Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2016 Edition


Publication for Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2016.


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Outcomes of critical illness in patients with haematological malignancy who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit and the evaluation of predictors of mortality[ ]


Aim— We studied outcomes and prognostic factors in critically ill patients with haematological malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).

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Integrated quality and maintenance decision in a production inventory model with multiple market demand[ ]


In the proposed model, the supplier has the difference in selling season in between geographically dispersed market for the importance of firm profitability. Most research paper has been examined the deterioration of the production process does not consider. In this paper we have assumed both produced items and production equipment deteriorate. The objective of the present paper is to determine the production inventory schedule and maintenance inspection schedules. When the production system deteriorates it shift to an out of control state and begins to produce a proportion of defective items necessitating corrective maintenance action. In this paper we examined the above issues with a perceptive production inventory model for deteriorating items. Manufacturer sells goods to multiple markets with different selling seasons. A model is formulated to integral several realistic aspects, including items, and process deterioration varying demand and production rates, quality, inspection and maintenance. The demand has been assumed exponential decreasing time dependent. Cost component affected by both inflation and time value of money.

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A VIRTUAL THERMODYNAMIC TEMPERATURE CONCEPT IN 2D OBSTACLE ENVIRONMENT FOR AUTONOMOUS MOBILE ROBOT[ ]


In this paper, the virtual thermodynamic temperature concept (VTTC) proposed for 2D obstacle environment for autonomous mobile robot is welcome. The concept emphasis on the heat transfer and temperature measurement of an obstacle and robot workspace with reference to the virtual target concept (VTC) for Lengthy, Concave and Wave concave shaped obstacle. This method is used to address the heat transfer (internal) and the temperature incremental area that occur in 2D workspace for autonomous mobile robot. The simulation was performed on Pentium IV Laptop, window XP (2005), 2GB Memory, 1GB Processor and 40GB Hard disk for file storage.

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ONA GENERALIZED DIFFERENCE DOUBLE SEQUENCE SPACES DEFINED BY A SEQUENCE OF ORLICZ FUNCTION[ ]


The idea of difference sequence spaces was introduced by kizmaz [4], and this concept was generalized by Malkowsky [8]. Recently ,Asma [1] defined the sequence spaces asc_0 (u ,∆ ,M ,p), c(u ,∆ ,M ,p),and l_∞ (u ,∆ ,M ,p)

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Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of usnic acid and its acetyl derivative usnic acid diacetate[ ]


Recent years there is a renewed interest in natural products screening to discover new compounds from living organisms having antimicrobial properties. Among the life forms lichens are unique by their composite nature. The lichen metabolites are well known for their bioactive properties. In this study,usnic acid, a member of dibenzofuran isolated from lichen Usneaimplicata collected from Kodaikanal hills, (South India) which was botanically identified and subjected to chemical investigation. In this study we have taken the usnic acid and usnic acid diacetate for antimicrobial activity and anti-inflammatory activity. The two test compounds were well soluble in acetone was evaluated for antibacterial and anticandidal activity by disc diffusion method.

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In vitro antimicrobial activity of barbatic acid and its acetyl derivative of barbatic acid isolated from usneaflexilis(south india)[ ]


Exploitation of novel classes of antimicrobial metabolites is increasingly noticeable over recent years. Consequently there is a renewed interest in natural product screening to discover new compounds from living organisms. Among the life forms lichens are unique by their composite nature. They are capable of synthesizing a variety of bioactive secondary metabolites. In this study, antimicrobial activity of barbatic acid, a member of depside isolated from the lichen Usneaflexilis collected from Kodaikanal hills, (South India) which was botanically identified by Botanical survey of India, Howrah, India. Barbatic acid, a depsides obtained from the lichenUsneaflexilis was spectroscopically identified and subjected to chemical investigation.The barbatic acid was also subjected to acetylation. The two test compounds barbatic acid and its acetyl derivative of barbatic acid are well soluble in acetone were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. The test compounds at 150µg/disc and 300µg/disc was tested against Bacillus substilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiellapneumoniaeand Candida albicans. The test compounds were found to be active against gram positive bacteria than to gram negative bacteria. The MIC for barbatic acid and its acetyl derivative were evaluated by broth dilution method. Candida albicans remained resistant to both the test compound. Antifungal activity of the barbatic acid was also evaluated against Fusariumoxysporum,Colletotrichumfalcatum, Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillusnigerand Curvularialunata. Inhibition of spore germination by barbatic acid and acetyl derivative were determined using cavity slide technique, Conidal germination was completely arrested by barbatic acid and its acetyl derivative of barbatic acid at 300µg/ml concentration.

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Microalgal-based biorefineries: the nextgen renewable biofuels[ ]


The sustained and prolonged usage of fossil fuels is unsustainable - this is now widely recognized and accepted. The reasons for this are two-fold. These include the associated environmental pollution and their depleting supplies. Going forward, it becomes an imperative that we identify new renewable and carbon neutral fuels. This is the need of the hour, from both an economic as well as a sustainability standpoint. It is in this context that biodiesel derived from oil crops can serve as the saviour. Biodiesel has high potential to be a renewable, while being carbon neutral, alternative to fossil fuels. However, there are some challenges. The foremost challenge is that biodiesel from oil crops currently cannot support the scale that the transportation industry requires. In this context, biodiesel that is generated from microalgae can hold significant potential as an alternate source of transport fuel. This way, it does not impact the supply of crop products too. Microalgae use sunlight highly efficiently to produce oil, unlike crop plants. In this review, we discuss how such an environmentally friendly and economically competitive microalgal biodiesel can be produced.

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Effects of cold laser therapy on infected wound healing in mice[ ]


Despite a lot of researchers were suggested that cold laser therapy can enhance healing by reducing inflammation, increase cells proliferation, enhanced collagen synthesis, its use still controversial .The optimum parameters have been still not defined .we aimed o study the effect of cold laser therapy at a constant power density (Irradiance) at different illumination time (5,15minutes) on healing of non infected and infected wounds. Ninety animals with cutaneous incisional wound were divided into 12 irradiation groups, six groups for each noninfected and infected animal, and 30 animals as non irradiated controls divided into non infected and infected groups. All groups irradiated with red Laser light 635nm with constant irradiance 9.0 mw/cm², power= 60mw, continuous wave started immediately after surgery and repeated every day for 3,5,10 days using lens expander to cover the wound area (2.7J/cm²) for 5 minutes and (8 J/cm²) for 15 minutes. Wound healing was studied by calculating the percentage of wound closure and histological evaluation. The animals were killed either at 3, 5, or 10 days after irradiation. Specimen were taken, embedded in paraffin and sectioned, stained for histological analysis. Cold laser therapy clearly stimulates wound contraction, granulation tissue, collagen formation and reduces inflammation in both irradiated groups (infected and noninfected) groups .Polymorph nuclear infiltrate was lower in both noninfected irradiated groups at (2.7J/cm², 8.0J/cm²) compared with the control. The synthesis of collagen was enhanced in both noninfected groups compared with noninfected controls. Significant difference in the newly formed granulation tissue in the irradiated groups were recorded on five days after injury compared to non infected controls. On five days, the response of non infected wounds at (8.0J/cm²) was more than the group exposed at (2.7J/ cm²). On day 10, good response was noted in both irradiated noninfected groups compared to controls. On day 5, the irradiated groups were more responsive at (8.0J/cm²) compared to infected controls. At day10, infected irradiated groups had complete healing compared to incomplete healing in infected control group. We concluded that the most important parameter in determine the optimal light delivering regimen is irradiated or illuminated time.

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Management of diabetes induced hypertension in Pakistan[ ]


Objective: The aim of the study was to find out the passive management of hypertension induced by type-2 diabetes and its pharmacologic management.

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Use of Sludge Ash in Stabilising Two Tropical Laterite[ ]


Soil samples were collected from two different locations in Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria. The index properties suc as specific gravity, liquid and plastic limits of the soil samples were determined. The compaction properties (Optimum moisture content, OMC and maximum dry density, MDD) and California bearing ratio, CBR were also determined. Sewage sludge was collected from an oxidation pond and burnt to obtain sewage sludge ash (SSA). The SSA was mixed in varying proportions (0. 2, 4, 8 and 16%) with thesoil samples fro the purpose of stabilization. The Liquid limit (LL), Plasticlimit (PL), OMC, MDD and CBR of each SSA-Soil mix were determined. Chemical analysis revealed that the SSA has a silica composition of about 45% and a low composition (2%) of calcium oxide. There was a reduction in the LL of both soil samples from about 49% to 46% on addition of 2% SSA. The LL later increased at 8% SSA. The highest change (114% increment) was recorded in the plasticity index of the soil samples. The OMC decreased from 19% to 16.75% for sample A at 4% and from 21.75 to 18.16% for sample B at 16% SSA. CBR of the soil samples generally increased with increasing SSA. There was improvement in the strength of the stabilized soil samples although no optimum percentage was obtained.

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Pelletization of El-Baharia iron ore (O) with different amount of mill scale (M) and reduc-tion kinetics of these pellets via hydrogen[ ]


The effect of the Addition of fine mill scale (M) upon the quality and reduction kinetics of El-Baharia iron ore (O) pellets via hydrogen was done at different temperatures ranging from 700ËšC to 950ËšC and. the best reduction properties were found at 950ËšC.The kinetic of the reduction process was studied using the best fit model determined was kt = - ln (1-R). The main crystalline phases of reduced pellets at 950ËšC were metallic iron (syn. Fe).

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The effects of land use land cover change on hydrological process of Gilgel Gibe, Omo Gibe Basin, Ethiopia[ ]


Land use change is one of the responsible factor for changing the hydrological process of watershed by altering the magnitude of surface runoff, aquifer recharge and river flows. Thus, effective information regarding the environmental responses of land use land cover changes are important to hydrologists, land use planners, watershed management and decision makers for sustainable water resource projects and planet ecosystem. Consequently, this study was aimed at assessing the effects the land use land cover changes have had on hydrological process of Gilgel Gibe catchment between the 1987, 2001 and 2010.Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to examine the effect land use land cove changes had on hydrological process. Simulation of SWAT is used in identifying the most vulnerable sub basin to the hydrological process changes. The model was calibrated and validated using the Stream flow of Gilgel Gibe at Asendabo station. The result of land use dynamics revealed the land use land cover change have significant effects on infiltration rates, runoff production, water yield, sediment loading, evapotranspiration and water retention capacity of the soil. The highest annual surface runoff was attributed by sub basin 43, 48 and 48 whereas sub basin 27, 27 and 41 contributes the highest ground water respectively for 1987, 2001 and 2010 land cover maps. In terms of sediment yield, sub basin 47 contributes a maximum load for the study periods. Sensitivity analysis shows curve number CN, ESCO and GWQMN are the top three sensitive parameters. The model was calibrated using stream flow data from 1990 to1995 and validated from 1996 to 2000. The R2 and NSE values were used to examine model performance and the result indicates 0.84 and 0.90 to R2 and 0.58 and 0.62 to NSE during calibration and validation respectively.

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Numerical investigation of a reverse osmosis desalination system with cogeneration and renewable energy integration [ ]


At first we will present a numerical simulation of sea water desalination and brackish water reverse osmosis plants with cogeneration in which we will establish the governing equations and solve analytically to validate numerical modeling with different systems based on the mass conservation laws of momentum, energy and the second law of thermodynamics, then we will show the positive impact of renewable energy as a free source to power reverse osmosis.

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Nature of Composite Numbers that obey Fermat’s property & some properties of a Prime[ ]


Any prime number ‘m’ obeys the Fermat property with respect to any number ‘a’ which is prime to m. But if m is composite it may be or may not be true. The composite numbers that obey Fermat property can be said as Fermat’s composite number or simply FC Numbers. This paper contains some natures of so called FC numbers. The existence of such numbers was first detected by the American mathematician Carmichael in 1809. So far divisibility is concerned a prime number possesses several properties out of which we can recall the famous property of Wilson’s theorem i.e. p divides (p – 1)! + 1. The proof of this theorem given by the great mathematician Lagrange also indicates some other divisibility properties of a prime which have been lying hidden to the proof itself and never day-lighted. My paper contains the proof of those hidden properties along with the fact that Wilson theorem is a particular case of a general property. My paper also contains an important theorem regarding divisibility of twin primes.

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Development of C++ Application Program for League Equation using Object-Oriented Programming Technique (CAP-LEQ)[ ]


A research was carried out to determine the number of games to be played with a number teams in any sporting event and using a particular point system or value the maximum point to be earned by a team is also determined. The function was actualized using excel’s spreadsheet application. This paper is purely an academic paper which focuses on the development of programs and applications using purely object-oriented approach. C++ is used as the programming language as this helps in the study of object-oriented programming with C++.

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Security Techniques for Counteracting Attacks in Mobile Database[ ]


The use of mobile devices has become very common and essential now a day. It’s this popularity made these devices easy target for malicious code developers. And the ratio of these attacks is increasing day by day. Because of static environment the features of mobiles are specials and limited, for example frequent disconnections and movement in the user’s location, these are the reasons which affect the security mechanism. It is the security mechanisms which have become the reason of delay for a user to access the data. Because of this delay changes has to make in access conditions. The contra effect of security and access mechanism cover these changes dynamically. In this article, efforts have been made to use different security mechanisms to establish access control dynamically.

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The Effects of Agricultural Engineering Operations on Soil/Water in a Typical Medium-Scale Farm Environment in South-Western Nigeria[ ]


A study to investigate how operations in afarmaffect the adjoining soil and water environment was conducted during the 2013 major crop growing season in a farm located in South-Western Nigeria. The soil texture in the farm is loamy and it was a rain-fed agriculture. Six soils samples were randomly taken from the farm(after second ploughing) and from undisturbed soil from adjoining forest, at depths of between 0 and 15cm. Two water samples were collected, one from the site (earth pond) and the other from off farm (stream) using 1litre container.

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The Treatment of Industrial Effluents forthe dischargeof textile dyesUsing By Techniques and Adsorbents[ ]


Nowadays, the extraction of textile dyes from the wastewater in industry becomes an environmental worldwide issue. Water Contamination is a big threat of not only for state of theenvironment but human body causes some chronic diseases. Textile dyes are worn to several types of products by fabrication, forpaper, leather, plastic and some products, used in human daily life. Despite of containing various hazardous chemicals into textile dyes, it is necessary to be discharged from effluents of waste-water of industry through treatment as quick as possible. A number of technologies of different processes are effectively carried out for the treatment of industrial waste water by removal of colors.

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Incidence of Intra-abdominal Collection in Open vs. Laparoscopic Appendectomy[ ]


Aim:The value of laparoscopy in appendicitis is not established. Studies suffer from multiple limitations. Our aim is to compare the safety and benefits of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy in term of incidence of intra-abdominal collection postoperatively.

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Experimental Study of Manufacturing Aluminum Alloy Pistons Using Vertical Centrifugal Casting Process[ ]


This work presents an experimental investigation on manufacturing composite pistons from two aluminum alloys, i.e.‎ each ‎alloy ‎form a zone in the piston. Therefore, A336 alloy located at the ‎piston skirt and A242 alloy‎ located at the piston crown. The affecting parameters are the ‎pouring temperature of the alloys, the rotational speed of the casting mold and the casting method. Centrifugal casting and permanent casting methods were used. The effects of various parameters on the mechanical properties such as hardness ‎and wear were measured. It was found that, the centrifugal casting process can be ‎used as a new and effective method in piston manufacturing compared with the permanent casting process. Good results were obtained at 40 rpm casting mold rotational speed‎ and 740 °C alloys pouring temperature.

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Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of agricultural greenhouse microclimate by the application of artificial intelligence and / or fuzzy logic[ ]


Agricultural greenhouse is largely answered in the agricultural sphere, despite the shortcomings it has, including overheating during the day and night cooling which sometimes results in the thermal inversion mainly due to its low inertia. The glasshouse dressed chapel is relatively more efficient than the conventional tunnel greenhouse. Its proliferation on the ground is more or less timid because of its relatively high cost[14-22].

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Measuring the Effect of Retail Service Quality Dimensions on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: The study on the Super Shop in Bangladesh[ ]


The number and size of supermarkets in Bangladesh has increased recently. Despite, the level of customer satisfaction has not increased that much compared to supermarket growth. The aim of this study is to measure factors of retail service quality that has impact on customer satisfaction and also on the increased earnings in terms of generating store loyalty among urban customers.The primary data has been used for this study. The primary data were collected through personal interview while respondents were getting service in their super shop. It has covered the opinion of customer of different super shop like as Shwapno, Agura, Mina Bazar in Dhaka city. A total of 400 respondents were taken as sample based on probability sampling technique. Simple random sampling technique was used for selecting sample.A structured questionnaire has been formulated to collect data on customers’ satisfaction with the retail service quality. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for explaining the demographic data and measuring factors of retail service quality of the customers.Partial Least Squares (PLS) method was used to do structural equation modeling for doing the path model. The SEM results show that only one factor (Physical Aspects) has a significant relationship with Customer Satisfaction. Another factor named as store loyalty has positive relationship with customer satisfaction and that is positively linked to store loyalty.

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Optical and Morphological Characteristics for Sili-con Dioxide NPs Prepared by Sol-Gel Method[ ]


Silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticle prepare via sol –gel method by mixing isopropanol alcohol (IPA) with deionization water (DW) and using tetraethelyorth silicate (TEOS) with nitric acid (HNO3).The optical properties and the optical constant absorbance (A), transmittance(T%), refractive index (n), absorption coefficient () and optical energy gap (Eg) were studied. The results for SiO2-sol nanoparticale prepare by sol-gel method indicate that, the wavelength for maximum absorbance is (λmax=235 nm). The transmittance range (80-95)% in wavelengths (400-1100)(nm), the refractive index of SiO2-sol was (n=1.3796). The indirect allowed energy gap is optimum (Eg=4.9 eV).

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OPINIONIST-A Lexicon and SVM Based Tool for Analyzing Opinion on Social Media[ ]


The world of technology is developing rapidly and people are adopting to social media fast. To this day twitter is one of the most popular social network. Personal opinions regarding “everything” is shared on the social media. This data is very useful for gathering public opinion. Opinionist provides a web based platform for user to fetch tweets on a desired topic and displays the result in the form of graphical notations. This makes it easier for the user to determine whether the public opinion is positive or negative about the particular topic. The Opinionist uses two sentiment analysis techniques namely Lexicon Bayes approach and Support Vector Machine Algorithm. Using the result of the two algorithms and produces an average and displays it along with the results produced by the two algorithm. Use of averaging reduces extreme values giving a more general and realistic value.

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Avaliação da adaptabilidade de seis variedades de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) nas condições edafo-climáticas do distrito de Angónia[ ]


Foi conduzido um ensaio em regime de regadio no campo experimental da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias em Ulóngué, Distrito de Angónia, com objectivo de avaliar a adaptabilidade de seis variedades (ENTR -108, ENTR -125, ENTR -138, ENTR -146, ENTR -713 e ENTR -726) de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) nas condições Edafo-climáticas do Distrito de Angónia. Baseou-se no delineamento de blocos completamente casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos. Foram estudados os atributos agronómicos com variáveis de estudo, divididos em dois grupos, sendo atributos vegetativos (altura de plantas, comprimento de espigas, número de perfilhos) e atributos produtivos (número de grãos por espiga, peso de cem grãos, peso de grãos por espiga e rendimento de grãos).

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Stabilisation of Western Province Sands[ ]


Western Province of Zambia is situated in the western parts of the country, neighbouring Namibia, Angola and Botswana. The geology of the area is predominated by sands. Because of this, there is scarcity of good road building materials. Good quality materials have to be hauled over distances in excess of a 100 km. These long haul distances make road construction more expensive in this region compared to other regions in Zambia. It is against this background that a study was conducted to determine whether the abundant sand in the region could be modified/improved such that it can be used for road base and subbase construction particularly for low volume roads. Sands were sampled from three districts in the province namely; Mongu, Senanga and Sesheke. Classification and strength tests were conducted on the sands. The sands were stabilised with varying percentages of Cement and Bitumen. The results of California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS),Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS)and Marshall stability tests showed marked improvements in the properties of the sands after stabilisation.

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BUC Electronic HR System[ ]


In this study a new system has been created to be as simulation for Buraimi University College (BUC) and Human Resourses (HR) system. So the two activitieshave been mereged,the HR department with all personal information about faculitystaff member and his/her time table. Both of them connected same system.In this system the staff have been classified to be full time or part time. And check the total load his /her degree to be sure that the created system is working properly and is matcthing the BUC regulation.

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Effect of polyethylene on properties of normal and heavy weight concrete[ ]


The aim of this work is study the behavior of different types of concrete (normal and heavyweight mixes with different percentage of polyethylene particles as partial replacement of aggregate by 5, 10 and 15% of aggregate. Density, water absorption, slump compressive strength and indirect tensile strength had been studied and presented. The linear attenuation coefficient (µ) for studied samples using Co60 radioactive source of 40 Bq/so was determined. The effect of high temperature of 150°C for one hour for test specimen was also investigated. The results showed that the slump, density, compressive, splitting strength and coefficient of attenuation of normal and heavy weight concrete containing different percentage of polyethylene particles were decreased compared to conventional concrete.

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Power Factor Control Using Auto Tuning Regulator[ ]


This paper presents the design of an auto tuning regulator that enhances the performance of the Static Var Compensator (SVC) technique. The Control law presented in this paper is based on the difference between a set point and measured system parameters. The scheme works on real time measurements from Instrument transformers, obtained from samples taken every 0.1s. Embedded Algorithms enable the control system to calculate and display relevant information through a display. Since the demand and supply of reactive power affects the power factor, instantaneous values of operating parameters are calculated through the embedded algorithms. The desired power factor is set and the controller determines the corresponding Vars. The controller constantly compares the set and measured values. With deviation, the controller tunes automatically to determine the new controller gains required to balance the disturbance. The SVC technique was used because it serves best when reactive power supply is to be localized at the point of demand. Models for SVC, Proportional-Integral – Derivative (PID), and the control module were derived from which the overall system transfer function was obtained. Simulation was carried out to validate the operation of the controller using a Matlab tool. A response of 0.199s rise time, 2.20s settling time, 2.64% overshoot shows an improved performance.

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Using of Cyanobacteria in controlling potato brown rot disease[ ]


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of culture filtrates of three Cyanobacterial species namely: Nostoc muscorum, Spirulina platensis and Anabaena flos-aquae on the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of potato brown rot disease, in vitro. The efficiency of the Cyanobacterial culture filtrate in disease suppression was also evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Six virulent isolates of the pathogen isolated from infected potato tubers were used in this study. The three tested Cyanobacterial species exhibited inhibitory effect against R. solanacearum growth; A. flos-aquae showed the highest inhibition zone of 13.7 mm on Kings’B medium followed by 11 and 7.25 mm for S. platensis and N. muscorum, respectively. Also, the three tested species of Cyanobacteria significantly reduced the bacterial wilt incidence. A. flos-aquae was the most effective treatment that completely suppressed the disease. Both of N. muscorum and S. platensis treatments effectively reduced wilt severity up to 5 and 3.33%, respectively as compared to positive control. In addition, the application of the tested Cyanobacterial species improved the estimated plant growth parameters and increased plant content of the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids), ascorbic acid, total phenols and proline as well as NPK and Na content in the treated plants as compared with the positive control plant.

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Catalytic Performance of Nanocrystalline Zeolite ZSM-5/MCM-41 composite for Production of Biodiesel[ ]


Nanocrystalline ZSM-5 and micro-mesoporous ZSM-5/MCM-41 composite zeolite were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment-conventional method. Micro-mesoporous ZSM-5/MCM-41 were synthesized using alkaline leaching (treatment) method and two step crystallization. Loading of synthesized composite zeolite with transition metals copper and cobalt was conducted by wet impregnation method. All zeolites products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Nano level of average particle diameter was obtained of 50 nm. The catalytic performance of the catalysts were investigated in production of biodiesel by semi-batch esterification of alcohol (ethanol) with oleic acid, the conversion of 85% was obtained.

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Bioethanol production from corn stover using Saccharomyces cerevisiae[ ]


Corn stover hemicellulose acid hydrolysate has been utilized as a substrate for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This study on the one hand reviews ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials and on the other hand, through a process of Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation, produces ethanol from a corn stover. The maximum value of ethanol yield was 143.15mg/L at conditions of 1.08%, 3.32hrs, 14.32hrs, 6.43g/l, 39.34 oC and 7.64 for H2SO4 Concentration, Hydrolysis Time, Fermentation Time, Enzyme Concentration, Fermentation Temperature and pH respectively.

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EFFECT OF ARGUMENT-BASED INQUIRY APPROACH ON ACQUISITION OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATING SKILLS AND INTEREST IN BIOLOGY[ ]


This study was designed to investigate the effect of Argument-Based Inquiry (ABI) approach on acquisition of written communicating skills and interest of Senior Secondary School Biology students. Four research questions and six null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. A quasi experimental (non-equivalent control group) design was adopted for the study. 138 (58 males, 80 females) Senior Secondary School year one (SSS1) students from four co-educational public secondary schools in Oshogbo Local Government Area of Osun State were involved in the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the four co-educational senior secondary schools from 13 of such senior secondary schools in the Local Government Area. The four randomly selected schools were randomly assigned, two schools each to the experimental and the control groups. The Experimental Group (EG) was taught nutrition in animals using ABI approach while the Control Group (CG) was taught the same topic with TI approach. Science Written Communicating Skills Acquisition Test (SWCSAT) and Biology Interest Inventory (BII) were used for the study. The SWCSAT had 0.84 using Pearson-Product Moment correlation while BII had 0.74 using Cronbach’s Alpha. The findings among others showed that teaching biology with ABI approach enhanced the students’ acquisition of written communicating skills and interest in biology better than the TI approach. The implications of the findings include that science teachers should use ABI approach so that the students can acquire written communicating skills.

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A Case Study to Improve the Employability of Materials Engineering Graduates Through Internship and Placement Office[ ]


In order to get right jobs, the students must have right attitude. And again, in order to inculcate right attitude in our students, we must have to reform our schools. The mere change in syllabus is not enough for engineering students. The employability can only be improved by academia-industrial linkages. More we build understanding with industries higher will be employability for our students. The laziness of employs causes the serious threats for the academic institutes. If we reduce the possible weaknesses we can improve the status of any organization. In order to analyze the strengths and weaknesses a complete case study has been conducted and conclusion is drawn. The components of placement office have been functionalized properly and as a result the efficiency is improved.

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Experimental Study on the Use of EGR in a Hydrogen-Fueled SI Engine[ ]


An experimental investigation on the effect of EGR rate on the performance and NOx emission of a hydrogen-fueled SI engine was conducted. The hydrogen-fueled engine equipped with manifold-fuel injection was cheaper than fuel cell technologies and also an alternative to conventional fuel engines due to worldwide stringent emission norms. The main objective of this study is to reduce engine exhaust emissions, to decrease the fuel consumption and to run the engine smoothly free from knocking. Hydrogen engines with external mixture formation of hydrogen-air have a significantly lower power output than gasoline engines because of the lower volumetric energy density of the mixture and existence of abnormal combustion phenomena mainly knock. It is well known that the only regulatory emission present in the hydrogen engine is NOx. The use of EGR is one of the effective methods for reduction of NOx formation in the engine and also it is used to reduce combustion knock. Tests were conducted on a single cylinder engine with a constant speed of 3000 RPM under various load conditions with wide open throttle and optimum spark timing for all test conditions. In this paper, the results of performance and emission were measured for varying values of EGR rate say 0% to 30% over loads. Comparative results of these tests are provided. The test result showed that the brake thermal efficiency for 30% EGR rate is 15.83% higher than 0% EGR at lower loads. However, it is 7.3% lower than the 0% EGR rate at maximum load conditions. The experimental results also showed that the NOx concentration decreased with the increase in EGR rate. The peak NOx value reached at 1.44 kW for the 0% EGR rate and it was found that 73% reduction of NOx can be achieved by 30% EGR rate at the same load. It is also found that a little variation of HC emission at lower loads for all EGR rates and HC shows a significant increase at peak load conditions.CO emission is also negligible.

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Enhancing Password Immunity Via Mixing Text With Biometric Information[ ]


The password is a technique uses in authentication which is one of security fields. It provides method to allow authorized users for using a system services and denied the services for others . So it plays an important role in computing security. This paper proposes an approach to enhance password security. The approach minimizes imposing strong policies on the user. It enhances the security of entered text password via mixing it with facial information. It captures an image of user face via live camera and it doesn’t deal with other ways that brings user image. Then it removes the noises of image and calculates a center point which serves for extracting binary features of image. This features mixes with text password via exclusive-or operation to enhance the immunity of password. The proposed approach minimizes required storage space and processing overhead, since it uses primitive operations and less amount of extracted information.

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Analysis of Influence of Price on Consumption of Public Healthcare Services in Mandera County, Kenya[ ]


The quantity of healthcare consumed is very so often measured by the amount of services used, like admission days, consultation visits or prescriptions. The consumption for admission services could respond in a different way to price changes as oppose to consumption for consultation services. This difference is due to the responsiveness of consumption for various healthcare policies to changes in the price of healthcare indemnity. Every variation in the family costs of services or payment costs will have consequences in the plans of the members and therefore, the consumption for healthcare services that is charged for by that plan. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of price on consumption of public healthcare services in Mandera County. This study used a qualitative research methodology; a cross-sectional descriptive research design involving 384 sampling population and multistage sampling technique was used involving purposive, census and systematic sampling to identify the facilities, healthcare workers and patient or clients. The findings were analyzed by means of Statistical Package for Social Science version. The study determined the influence of price on consumption of public healthcare services in Mandera County. By the end of study recommendations were drawn from the study results. The study indicates that whenever the respondents are choosing a hospital to attend they always wanted a cheaper hospital. Recommendations were that social status and employment are seen as significant determinants of this study, with this in mind and given the fact that those who are financially deprived are in greater majority, there is the need for the ministry of labor to create employment opportunity for the people. In addition, government should embark on economic and public policies that benefit the poor. These will empower the poor population to utilize health care services when they get sick.

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Research on Energy Efficiency in Cloud Computing[ ]


Cloud computing is a highly adaptable and efficient infrastructure for running endeavor and web applications. Energy consumption expenditure and concurrent effects on environment are the dynamic challenges regarding to cloud computing. We investigated previous researches based on energy efficiency approaches and retrieved the conditions to promote green cloud computing architectures. Data centers are considered as the backbone of cloud infrastructure. Numerous companies are investing in establishing large data centers to accommodate different cloud computing services. These data centers absorb huge amount of energy. They are also very complex in the infrastructure. Over the years, power consumption has emerged as an important factor for measuring computing resources expenditure. In this paper we will scrutinize all feasible spheres in an ideal cloud infrastructure which are responsible for massive amount of energy consumption. Here, we will also analyze the methodologies by which energy utilization can be reduced without compromising Quality of Services and overall performance. In order to make these data centers more energy efficient, many studies have been proposed. These researches are based on technologies such as consolidation and virtualization. Reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and energy consumption set up new challenges. The research works for green data centers are derived from the challenges. There is a current demand of integrated energy efficient cloud framework for establishing data centers that minimizes the impacts on environment and lessens CO2 emissions. The framework should combine a green IT architecture with different procedures and activities.

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Effect of Mo Addition to ZA22 Grain Refined by Ti after ECAP Pressing[ ]


Zinc aluminum alloys, ZA, in general and ZA22 in particular are widely used materials in the automobile and air craft industries due to their required and favorable physical and mechanical properties. Against their favorable properties they have the disadvantage of solidifying in dendritic structure of large grain size unless the mode of solidification is carefully controlled. This tends to reduce their mechanical strength, toughness and surface quality. It is therefore crucial to grain refine their structure to overcome these discrepancies. Different methods are available such as addition of some grain refiners as Ti, Mo, V, or by subjecting the material to severe plastic deformation, SPD. In this paper, addition of o.1 wt. Mo to zinc 22% aluminum, ZA22, and ZA22 grain refined by Ti and after that they were subjected to SPD using the equal channel angular pressing, ECAP, process. The effect on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics is investigated and the obtained results are presented and discussed

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