Volume 4, Issue 4, April 2013 Edition


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Equivalence Between Energy Content And Weight In A Weak Gravitational Field For A Quantum Body[ ]


It is shown that weight operator of a composite quantum body in a weak external gravitational field in the post-Newtonian approximation of the General Relativity does not commute with its energy operator, taken in the absence of the field. Nevertheless, the weak equivalence between the expectations values of weight and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states for the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom. Breakdown of the weak equivalence between weight and energy at a microscopic level for stationary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported and moved in the Earth gravitational field with constant velocity. For superpositions of stationary quantum states, a breakdown of the above mentioned equivalence at a macroscopic level leads to time dependent oscillations of the expectation values of weight, where the equivalence restores after averaging over time procedure.

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Characterisation of Pulverised Palm Kernel Shell for Sustainable Waste Diversification[ ]


The paper presents a report on the physico-thermal properties and elemental composition of pulverized palm kernel shell to enhance its use in engineering applications. Clean palm kernel shell were dried, milled and screened to obtain particles 0.23 mm mean diameter. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the physical and thermal properties of the pulverized palm kernel shell and its differential thermal analysis. Its elemental composition was determined by X-Ray Fluorescent analysis. Test results showed that pulverized palm kernel shell consist mainly of non-ferrous metals. Its bulk density was 560 kg/m3; specific gravity, 1.26. Its thermal properties were characterized by thermal conductivity of 0.68 W/m K; specific heat capacity, 1.98kj/kg K, and phase change at 101.40C. The report established significant potentials in the diversification of palm kernel shell from waste to fuel in improved combustion systems and as a future element in bio-material composites.

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Quality Characteristics of Luffa aegyptiaca seed oil.[ ]


The oil content and quality characteristics of Luffa aegyptiaca seed oil are described. The straight vegetable oil (SVO) was extracted from the seed using hexane. On a dry matter basis, the oil content was 19-25% of ground seeds. The quality characteristics of the seed oil were: saponification value (SV), 168mg KOH/g of oil , iodine value (IV), 130g iodine/100g of oil, peroxide value (PV), 280 meq peroxide/kg of oil, free fatty acid (FFA) 10.36% of oil and acid value (AV) 20.62%. The density of the oil was 0.91g/cm3 and the specific gravity was 0.92g/ml oil and kinematic viscosity 13.98mm2/s at 300C. The saponin content and the unsaponifiable matter of the oil were also determined. The oil quality parameters suggest that the oil may find use as feedstock for biodiesel production. Owing to its iodine value, the oil may also be used in surface coating applications.

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Women's Equality in the Workplace[ ]


The glass ceiling debate has been beaten to the pulp in a media and caught worldwide attention from scholars and the general public. However, the decades old conversation has not significantly broken the glass ceiling to equalized workplace opportunities. Sure, some auspicious women have slipped through the cracks in the glass ceiling, but slithering through the glass ceiling is not the norm.

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Overview about the property regime of spouses in the German legal system[ ]


Property relations of spouses in contemporary comparative law are regulated according to any recognized legal regimes (the legal regime of joint property, the legal regime of the conditional joint property, the legal regime of separate property), or according to alternative regimes of contracted spouses property. Which of these property regimes will be implemented depends on whether the spouses in the contract have regulated their property relations. If the spouses have not signed a contract, then by default it will apply the legal property regime.

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Effect of Hall Currents and Thermo-diffussion on convective Heat and Mass Transfer flow of a Viscous, Chemically reacting rotating fluid through a porous medium past a Vertical porous plate[ ]


The combined effects of Hall currents and radiation on the convective heat and mass transfer of a viscous electrically conducting rotating fluid through a porous medium past a vertical porous plate. in the presence of heat generating sources. The equations governing the flow, heat and mass transfer are solved exactly to obtain the velocity, temperature and concentration and are analyzed for different variations of the governing parameters G,D-1,M,m,N,N1 ,Sc, So and ?.The shear stress and the rate of heat and mass transfer are numerically evaluated for different sets of the parameters. The influence of the Hall currents, thermo- diffusion and radiation effects on the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics are discussed in detail.

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Energy Efficient Protocol for Co-operative Networks[ ]


Wireless sensor network is the collection of sensors where all the sensors are interconnected to perform a common function co-operatively. Here sensors are considered as nodes which have computing capability with some memory. Energy utilization in wireless network is the main consideration because one main constraint in these types of networks is limited source of energy. Therefore protocols designed for these networks should be energy efficient. Wireless networks are based on co-operative transmission technique. In general data can be transmitted directly between neighboring nodes. But if there are intermediate nodes between source and destination, co-operation among the nodes are required to transmit the data. In this paper, a new protocol called as energy efficient protocol is designed. Here a packet is transmitted only once per hop, thus reducing the energy consumption.

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Unsteady free convective flow of water at 4 degree C and heat transfer through porous medium bounded by a isothermal porous vertical surface in the presence of variable suction and heat generation absorption. [ ]


Unsteady free convective flow of water at 4 degree C through porous medium bounded by porous vertical isothermal surface with variable suction and heat generation absorption is investigated . The governing equations of motion and energy are transformed into ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using Runge-Kutta forth order method along with shooting technique. The effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity and fluid temperature are discussed and shown through graphs. The skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number at the surface are derived discussed numerically and their numerical values presented through tables

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Performance Analysis of Crime Images Using CROI with JPEG & WAVELET[ ]


The basic goal of ROI based compression for Crime images is to enhance the compression efficiency for transmission and storage [2]. Sometime Crime images compression addresses the issues of larger storage and faster transmission requirements. Here ROI compression of Crime images aims at compressing the diagnostically important region in forensic lab, region of interest (ROI) of an image with supreme quality as compared to rather unimportant area i.e. the background. Thus, the ROI area is compressed with less compression ratio and the background with the highest possible compression ratio in order to get better overall compression performance. As a part of ROI compression technique CROI with JPEG and WAVELET compression algorithms have been implemented using MATLAB. A detailed analysis on the basis of parameters like CR, mean square error (MSE), peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and COC has been carried out to evaluate these algorithms. With the use of ROI approach and JPEG algorithm, a PSNR of 34.72 for crime has been achieved with extremely good quality of image area.

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Qos Provisioning in Wireless ad-hoc Networks[ ]


Wireless ad-hoc network is a decentralized type of wireless network where the devices are PDAs, cell phones, sensors, laptop etc. The Network is ad-hoc because it does not rely on a preexisting infrastructure, such as routers in wired network or access points in managed (infrastructure)wireless networks. The node can transmit data to another node if it is within its frequency range. Each node participates in routing by forwarding data for other nodes, and so the determination of which nodes forward data is made dynamically based on the network connectivity.

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The Acceptance Of Mobile Wireless Network Based Widget For Sustaining Learning In Higher Education[ ]


Nowadays, the utilization of mobile applications has become the most important services that occupy various aspects in users activities wirelessly. The emerging of external functionalities into the mobile are consider an essential step to sustain the use of mobile among different group of users especially with the enhanced user interface. Mobile learning based widget became widely recognized of its capabilities to attract learners to use mobile. This study reviews the important of m-learning in sustaining learning for higher education. We measured the students' acceptance to use m-learning based widget. The questionnaire items were formulated based on TAM. The result revealed that using widget with effective and user friendly features will be favored by the students in higher education institutions.

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A Lossless Watermarking Using Histogram Shifting Algorithm[ ]


The watermarking of digital images, audio, video and multimedia products are used for copyright ownership and verifying originality of contents. Domain wavelet transform used in the visible watermark does not provide security for watermark. Visible watermark methods do not provide safety for both watermark and carrier image. To overcome that , lossless watermarking using histogram shifting algorithm is proposed. The carrier image carries watermark . The carrier image can be stored lossless after the extraction of watermark from it. Histogram Shifting algorithm is used to embed watermark logo in the carrier image . By using the Rijndael algorithm , the error is spread to the entire image. So the illegal user can not access the watermark image from carrier image. This algorithm can guarantee the quality of the image and safety of watermark. Add Roundkey and shift rows transformation provides more security for encryption than other methods.

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Inventory Model for Exponentially Increasing Demand with Time and Deterioration and Permissible Delay in Payments[ ]


In this paper, an inventory model is developed in which demand is exponentially increasing with time and deterioration is taken non instantaneous. Realistic situation of permissible delay is also taken into consideration. Three different cases have been discussed for different situations. Expressions are obtained for total optimal cost in different situations. Three different algorithms are given to obtain the optimal solution. Cost minimization technique is used to solve the model.

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Faulty Node Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Cluster[ ]


Since the accuracy of data is important to the whole system's performance, detecting nodes with faulty readings is an essential issue in network management. Removing nodes with faulty readings from a system or replacing them with good ones improve the whole system's performance and at the same time prolong the lifetime of the network. In general, wireless sensor nodes may experience two types of faults that would lead to the degradation of performance. One type is function fault, which typically results in the crash of individual nodes, packet loss, routing failure or network partition. The other type of error is data fault, in which a node behaves normally in all aspects except for its sensing results, leading to either significant biased or random errors.

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IA Waves in a plasma with vortex-like negative ions[ ]


The invistigated has been made to study the basic features of the nonlinear waves, associated with positive ion dynamics in a plasma containing Boltzmann electrons, and vortex-like negative ions using the reductive perturbation method.

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Basic English Language Tools For Begginers: Using Animatons And Audio[ ]


The recent proliferation of technology and continuous advances in educational applications of computer has made it possible to integrate Information Communication Technology in our learning environments today. This paper examines the past and present trends of computer-aided language learning (CALL) research, with major emphasis on the use of animations and audio as an important concept for language learning applications. The participants in this study included English language experts from the English Language Center (ELC) at Linton University College, Malaysia. A discussion on the impact of ICT in language learning is described along with an explanation based upon the procedures used to design such application for the English Language center. This study found animations and audio as an important concept in developing effective computer aided language learning applications particularly for English language learners and that CALL has become a need rather than a want in language learning. However, this study found that there are special requirements of English language tools for beginners following the standard curriculum of the ELC of a specific institution.

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Evaluation of Anti Tumor Activity of Curcuma Amda Roxb. Rhizome [ ]


Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of curcuma amda roxb. rhizomes have been evaluated for its anti tumour activity in Swiss albino mice. Alcoholic extract exhibited more potent anti tumour activity than aqueous extract. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies were confirmed by brine shrimp bioassay method. A significant increase in the life span and a decrease in the cancer cell number and tumour weight were noted in the tumour induced mice after treatment with both of the extracts in ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model. The hematological parameters were also corrected by aqueous and ethanolic extracts in tumour induced mice. These observations are suggestive of the anti tumour effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Curcuma amda Roxb. rhizomes in ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

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Interfacing of 8 Channel Optical MUX DEMUX in DWDM System[ ]


Purpose of this paper is to describe the hardware design interfacing of the 8 channel Optical Mux/Demux (OMD) Module in DWDM system. There are two types of OMD modules used in DWDM/CWDM system.Type-1 consists of OMD module with A/D converter and processor.Type-2 consists of OMD module without A/D converter and processor. "Multiplex-ing" is a term used to describe the mixing or insertion of signals into a stream; "De-multiplexing" is used to describe the removal or extraction of the signals.The communications interface between host (processor or FPGA) and OMD module is through I2C bus. The A/D converters and the EEPROM, holding module specific data, are controlled via the I2C bus and supplied with power from the DC/DC converter.

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Prediction of Attenuation coefficient of X band microwave Signal under different atmospheric chaos (particles)[ ]


In this paper an attempt has been made for estimation of attenuation coefficient of microwave signals at different atmospheric chaos. The entire length of atmosphere has been considered as number of layer of sand, silt and clay particles in cascade form. The expression for attenuation coefficient of sand, silt and clay particles have been developed and depends on frequency, angle of incidence, visibility, permittivity, permeability. It is found that attenuation coefficient of microwave signal increases with frequency, decreases with angle of incidence and visibilities.

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DSP based implementation of a Configurable Composite Digital Transmitter[ ]


The latest trend in communications for real time implementation of different transmitters, is a prime contributor to the effort being invested in designing and implementing a Composite Transmitter. In this paper, an experimental analysis for the DSP based implementation the composite transmitter, which consists of a combination of four digital modulation schemes, has been presented. Extension of the digital domain by implementing and modifying different modulation schemes in software using the same hardware platform of configurable Digital Signal Processor, has been shown.

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BER Performance of LDPC Code with TH-PPM over UWB Channel[ ]


In this paper,the impact of Low density parity check code(LDPC) on performance of system under TH-PPM model over UWB channel is investigated. Single band UWB that is time hopping technique is used to randomizing the multi access capability without interference. The bit error rate of proposed system is simulated for different gain level by varying number of users.Low bit error rate is achieved even number of users gets increased. The low density parity check code is one of the superior error correcting code and are known to achieve the Shannon limit.LDPC Codes adds redundancy to the uncoded input data to make it more immune to channel impairements.The TH-PPM modulation which adapts its number of time hops depending on the required bit error rate and eliminates near far effect in multiple access communication.The proposed system is used to achieve fast,error free and secure communication in medical field.

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Novel Hamming code for error correction and detection of higher data bits using VHDL[ ]


Hamming code is familier for its single-bit error detection & correction capability. To provide such a capability, it introduces 4 redundancy bits in a 7-bit data item. These redundancy bits are to be interspersed at bit positions (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) with the original data bits. After error detection & correction, if any, the data bits have to be reassembled by removing the redundancy bits. In the proposed improvement, the redundancy bits will be appended at the end of data bits. This eliminates the overhead of interspersing the re-dundancy bits at the sender end and their removal at the receiver end after checking for single-bit error and consequent correction, if any. Further the effort needed in identifying the values of the redundancy bits is lower in the proposed novel method. Hamming code is normally used for transmission of 7-bit data item. Scaling it for larger data lengths results in a lot of overhead due to interspersing the redundancy bits and their subsequent removal. In contrast, the proposed method is highly scalable without such overhead. Hence, this feature is suitable for transmission of large size data bit-streams with much lower redundancy bits per data bit ratio. In this paper we have proposed an efficient and novel Hamming Code algorithm, for finding error location and correction to optimize the load on receiver end and reduce delay in the circuit. Simulation is done using Xilinx 9.2

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Improving resilience and revocation by mitigating bad mouthing attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks[ ]


Sensor networks can be deployed in hostile environments where adversaries may be present. Since wireless sensor networks usually need to be controlled remotely by the network operator, they are often deployed in an unattended manner. The unattended nature of wireless sensor networks can be exploited by attackers. Specifically, an attacker can capture and compromise sensor nodes and launch a variety of attacks by leveraging compromised nodes. There are so many existing schemes to identify the malicious node and they could not provide the way to revoke them. The proposed scheme solves how to revoke the compromised nodes by using reputation based Credence management scheme, which incorporates a new scheme called SPRT. By using this Credence based management scheme a secure network can be established for secure communication among wireless nodes.

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Geotechnical Behaviour of Fine Sand Mixed with Pond Ash and Lime[ ]


The present work has been carried out to study the effect of lime and pond ash on geotechnical behaviour of fine sand. Fine sand found in deserts and near sea shores is not readily suitable for supporting buildings and roads, as it is loose and vulnerable to collapse upon wetting. Fine sand having high permeability and low shear strength is also not suitable for earthen dam construction. For the same reasons, fine sand is not suitable for constructing landfill liners and covers. The disposal of pond ash from power plants has been a major environmental concern over a period of last few decades. In presence of moisture, pond ash reacts with lime and forms cementitious compounds which can be used to increase the strength of weak soil.

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An Efficient screening Control for enhanced Security [ ]


Today, network based security is one of the important concerns for both organizations and individuals. They are needed to monitor and control the traffic that crosses into and out of their networks to prevent attacks from both the network as well as organization perspective. Thus, firewall forms a crucial component in the defense mechanisms of every private network connected to the internet. Thus, it can be considered the first filtering device that sees IP packets that attempt to enter a network from outside and the last device to let out packets as well. It's like a security system that uses policies to make filtering decision on every packet that crosses it: whether to let it or drop it. Packet matching in firewalls involves matching on many fields from the TCP, UDP and IP packet header like, packet's source and destination IP address, protocol and source, destination port numbers. This paper proposes an algorithm of computational geometry which solves the point location problem, with a linear space requirement and a reduced search time. In such situation, usage of overlapping hyper-rectangles is done, firewall administrators uses intersection and difference operations on sets of IP addresses or port numbers and then implement over the incoming and outgoing packets, since firewall rules often overlap each other, which is the solution for the problem so that it would be faster and efficient in nature.

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Scattering of Water Waves in an Ocean with Uniform Porous Bed by a Surface Discontinuity Due to Inertial Surfaces in Presence of Surface Tension[ ]


The phenomenon of scattering of water waves by a surface discontinuity over uniform porous sea-bottom of finite depth is investigated in the framework of linearized water wave theory. The surface discontinuity is thought of as originating due to two vast floating inertial surfaces of different materials having different densities. The inertial surfaces are considered to be subject to surface tension. The eigen function matching technique is used as the method of solution. Hydrodynamic parameters of interest such as reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained by employing residue calculus method. These coefficients are computed numerically by considering different values of the porosity parameter and for a fixed value of surface tension and the results are depicted graphically.

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Use of Nitrogen Containing Heterocyclic ligand; Phenanthroline to study the kinetics of uncatalysed ligand substitution reaction of hexacyanoferrate (II)[ ]


The kinetics and mechanism of uncatalysed substitution of co-ordinated cyanide in hexacyanoferrate (II) by a nitrogen donar heterocyclic ligand, phenanthroline at 528nm (?max of a dark coloured compound [Fe (CN)5Phen]3- as a function of [Fe (CN)6]4- and [Phen] under the conditions, pH= 3.0?0.02, temperature = 25.0? 0.10oC , lonic strength (I) = 0.03 M(KNO3).The reaction is a first order each in [Fe (CN)6]4- and [Phen] at low [Phen] concentration. The rate of the reaction in determined from the slopes of absorbances versus time plots. As [Phen] increases the rate of the reaction increases, passes through a maximum and them falls, suggesting that the course of the reaction is different at low [Phen] and high [Phen]. The effect of temperature and pH on the initial rate have also been explained and studied. The repetitive spectral scans is also provided as an evidence for exchange of cyanide ions by [Phen] in [Fe(CN)6]4-. Activation parameters have also been evaluated and provided in support of the proposed mechanistic scheme. The compositon of the complex was established as 1:1 by the mole ratio method.

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Brief Introduction of Virtual Reality & its Challenges[ ]


Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a computer-simulated environment, whether that environment is a simulation of the real world or an imaginary world. It is the key to experiencing, feeling and touching the past, present and the future. It is the medium of creating our own world, our own customized reality. It could range from creating a video game to having a virtual stroll around the universe, from walking through our own dream house to experiencing a walk on an alien planet. With virtual reality, we can experience the most intimidating and gruelling situations by playing safe and with a learning perspective. Very few people, however, really know what VR is, what its basic principles and its open problems are. In this paper a historical overview of virtual reality is presented, basic terminology and classes of VR systems are listed. An insightful study of typical VR systems is done and finds the challenges of Virtual Reality.

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Challenges in online shopping (B2C) in India[ ]


Though the trend in online shopping is increasing fast but still has a potential to grow exponentially in the times to come. There are lot many challenges being faced by the customers which need to be looked upon by the companies in order to penetrate throughout India like free door to door shipping in any place across India, Cash On Delivery that should be applicable for all areas not only metros, quick service incase of electronic goods etc. If the listed factors will be considered by the e-commerce companies then there is a scope to capture the national market as per the estimates given by the researchers I'e e-commerce revenues can become 5 times by 2016.

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Probiotics And Prebiotics: Fabulous Nutritional Supplements[ ]


When there is excessive use of antibiotics, which leads to imbalance between the beneficial and harmful microorganisms, making our body more susceptible to infections, Probiotics living micro-organisms are added to food which beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance and Prebiotics are the non-digestible dietary supplements are used, which modify the balance of the intestinal microflora by stimulating the growth and activity of beneficial organisms. Combination of probiotics and prebiotics beneficially affect the host by improving the survival and implantation of live microbial dietary supplements into the gastrointestinal flora and by improving the microbial balance of the gastrointestinal tract, thus effectiveness of combining probiotics and prebiotics may have additive and synergistic effect. In the last few years, great attention has been dedicated to probiotics and prebiotics or their combined use (synbiotics) in improvement of human health in a natural way because of their history of safe use and the general body of evidence that supports their positive roles. Such synbiotics indicate a realistic way of using biological preparations in the prevention of diseases in humans.

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Simple Error Detection Method[ ]


In any communication system, the received signal will differ from the transmitted signal due to various transmission impairments. For analog signals, these impairments introduce various random modifications that degrade signal quality. For digital signals, bit errors are introduced: A binary 1 is changed into a binary 0 and vice versa. Increase in data rate of a digital transmission system increases the bit error rate. Longer the digital data, the more bits it has and the probability that one of these bits is in error increases. At the receiving end of a digital transmission system, it is always desirable to receive data with fewer bit errors. This motivates the use of error- detection techniques. Various types of error detection techniques and codes are used. Some are used for detection of single bit errors and some are for burst errors or multiple bit errors. In this paper, a simple error detection technique is proposed by which a receiver can easily detect most types of bit errors i.e. both single bit and multiple bit errors. The proposed technique is based on a basic arithmetic operation i.e. counting. By counting the total number of 1's and 0's in the binary data to be transmitted, we can detect the errors in the received data. The performance of the proposed simple error detection technique is evaluated by comparing it with the existing techniques i.e. parity check, Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) and checksum. This paper also discusses about the shortcomings of this simple error detection technique.

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