Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2013 Edition


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Review: Boosting Classifiers For Intrusion Detection[ ]


Network and host intrusion detection systems monitor malicious activities and the management station is a technique that generates reports. Security for all networks is becoming a big problem. Hackers and intruders higher number of successful efforts to bring down the company's networks and web services. Intrusion detection system, the availability of an attack and to protect the integrity of the data used for the detection of attacks. In this paper, we use a variety of feature reduction techniques for intrusion detection system (IDS) to compare the performance of classifiers. There are two phases in certain ways, in the first phase will improve decision tree and SVM classifiers for best results and the second phase will boost both the decision tree and SVM classifiers, and detect more than a single class classifier system.

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Multi-Tenant Data Storage Security In Cloud Using Data Partition Encryption Technique[ ]


Latest Computing models like Grid Computing, Cloud Computing aims of providing a reliable, cost-efficient delivery of service to Customers. Especially Cloud computing delivers service in areas like infrastructure, Platform and software through various delivery models such as Infrastrucutre-as-a-Service(IaaS), Platform-as-a-service(PaaS), Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Data Storage as a Service(DSaaS).Cloud computing takes advantage through in terms of delivering service to multiple tenants on same physical machine through virtualization at the same time providing security to data of multiple tenants is a challenge. In this paper we focus on security regarding data storage for SaaS Applications or platforms that are built on Multi-Tenant Architectures (MTA), which allow expanding and modeling efficiently large data management structures, such as databases. In MTA each tenant on cloud may allot separate database due to security reasons, but it is not cost effective, so single database is shared. Sharing of database leads to unauthorized access of tenants data by another tenant which is serious breach of security so to address this problem we propose DPET(DATA PARTITION ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE) which allows encryption of each record two times before storing in partition belonging to each tenant by public, private key pairs which is known to Client and CSP (cloud Service Provider) by using Generator based encryption technique. In this technique the Tenant storing data in the database partition is encrypted twice first by tenant himself(ER) encrypted Record and second time by CSP as EER(Encrypted ER) and at the time of decryption it is by private keys of tenant. so the record to be stored is not known to CSP also as ER is sent to it. The keys information is stored in Metadata table in each partition for each tenant which should be secured by CSP , thus the tenants data is secured in cloud environment. Each partition belonging tenant is secured by different pairs of keys.

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Visco-Elastic MHD Fluid Flow Over a Vertical Plate with Dufour and Soret Effects[ ]


An analysis of free convective MHD visco-elastic fluid flow with heat and mass transfer over a vertical plate moving with a constant velocity in presence of Dufour and Soret effects has been presented. The fluid is considered to be non-Newtonian characterized by Walters liquid (Model B'). The surface temperature is assumed to oscillate with small amplitude about a non-uniform mean temperature. The system representation is such that the x-axis is taken along the plate and y-axis is normal to the plate. The equations governing the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer are solved by perturbation technique. Analytical expressions for velocity, temperature and concentration fields, non-dimensional skin friction coefficient are obtained. The first-order velocity profile and skin friction coefficient are obtained numerically and illustrated graphically to observe the visco-elastic effects in combination of other flow parameters involved in the solution. It is observed that the flow field is significantly affected by the visco-elastic parameter in comparison with Newtonian fluid flow phenomena. Possible applications of the present study include engineering science and applied mathematics in the context of aerodynamics, geophysics and aeronautics.

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Seed Property Measurement With Image Analysis[ ]


The Seed property measurement is one of the important areas in agriculture and seed research sector. The advanced technology is being used for automatic measurement of the physical parameters. In image analysis, 2-d images is usually captured by single camera and used to identify seed and measure seed parameters. Two cameras have been use to capture two views of the seed, top and side view. From these images 3d image is reconstructed and the physical properties of the seed e.g. seed volume, seed surface are computed. Image processing algorithms are implemented to measure various parameters like seed length, width, surface area, volume, shape factor, roundness . The camera setup is prepared with 2 cameras, one for top and one another for side image of the seed. The L shaped backlight is used as constant background light source for both cameras to reduce the shadow effects. To calibrate both the cameras, and for getting size of seed square grid is used. This reduces the camera lens distortion. The setup is designed in to measure parameters of multiple seeds at a time. The seed mapping algorithm is developed to map the seeds from both the views.

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Synthesis and Characterisation of Some New Tris (?-Naphthyl) Bismuth (V) Carboxylates; (a-C10H7)3BiX2 [ ]


A series of tris (a-naphthyl) bismuth (V) carboxylates (a-C10H7)3Bi(OCOR)2 where -OCOR = p-trifluoromethyl mandelate, p-methoxy mandelate, salicylate, 2pyrazine carboxylate, mandelate have been synthesised and characterised by solid state infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, molecular weight and conductance measurements. The newly synthesized derivatives are monomeric in benzene and non ionic in acetonitrile. In the solid state a penta coordinate dispensation around bismuth having monodentate OCOR group indicated on the basis of spectroscopic and physic chemical datas.

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Synthesis and Characterisation of Some New Organoantimony (V) Aryloxyacetates[ ]


A series of new tri and tetra-organoantimony (V) aryloxyacetates of the general formula R3Sb(OCOCH2OR')2; and R4Sb(OCOCH2OR') [where R = p-OCH3C6H4-, C6H5- & R' = p-CH3C6H4-, m-CH3C6H4-, o-CH3C6H4-, ß-C10H7-, o-ClC6H4-], have been synthesised and characterised. These complexes are monomeric in benzene and non-electrolyte in acetonitrile. IR, NMR spectral data suggest the hepta-coordination with weak secondary interaction in between antimony and carbonyl oxygen of aryloxyacetate ligands.

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A Review on Wireless Embedded System for Vision Guided Robot Arm for Object Sorting[ ]


A robot arm/manipulator finds its applications in variety of areas to takeaway the processes which are repetitive, highly multifaceted and perilous, destructive or of high-precision in its nature. Robot manipulators are intended to use in object sorting applications because of its high accuracy and precision operation. Robot manipulator shows many advantages when it is networked and automated with an embedded system by providing the vision system. The present work gives the earlier, current developmental status and design considerations of existing object sorting systems, modeling and analysis of robot arm, embedded wireless control for robots, and image processing techniques for automated vision guided robot manipulators. The above said significant areas are covered in the review. The intention of the present work is to develop the feature research work in the field of wireless cooperative robot manipulators for object sorting system.

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The Physical Properties of Halley Comet Tail using Mid-point Leapfrog Explicit Method[ ]


The physical properties of the interaction region between the solar wind and Halley comet have been taken a considerable atten-tion in this work. The cometary ion tail that formed and shaped by the existence of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is also depends on the comet type. This interaction can be described by plasma and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) laws which based to continuities equations. Simulations are achieved by developing computer codes using the MATLAB 7.8 to study the present model and verifying a solution of the continuities equations using mid-point Leapfrog explicit method in three dimen-sions. This research show good results where the interaction near the cometary nucleus which is mainly affected by the new ions added to the plasma of the solar wind, which increased the average molecular weight and result in many unique characteristics of the cometary tail. These characteristics were explained in the presence of the IMF. The physical properties that studied in this research were: mass density, magnetic field and velocity. The previous set was used for Halley comet under study. The behavior was explained on the base of newly added ions and it was shown that as more ions are added, the physical behavior changed.

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Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of some sterically hindered ?-oxo bis [tricyclohexyl antimony (V)] carboxylates and -halocarboxylates[ ]


A series of sterically hindered ?-oxo bis [tricyclohexylantimony (V)] carboxylates [(cyclo-C6H11)3Sb-O-Sb(cyclo-C6H11)3](OCOR)2 where -OCOR = p-trifluoromethyl mandelate, p-methoxy mandelate, salicyclate, 2pyrazine carboxylate, mandelate has been synthesised and characterised by solid state infrared, 1H , 19Fand 13C NMR spectroscopy, molecular weight and conductance measurements. The newly synthesized derivatives are monomeric in benzene and non ionic in acetonitrile with pentacoordination dispensation around antimony.

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Web User Analysis Using Hierarchical and Optimized K-mean Algorithm for Online Market Analysis.[ ]


Data mining plays really very important part in the analy-sis of business.Computational statistics and information re-trieval has attracted attention of many researchers.As there is enormous data there are various challenges for the re-searchers to extract particular data as per users requirement. Considering large volumes of data which is produced due to various users visiting online online web portal clustering of that data needs to be done and categorizing of that data on basis of some similar attributes of the users.When standard K-means partitional algorithm is not that e?cient because when it is subjected to large data set it consumes consider-able time. So use of Optimized K-Means and Hierarchical algorithm is to be done which will yield better results for on-line shopping web portal.Reports are generated from output of clustering algorihm .Results can helpful for business owners or website owner in market research for deciding marketing strategies,customer retention strategies ,production and oper-ations taking place in the business.

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Free Left Distributive Idempotent Semigroups[ ]


The paper [1] represents construction of free left distributive semigroups - by J. Jezek and T. Kepka. In that paper Jezek and Kepka has also shown, that proceeding similarly, one can construct free left distributive idempotent semigroups.

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Solar Based Inverter and Charger[ ]


This system is designed for outdoor application in un-electrified remote rural areas. This system is an ideal application for house or village street lighting. The system is provided with battery storage backup sufficient to operate the light for 7-8 hours daily. The project is about to develop and fabricate the circuit that can charge the lead acid battery during day time by using solar as the source. To control the circuit for charging, we have used the circuit charging that can implement the condition of the charging whether it's in charging condition of in float condition.The design consists of a PV array, a 12-volts lead acid battery, a control section that uses the PIC16F72 microcontroller.The control section obtains the information from the PV array through microcontroller's Analog and Digital (A/D) ports and hence to perform the pulse width modulation (PWM) to the converter through its D/A ports. Battery's state of charge is also controlled by the microcontroller to protect the battery from over charged. When charging condition, red LED will turn on until the battery reach the full charge state that is in floating condition and green LED will turn on. The PIC16F72 will determine whether it is daytime or night time by using sensing circuit. The light will automatically ON when the sensor circuit give the input to the PIC and PIC will give the output to the relay to switch on the light. When night change to the day, sensing circuit detect the ray from the sun, PIC will give the output to off the lamp and the charging circuit will continue charge the battery for the day.

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An Improved Subset AntNet Algorithm for Numerical Optimization of the Shortest Path Problem[ ]


Routing algorithm is the key element in networks performance and reliability, therefore, there is a need for an algorithm to manage traffic flows and deliver packets from the source to the destination in a realistic time. A modification algorithm has been presented called Subset Nodes Based AntNet. In the Subset Nodes Based AntNet, a routing tables maintained at each node is used to get a subset table which helps in reducing number of choices available to each Ant to select the next node and reach the destination. The parameters used to measure the performance of the proposed routing algorithms are: cost, number of iterations and number of Ants. The experiment results show that the proposed Subset Nodes Based AntNet is best in minimizing the cost, number of iterations and number of Ants number in comparison to the original AntNet.

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Modelling The Multigroup Moderator-Mediator On Motivation Among Youth In Higher Education Institution Towards Volunteerism Program[ ]


This study aimed to evaluate the factors used for develop a best model of multigroup moderator-mediator effect on motivation among youth in higher education institution towards volunteerism program. The data be collected through questionnaires distributed at four higher education institution. This questionnaire is constructed based on five dimension which is motivation, benefits, goverment support, barrier and challenges. The data were distributed by using stratified sampling technique and involving 453 respodents . In this case, the data were analyzed through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) by using Analysis Moment of Structural (AMOS) 18.0 to examine the influence of exogenous and endogenous variables. As a result showed that the goverment support is significant and direct influences on motivation, benefits, challenges and barrier. Moreover, the benefits and barrier is significant and direct influence on motivation while the challenges is insignificant influence on motivation. In generals, the findings revealed that benefits influence is most crucial for motivation of volunteerism. Next, moderation procedure is apply to examine the strength of influence of relationship between these variables. The findings suggest all path are insignificant unless goverment support on benefits.

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Performance and Evaluation of Interferometric based Wavefront Sensors[ ]


Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of wavefront distortions. It is used in astronomical telescopes and laser communication systems to remove the effects of atmospheric distortion. An AO system basically consists of three main components, a wavefront sensor, a wavefront corrector and a control system. A new wavefront sensor based on polarization shearing interferometry technique has been developed and studied. The necessary theory for shearing interferometry has been developed. Simulations of the interferometric records were carried out for the study of various aberrations in an optical system and the effect of noise and atmospheric turbulence in the interferograms. This paper describes a comparative study of Shack Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (SH-WS) and Polarization Shearing Interferometry Wavefront Sensor (PSI-WS). The statistical analyses of the experimental data are also presented.

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Comparative Analysis of Speed Control of PMSM using PI-Controller and Fuzzy Controller[ ]


This paper presents the methods used in speed control of Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives. Permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) are widely used in AC servo drives because of its high torque to inertia ratio, high power density, high efficiency and power factor as compare to the other motors used in drives. The study shows that the methods used to improve the performance of PMSM drives, but in some case, when the dynamics of the system vary over time or with operating conditions, the performance of the PI controller will be spoiled. So that in proposed method FC controller is used in place of PI controller to improve the performance of PMSM drives. The Fuzzy Controller (FC)) used as a speed controller seems to be a promising solution in this purpose. This paper presents a Fuzzy Controller (FC) for speed control of a PMSM drive by using the Fuzzy Logic (FL) approach applied to speed control leads to an improved dynamic behavior of the motor drive system and an immune to load perturbations and parameter variations. The simulations of both the controllers have been carried out in MATLAB and Simulink. Speed responses, obtained under PI and FL speed control, are compared for a variety of operating conditions. FLC controlled PMSM generates a superior speed response and provides satisfactory output.

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A Survey on Free -Standing Phase Correcting gain enhancement Devices[ ]


Free-standing phase-correcting structures are very useful devices for various antenna applications. These devices are usually required to modify the incoming beam from a feeder antenna and transform it to obtain high gain or gain enhancement. The gain of any antenna is directly proportional to the aperture size of that antenna. For gain enhancement, we have to increase the aperture size. Generally this is done by introducing a device of size larger than the feed antenna. The best known application is the reflector antenna. Lens antennas are another example. Lens antennas are also operating like a reflector but in transmission. Gain of an antenna is also increased by using multiple antenna elements in an array configuration. Phasing is an important parameter for these kinds of devices. Maximum broadside gain is achieved with uniform phasing. When such type of control is possible, uniform amplitude as well as a uniform phase will ensure a maximum antenna gain. If we want shaped beam to achieve some specifications, then amplitude and phase can be varied at the price of a gain penalty. This paper focuses on various type of free-standing phase correcting devices of the transmissive type. Although they look physically different, but they have the same operation principle of gain enhancement and phase correction of electromagnetic waves which are propagating through them.

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Newtonian Cosmology embedded on Standard Universe: A simple solution! [ ]


This paper discusses the applicability of Newtonian cosmology to Relativistic cosmology. Here the 1930's work of W.H.McCrea and E.A.Milne on the relationship between the relativistic cosmology and Newtonian cosmology, and the extension of their works is in the Newtonian case each particle is steadily decelerated. In this paper we discuss the relationship among the deceleration parameter, energy, density parameter, and also curvature which are also related the standard cosmological universe.

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Dvts Apporach to Digital Cmos Circuits for Decreasing Total Power Consumption[ ]


Power consumption of Modern Digital integrated circuits increasing with each generation which becomes a serious design issue. This paper proposed a generalized power tracking algorithm that reduces power directly by dynamic control of supply voltage and body bias. The DVTS algo-rithm-(Dynamic Voltage and threshold scaling algorithm) save the leakage power during active mode of the cir-cuit.Total active power can be minimized by dynamically adjusting Vdd and Vth based on circuit operating conditions such as temperature, workload, and circuit architecture. The power saving method of DVTS is similar to that of the Dy-namic VDD Scaling (DVS) scheme, which adaptively changes the supply voltage depending on the current work-load of the system. For a digital circuit, it is possible to trade off dynamic and sub threshold leakage power by balancing between Vdd and Vth to maintain performance.

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Design and development of low cost embedded data acquisition and control system in Virtual Instrumentation[ ]


This paper describes the design of a low cost,speedy embedded wireless data acquisition and control module using applications of virual instrumentation. The implemented embedded system provides means of duplex communication from Master Terminal Unit( MTU) to Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) through GSM network. This work originally shows the monitoring, control and communication between a host computer (MTU) and a RTU equipped with Microcontroller. The objective is to monitor and control the status of the port to which remotely situated devices can be connected. This portable module is capable of processing 28 different types of strings from remote devices but to make the system cost-effective and faster, it has been tested on three sets of strings from RTU. The security and reliability of design was ensured by effective use of VIs in LabView.

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An Overview of Different Image Fusion Methods for Medical Applications[ ]


Image fusion is an important research topic in many related areas such as computer vision, remote sensing, robotics, and medical imaging etc. Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from several images into one image. The final output image can provide more information than any of the single image. Now-a-days, almost all areas of medical diagnosis are impacted by the digital image processing. For medical diagnosis, MRI and CT images are of main concern, both images give special sophisticated characteristics of the organ to be imaged. Computed Tomography (CT) provides the best information on denser tissue like bones. Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) provides better information on soft tissues. With more available multimodality medical images in clinical applications, the idea of combining images from different modalities become very important and medical image fusion has emerged as a new promising research field that help physicians in the diagnosis process. More research has been done for fusion of MRI and CT images using traditional wavelet transform and few attempts using curvelet transform. This paper provides an overview of different image fusion methods for medical applications in brief and to improve the fusion results proposed method is described shortly.

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Analysis of Bug Tracking Tools[ ]


Nowadays, when project are so extensive, defects or bugs have been existed as a problem in the system and they are normally inevitable in software development. A bug could be in either a program's source code or its design. Huge amount of bugs could be found in system development. It is relatively difficult to manage bugs in simple word documents or remember everything in one's head. Because of that, it becomes very important to have appropriate bug tracking tool. Bug tracking tool makes communication between teams more effective and all the bugs and changes are recorded in web based system and hence the system is scalable. The purpose of this paper is to study different hug tracking tools, and purpose new set of selection criteria that gives more satisfying solution, as the industry needs criteria to select the best tool among the available set of tools that will help in fixing and tracking the progress of bug fixes.

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Modeling and Querying Data in MongoDB[ ]


With the uninterrupted growth of data volumes, the storage of information, support and maintenance have become the biggest challenge. Relational database products fall behind to scaling the applications according to the incoming traffic. Due to huge data storage and scaling demands, growing number of developers and users have begun turning to NoSQL databases. This paper describes data modeling and query execution in MongoDB Document database. This paper shows how data is retrieved from MongoDB Document database without using JOIN.

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Fidelity Testing, an Approach to ensure the Genomic Stability of the Biologically Hardened Micro Propagated plants[ ]


The current work was carried out in continuation to our previous research on hardening of the Micro propagated plants using micro organisms as biological agents. We used single and mixed combinations of microbes and prepared the standard solutions into which the roots of the plantlets were dipped and incubated at the time of Green house stage of the tissue culture. The plants produced in this way gave very good results in terms of their protein content and nutritive value. The question was that weather the plant genetic material was changed due to the use of these microbes. It must be proved that the genome of the plant was conserved and did not get any mutations due to the symbiotic association with the used micro organisms. The current was focused to prove this aspect using the Fidelity test for the assessment of the quality of the DNA obtained from the progeny. In order to verify the genetic stability the Granine naine variety of banana which was treated with the microorganisms was tested for the fidelity of its genetic material. The work involves the assessment of cloned fidelity of 13 randomly selected hardened plants using 6 ISSR primers.

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IMAGE ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION USING BLOWFISH ALGORITHM IN MATLAB[ ]


With the progress in data exchange by electronic system, the need of information security has become a necessity. Due to growth of multimedia application, security becomes an important issue of communication and storage of images. This paper is about encryption and decryption of images using a secret-key block cipher called 64-bits Blowfish designed to increase security and to improve performance. This algorithm will be used as a variable key size up to 448 bits. It employs Feistel network which iterates simple function 16 times. The blowfish algorithm is safe against unauthorized attack and runs faster than the popular existing algorithms. The proposed algorithm is designed and realized using MATLAB.

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The Role of Communication Climate in Organizational Effectiveness[ ]


Organizational Communication Climate represents a metaphor of the physical climate. Just as the weather creates a physical climate for a region, the way in which people react to aspects of the organization creates a communication climate. In other words, the communication climate is a composite of perceptions-a macro-evaluation-of communicative events, human behaviors, responses of employees to one another, expectations, interpersonal conflicts, and opportunities for growth in the organization. This study states that climate in general and communication climate in particular serve as a strong mediating factors between elements of the work system and different measures of organizational effectiveness such as productivity, quality, satisfaction, and vitality.

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Stabilizing of Grid and Power System Based Wind Power Generation Using FACTS Technology[ ]


Integration of large wind farms with power system holds stability and control problems. For identifying the potential issues and designing a strategy to alleviate them, a thorough know-how is required. Integrating high levels of wind power calls for further control and compensating equipments to facilitate recovery from system disturbances with high degree of severity. This paper throws light into using effectively, a Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) for stabilizing the grid voltage following grid-side disturbances during disturbances the enhancement of FRT capability of IG is also verified by simulation results using MATLAB /SIMULINK.

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Detecting and Dealing with Malicious Nodes Problem in MANET[ ]


The objective of this research paper is to detect malicious behaviour of nodes so that a route via malicious node is never used to transmit an application packet to its destination. When a malicious node receives an application packet from a node destined for some other node then instead of forwarding that packet, it simply drops that packet. This data loss may become severe when number of malicious nodes present in network is high. In proposed work, we overcome this problem by identifying such malicious behaviour of nodes and then a route via such a node is never chosen by its neighbour to forward an application packet in the network.

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Online Physics Laboratory- Just In Time Experiment for Research Scholar[ ]


During past decade the awareness with learning online techniques has grown progressively as much as using electronic digitalization can be involved inside testing. Due to the better volume of pupils being able to access the actual college or university educational structures, the expense of laboratories pertaining to didactical electronic digital programs will likely be very high. As a result, a number of software equipment as well as environments happen to be designed to aid end users to talk about distributed laboratory sources as well as realize personal tests. However, additional alternatives need to be explored while pupils have to be educated as well as experienced from the physics instrumentation programming. With this report, we use current java software language to development as well as implement some sort of distributed structures pertaining to personal physics labs permitting the actual approach formerly referred to. Solutions built-in on these structures try and support pupils to keep hitting the ground with true physics equipment simulate remotely system instrumentation. This kind of learning online method is mentioned and a few reports coming from pupil's knowledge using the java program are generally demonstrated.

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Feasibility Study of New Techniques: Spray Pyrolysis Simulation[ ]


Conducting oxide thin films previously manufactured by electron evaporation techniques. Structural, optical as well as electrical qualities had been analyzed below diverse preparation problems just like substrate heat range, alternative stream rate as well as rate associated with deposit. Resistivity associated with undoped evaporated films diverse coming from 2.60 * 10-2 ?-cm and 3.46 * 10-3 ?-cm inside the heat range assortment 140-180°C. Pertaining to undoped spray pyrolyzed films, resistivity had been witnessed to stay the product range 1.3 * 10-1 to 1.60* 10-2 ?-cm inside the heat range assortment 200-350°C. Impact sizes indicated how the flexibility as well as concentration associated with evaporated films had been over in which associated with spray put into the accounted films. The best resistivity pertaining to antimony doped tin oxide film had been observed to become 7.70 * 10-3 ?-cm, that was put into the account at 300°C along with 0.25 grams associated with SbCl3 as well as few grams associated with SnCl4 (SbCl3/SnCl4 = 0.063).

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Assessment of Saltwater Intrusion Along Coastal Areas of Nellore District, A.P.[ ]


Studies of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers have assumed greater importance in recent decades because of the increased demands placed on subsurface water to meet the growing needs of water in large urban areas and agricultural practices located in the coastal areas in the world. The present study aims at assessing the seawater intrusion along the coastal mandals -Alluru, Vidavaluru, Indukurupeta, T.P. Gudur and Muthukuru of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh. Forty nine groundwater samples were collected from the above mandals during January 2013 and analysed for the following parameters / ions, viz., Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH), EC, TDS, Ca, Mg, K, Na, K, CO3, HCO3, Cl, I and SO4. The general quality of groundwater for drinking purpose was presented. To delineate the seawater intrusion in the study area, Ca/Mg, Cl (CO3 + HCO3), Na/Cl ratios were used. The details of criteria for recognition of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers of the study area were presented and discussed. It is observed that Mg is the dominant cation and chloride is the dominant anion in the study area. According to hydrogeochemical ratio the study area seems to be contaminated with salt water intrusion and also this contamination is due to marine source of origin.

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Secured Dynamic Routing Strategy in Wireless Sensor Networks[ ]


Recent years usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are increased. These are used in many applications, including environmental monitoring and military field surveillance .In Wireless sensor networks network topology, routing and security place the major role for communication. Generally Dynamic Clustering is an efficient topology management approach for sensor networks. But routing in cluster is difficult due to the dynamic nature of the nodes. Another biggest problem in WSNs is that they are very defenseless to security threats because of less memory and processing capability. In this paper we proposed strategies to improve the energy efficiency for data transmission based on clustering hybrid routing algorithm to finding best route and we also proposed CA (certificate authority) security strategy to increases the security level in cluster based communication.

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QoS-based Web Service Selection Using Filtering, Ranking and Selection Algorithm[ ]


Appropriate web service selection procedure for determining optimal web service for a requester still remain an active area of research owing to the persisting upward trends in services with similar functionality. This paper proposes a QoS-based Filtering, Ranking and Selection Algorithm for the purpose of selecting the best web service for requester in line with his/her preferences. Experiments are conducted using real web services datasets and the outcome of the experiments confirms an improvement over existing methods.

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Employing Three Swarm Intelligent Algorithms for Solving Integer Fractional Programming Problems[ ]


This paper seeks for the integer optimal solution of the Fractional Programming Problem (IFPP) using three different Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. The three algorithms are: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Firefly Algorithm (FA), and Cuckoo Search (CS). The proposed approaches perform this by embedding the search space truncating the real values to the nearest integers inside feasible region. This method idea based on SI, rounds the real solutions after every step and after the final step. SI approach can get near optimal solutions in a reasonable time and effort. SI is an effective techniques for non-smooth functions. The numerical result and statistical analysis show that the proposed methods perform significantly better than previously used classical methods. A comparative study among the three SI algorithms on the selected benchmark examples was carried out. The study revealed an almost similarity in performance with a privilege in computation time and optimization results for cuckoo search.

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KDM- As a tool for modernizing Legacy Systems[ ]


The performance of system depends on how it is designed and for what functionality it is developed, but the fact lies in architecture of the system. Because legacy systems have a complex type of architecture compared to the new age systems. So many a times handling legacy systems requires more care, otherwise it can lead to improper functioning. To deal with this situation we can use the concept "Architecture Driven Modernization (ADM)", the reason for handling this situation is due to the archival information that resides in legacy systems. ADM is used for modernizing the legacy systems by analyzing its artifacts and through this we can transform the architecture of the existing system to the new one as per user or organization needs. To make it possible, we can use a specification provided by ADM called as "knowledge discovery metamodel (KDM)". Knowledge Discovery Metamodel supports many programming languages because it is an intermediate representation of software artifacts and its operational environment. In this paper we are trying simplify the intermediate representation of legacy system using KDM with its respective models.

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Applications of Optical Fibers in Automobiles[ ]


In past decade broadband communication technology using optical fibers has spread quickly through internet lines and cable TV lines to the home. All this is due to cheaper cost of optical fiber that realize the transmission speed required by those services. It is now believed that amount of information that will need to be transmitted in field of automobile technology will increase rapidly in near future ,not only in information systems but also in control systems and safety systems. The MOST and IDB1394 standards are an example for automotive infotainment systems. Many European car manufacturers have already adopted the MOST system. The Byte flight system of BMW is pioneering the usage of fiber optic links in their airbag control system. Since the bandwidth-distance product required is smaller, one can use large core fibers such as the plastic optical fiber (POF) and polymer cladded silica (PCS) fiber.

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Touchpad Controlled Vehicle - a Car in Future[ ]


This study deals with innovative idea of touchpad controlled vehicle. Normally in such system touchpad is interfaced with ADC [0808/MCP 3208] which gives the co-ordinates of the points touch by the user on touchpad. But in this study Programmable Intercombination Circuit (PIC) [18F4550/18C4550] is used purposefully instead of ADC as input signal were in analog which required converting into digital signal. PIC can be used to interface touchpad and also perform serial port programming far better than ADC. PIC gives output to 8051 microcontroller which uses keil software program in C for input and output programming. Test drive was done to crosscheck the performance of vehicle and it was found that car was moving at correspond given position. Car was moving as directed by touch screen at given location.

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Intelligent Technique for Grading Tropical Fruit using Magnetic Resonance Imaging[ ]


Recent application of modern marketing techniques coupled with intelligent agricultural systems of production has transformed small scale farming into large scale, in most part of the world. Characteristically, most of the tropical fruits, such as orange, appeared edible physically but internally such fruits might be defective based on their tissue and juice. Eventually, these fruits, via the market and undetected, usually get to the consumers who encounter the unfavourable status of the fruits. Our purpose, in this study, is to develop a non-destructive method to predict the status of orange fruits, based on internal quality. Graph of histogram showing the levels of different four colour intensities were acquired and analysed. The features extracted from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), using any of the two proposed methods, were applied as an input to train artificial neural network (ANN) in order to predict the orange fruit status. Different structures of multi-layer perceptron neural networks with feed-forward and back-propagation learning algorithms were developed using MATLAB. The theoretical background of MRI and artificial neural network (ANN) backpropagation were also explained. At hidden neuron value of 20, search is for backpropagation and number of neurons in the hidden layer to optimize the ANN. Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (trainlm) gave the best performance fitness out of different types of backpropagation algorithm used with least Mean Square Error (MSE) of 0.0814 corresponding to R-value of 0.8094. This work shows that ANN and MRI have the capability of predicting the internal content and detect defect fruit based on water proton content.

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Growth and Development of Tea Industry in Assam[ ]


Assam is located in the North-East of India surrounded by seven states viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura and West Bengal. It also shares its two boundaries with two countries viz. Bangladesh and Bhutan. The total geographical area of the state is 78,438 sq kms which is about 2.4 percent of the total geographical area of the country. According to the 2011 census the population of Assam stands at 3, 11, 69,272 of which 1, 59, 54,927 are males and 1, 52, 14,345 females. The economy of Assam continues to be primarily agrarian and the agricultural sector is providing employment to more than 50 percent of the rural population. This sector contributes 25 percent to the State Domestic Product (2010-11).

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Investigation Of The Effect Of Compression And Firing On Clay Samples From Ekiti State South Western, Nigeria.[ ]


Using the Atterberg scale, liquid limit activity of clay is found to be between 0.75 and 1.25 which is acceptable for structural material in engineering, This has not been effective like lead in shielding ionizing radiation due to its brittleness. Clay samples used mainly for building construction and pot making in Ara Ijero, Ire, Orin and Isan of Ekiti State South Western Nigeria were investigated so as to know their effectiveness as radiation shielding material. The samples was grinded into powder, weighed and formed into paste before compressing it into bricks. Pressures of 875Nm-2, 1750Nm-2, 2625Nm-2, 3500Nm-2, and 4375Nm-2, was used in compression for thicknesses of 1.0cm, 1.5cm, 2.0cm, 2.5cm, 3.0cm and 3.5cm. It was then fired at a temperature of 1000oC and then re-weighed.

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DESIGN OF 9X9 MICRO STRIP PATCH ANTENNA WITH DUAL FEED FOR C-BAND RADAR APPLICATION USING ADS[ ]


In the recent years the development in communication systems requires the development of low cost, minimal weight and low profile antennas that are capable of maintaining high performance over a wide spectrum of frequencies. This technological trend has focused much effort into the design of a microstrip patch antenna. The objective of this paper is to design of micro strip patch antenna array with dual feed operating at a frequency of 5 GHz for C-band radar application. The presented model is a square patch array of 9x9 i.e. 81 elements arranged on the RT-Duroid5880 substrate material. The gain and directivity obtained for the current model is 27.246dB and 27.956dB. The present work involved the designing of array patch antenna and simulation of the model with ADS (Advanced Design System). ADS supports every step of the design process-schematic capture, layout, frequency-domain and time-domain circuit simulation, and electromagnetic field simulation, allowing the engineer to fully characterize and optimize an RF design without changing tools. Therefore, method of moments based ADS software is used to design a Microstrip Patch Antenna with enhanced gain and bandwidth. The length of the antenna is nearly half wavelength in the dielectric it is a very critical parameter, which governs the resonant frequency of the antenna. In view of design, selection of the patch width and length are the major parameters along with the feed line dimensions. Results from both a single element characterization and a 9*9 planar array of these elements are presented The entire project is being carried out at National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), ISRO.

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GENESTEIN, A PHYTOESTROGENS FOR THE TREATMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA[ ]


The potential therapeutic utility of estrogens in schizophrenia is increasingly being recognised. The goal of the study was to assess the effect of genistein a phytoestrogen in ketamine induced rat model of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia was induced by administering ketamine 50mg/kg i.p. Behavioural models assessed were loco motor activity representing positive symptoms, forced swimming test representing negative symptoms, active avoidance test representing cognitive symptoms. Biochemical parameters like dopamine and acetyl cholinesterase were estimated in rat brain tissues. To assess the possible side effects of genistein on male fertility, andrological parameters of rats such as sperm count, motility, viability and histology of testis were also evaluated. Acute administration of ketamine produced hyperactivity response in loco motor activity test, when administered chronically enhanced the immobility period in animals during the forced swim test and reduced the number of avoidances in active avoidance test. In Genistein, standard (clozapine) and combination of both treated groups we found protective effect of the drugs. Out of three different regimes the combination of clozapine and genistein found to be better in normalizing the levels of various parameters conducted in the present study. So the potentiating effect of the clozapine and genistein drugs can be seen. Genistein a phytoestrogen found to have no adverse effect on andrological parameters in male rats. Based on the results, genistein was found to be effective in all the symptoms of schizophrenia. Genistein in combination with antipsychotic drug clozapine found to have better protective effect. Genistein, a phytoestrogen has no effect on andrological parameters in male rats. So its use as an adjuvant therapy may be preferred along with standard drug treatment.

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Software Metric Pattern Discovery for Text Mining[ ]


The mining techniques are proposed for the purpose of developing effective mining algorithms to find particular patterns within reasonable and acceptable time frame. With a large number of patterns generated by using data mining approaches, how to effectively use and/or update these patterns is still an open research issue. In the existing system is an effective pattern discovery technique introduced which first calculates discovered specificity patterns and then evaluates the term weight according to the distribution of terms in the discovered patterns rather than the distribution in documents for solving the misinterpretation problem. It also considers the influence of patterns from the negative training examples to find noisy patterns and try to reduce their influence for the low-frequency problem. The process of updating uncertain modes can be referred as pattern evolution. Those approaches improve the accuracy of the evaluating term weights because discovered patterns are more specific than whole documents. This technique uses two processes, one pattern deploying and another pattern evolving, to improve the discovered patterns in text documents. But they do not consider the time series to rank the given sets of documents. In the proposed system, temporal text mining approach is introduced. The system terms of its capacity is evaluated to predict forthcoming events in the document. Here the optimal decomposition of time period associated with the given document set is discovered, where each subinterval consists of sequential time points having identical information content. Extraction of sequences of the events from new and other documents based on the publication times of these documents has been shown to be extremely effective in tracking past events.

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Energy Efficient Routing Using Random Walk and Best Route Selection for Sensor Networks[ ]


This paper discusses about a new routing technique based on the idea of random walk with the objective of saving energy. Energy consumption is a vital factor in the successful deployment of wireless sensor networks because sensor nodes are powered by on board battery which are extremely difficult to be recharged. Our approach is inspired by an existing TDMA like routing protocol. In this paper we have given a description of our algorithm by taking help of a small size network and performed simulations on large network to draw a comparative analysis with the existing algorithm.

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Service Effectiveness and user requirement for Cloud Service Allocation[ ]


Cloud architecture provides a model to distribute the services to clients. The presented work is the improvement to this distribution architecture in case of public cloud. The improvement is here performed at both the server as well client end. The work is divided into three main stages. First stage is specific to the server, in which all the available clouds are divided into a hierarchal order. A high level parametric division is performed to categorize all the related clouds. The client search will be performed on the segmented group instead of all clouds. The second stage is client specific, in which client requests are maintained in a queue, and an effective scheduling mechanism is implemented to select the best client to be processed. The third stage is the integration stage called allotment of service. In which a parametric check is performed relative to efficiency and accuracy to select the best cloud service from the segmented group to the client. The presented architecture will reduce the load from both the client side as well as server side, and will perform the efficient and reliable cloud service allocation.

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Pattern classification for the Handwritten English vowels with Radial Basis Function Neural Networks[ ]


The purpose of this study is to perform the task of pattern classification for hand written English vowels using radial basis function neural network. This Implementation has been done with five different samples of hand written English vowels. These characters are presented to the neural network for the training. Adjusting the connection strength and network parameters perform the training process in the neural network. By using a simulator program, each algorithm is compared with five data sets of handwritten English language vowels. The 5 trials indicate the significant difference between the two algorithms for the presented data sets. The results indicate the good convergence for the RBF network.

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Microfinance - A blessing or a cruse[ ]


Micro-finance has a great impact on the society. While working in the field for more than 5 years I experienced that instead of women getting empowered they are falling in trouble because their is no system of finding out beneficiary whether they have taken loans from other institute or not. So they go on taking loans from one institute to other. Then they are falling in debttraps. I have seen people changing their addresses overnight, attempting suicide, selling their properties to get rid of these debts. From the study at grass-root level I felt that very few people had actually benefited from this initiative.

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