IJSER Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2012 Edition
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A new masks group called A. H. SH. Rostom for Mycosis Fungoides Skin image Edge detection[Full-Text[References]
Dr. Ali Hassan Nasser Al-Fayadh, Hind Rostom Mohammed, Shaymaa Maki kadham

In the present paper, new method called (A.H. SH..Rostom Group masks) for Mycosis Fungoides Skin image Edge detection is proposed. The Group consists of 10 masks were geometry of the mask operator determines a characteristic direction in which it is most sensitive to edges. applied to the four stages of the Mycosis Fungoides disease Skin image have been identified and the edges of the images used for each and every stages that the database consists of 40 images divided each stage of the Mycosis Fungoides disease Skin image 10 images. For each stage a novel algorithm which combines pixel and region based color segmentation techniques is used. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed A.H. SH.Rostom Group masks .

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CT Angiography Image Segmentation by Mean Shift Algorithm and Contour with Connected Components Image[Full-Text[References]
Dr. Ali Hassan Al-Fayadh, Hind Rostom Mohamed, Raghad Saaheb Al-Shimsah

In the present paper, Mean Shift Algorithm and active contour to detect objects for CT Angiography Image Segmentation is proposed.Based on the results we believe that this method of boundary detection together with the mean-shift can achieve fast and robust tracking of the CT Angiography Image Segmentation in noisy environment. The proposed scheme has been tested successfully on a large set of images. The performance of the proposed detector compares favorably both computationally and qualitatively, in comparison with Mean Shift and contour detector which are also based on surround influence .The last stage is stage contain Extraction of connected components CT Angiography image edge detection . The proposed scheme can serve as a low cost preprocessing step for high level tasks such shape based recognition and image retrieval. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

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Interference and Compatibility Analysis of Radio-Communication Systems and Networks Operate in C- Band[Full-Text[References]
Zulfiqar Ali

This case study outlines an initial analysis of the potential for interference from and to carriers in the two GEO satellite communication and systems networks operating in C band with the separation of equal or less than 2o. We have adopted a fundamental approach to coordination is to calculate C/I or C/N+I ratios for all carrier pairs, and to compare these to coordination thresholds to analyze the interference levels against the difference between the two GEO satellite systems and networks which is often referred to as the Margin (M). The analysis investigates the carrier-to-interference (C/I) ratios for all combination of carriers, and identifies those that may have a potential for causing interference. The analysis results demonstrate that there is a little opportunity for negotiating thresholds levels for two GEO communication systems and networks operating in C band with the orbital separation of equal to or less than 2 o to be able to co-exist with acceptable or no constraint to the affected satellite networks.

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Impact of Knowledge Management Practices on Organizational Performance; An Evidence From Pakistan[Full-Text[References]
Rizwan Qaiser Danish, Yasin Munir

Knowledge management is very important in today's dynamic environment. Knowledge is considered as a prime asset of the organization. Different companies' especially multinational companies manage the knowledge in a proper way in order to gain competitive advantages and in making management strategies and spend a lot of resources to manage it properly and making it useable when needed. Different factors including organizational change, organizational learning and knowledge sharing influences on knowledge management. This study attempts to measure the impact of organizational change, knowledge sharing and organizational learning on knowledge management and as a result, its influence on organizational performance. Questionnaires were considered as a tool to get responses.150 questionnaires were distributed in financial services sector and telecommunication sector. One hundred complete responses were received at response rate 67%. Pearson's moment quotient and linear regression is applied to study the relationship among above discussed factors on knowledge management. Result shows significant association of factors and positive impact on organizational performance. In this study, future directions and research limitations are also discussed.

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Synthesis, polymeric and studied new derivative 2-aminobenzothiazole imide[Full-Text[References]
Mohmoud A-AL-Issa, Entesar O.A-Temimi and Hind F-AL-Gburi

Prepared new substituted and unsubstituted poly imides compounds from using reaction of acrylol chloride with different amides (aliphatic, aromatic) in the presence of a suitable solvent and amount triethyl amine (Et3N) with heating. The Structure confirmation of all polymers were provide using FT-IR,1H-NMR,13C-NMR and UV spectroscopy. Thermal analysis (TG) for some polymers confirmed their thermal stabilities. Other physical properties including softening points, melting point and solubility of the polymers were also measured.

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Effectiveness of Polystyrene Beads as Aggregate Replacement Material to Recycle Solid Waste: A Study on Workability and Absorption results of Concrete[Full-Text[References]
Hind M.Ewadh, Noorezlin A. Basri

The objective of this study is to determine the maximum usage of polystyrene beads from solid waste as aggregate replacement material in concrete for the purpose to recycle solid waste, and thus diverting waste from being disposed in landfills. Different ratios of polystyrene were used; 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% were mixed with gravel and sand of the same cement content and water cement ratio. A standard concrete mixture was provided for control concrete standard. Concrete cubes with dimensions of 100 mm x100 mm x100 mm were cast according to British Standard (BS 1881 part 116:1983). The engineering parameters studied were slump test and absorption test in comparison to the control concrete. The results showed that the absorption of concrete with different ratios of polystyrene in comparison to the control mixture reduced up to 82.05 % for 100% replacement of polystyrene. While the workability of the concrete mixtures was increased with the increasing of polystyrene beads with average of (medium).

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An Adaptive Text Entry Method Based On Single-Key Minimal Scan Matrix for People with Severe Motor Disabilities[Full-Text[References]
Saad Mohamed Lafi, Sidney Kan Boon Hock

Virtual scanning keyboards (VSK) are used by people with severe motor disabilities as text entry and augmentative communication aids. These techniques applying virtual keyboard (VK) with scanning and access switch as alternative input method. The common Arabic VK layout is derived from the Arabic typewriter keyboard layout and not optimized for command entry speed and has several problems. This study was to design an alternative Arabic VSK (non-QWERTY key layout) and evaluate the performance and effectiveness of this innovative layout design for people with severe physical disability. The VSK layout was designed based on human-computer interactions (HCIs) and frequency-of-use for every user, employs the block-row-item and row-item scanning techniques. A repeated experiment was performed to compare the speed and accuracy of communication and text entry between the proposed method and the built in Windows 7 QWERTY virtual keyboard. Data analysis indicates that the proposed method provided better performance for the participant without increasing task difficulty. The performance enhancement of the proposed method is demonstrated in the paper with user testing results.

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Signatures for Z'B-L Gauge Boson at Large Hadrons Collider using Monte Carlo Simulation Data[Full-Text[References]
H.M.M.Mansour

In the present work we search for Z'B-L heavy neutral boson in the dielectron events produced in proton-proton collisions at LHC using Monte Carlo simulation programs. To detect Z'B-L at LHC we used the data which are produced from pp collision of Pythia8 produced events at different energies for LHC then we use the angular distribution for the dielectron produced from Z'B-L decay channel's to detect the Z'B-L signal. B-L extension of the SM model predicts the existence of a Z'B-L heavy neutral massive boson at high energies and from our results which we had simulated for Z'B-L in theB-L extension of standard model we predict that aZ'B-L boson will be found at LHC and has a mass in the range from 1 TeV to 1.5 TeV.

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Mobile Interface for m-Government Services: A Framework for Information Quality Evaluation[Full-Text[References]
Ikhlas Zamzami and Murni Mahmud

Today, mobile devices have become a channel through which many organisations launch and market their services to the users. However, mobile devices that serve as channels for accessing government services have been the critical concerns by many government organisations. The quality of information provided through m-Government mobile technologies is seen as one of the most critical dimensions towards organisational achievement and success. In fact, User interface designed for mobile device is the main concern in designing applications. Currently, there is few of research that particularly evaluates the quality on m-Government services. Therefore, the information quality of Government sites in mobile interface, which is important for user convenience, has not been evaluated. In this paper, m-Government services will be examined in three main areas: mobile interface design from different government sectors, the information quality of the applications, and whether this information has met user satisfaction.

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Novel Bis-Urethane Bis-silane Precursor Prepared via Non-Isocyanate Route for Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings [Full-Text[References]
Mukesh Kathalewar, Anagha Sabnis

Effective pre-treatment of aluminum alloys is very critical for success of protective coating systems for aerospace applications. Sol-gel method is an environmental friendly technique of surface protection and has shown the potential for replacement of toxic pre-treatments and coatings which have traditionally been used for increasing corrosion resistance of metals. We have successfully developed organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) coating systems by using suitably tailored organosilane precursors and sol-gel processing conditions. A novel bis-urethane precursor has been developed via non-isocyante polyurethane (NIPU) route and employed as an organic precursor of OIH systems. Coating formulations with variable proportions of this organic component were prepared and applied on AA 2024-T3 metal substrate. These coatings were evaluated for mechanical, chemical properties, corrosion resistance (Potentiodynamic polarization, salt-spray corrosion test).

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Investigate the Effects of ProblemBased Learning with Cooperative Learning on Performance[Full-Text[References]
Hamizul binti Hamid, Merza Abbas

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Problem-Based Learning with cooperative learning on performance. The study employed the 2X2 factorial design. The first factor was the method of instruction namely Problem-Based Learning with cooperative learning. The independent variable was the method of instruction while the dependent variables were the student performance in solving moral dilemmas according to Kohlbergs' Moral Development Stages. The sample comprised 60 form four students from two intact classes. The findings showed that Problem-Based Learning with Individual learning significantly decreased preferences for giving punishment and apathy.

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Problem based Learning with Cooperative Learning on Performance in Solving Moral Dilemmas among Form Four Students That Different Gender, Birth Order, and Family Size[Full-Text[References]
Hamizul binti Hamid & Merza Abbas

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the moderator variables namely gender, birth order, and family size. The independent variable was the method of instruction while the dependent variables were the student performance in solving moral dilemmas according to Kohlbergs' Moral Development Stages. The instrument comprised pre- and post-tests that contain moral dilemmas adapted from Kohlbergs' Development Skills (1975). The sample comprised 60 Form Four students from two intact classes. Equivalence in achievement between the classes was established using the Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) examination results. However, there were no significant differences between Problem-Based Learning with cooperative learning and Problem-Based Learning with Individual learning in preferences for giving punishment, giving warnings, giving benefit of the doubt, and apathy by gender, birth order and family size. The findings showed that Problem-Based Learning with Individual learning is more effective in increasing positive moral values and is recommended for use in the classroom.

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GIS-based approach to evaluate heavy metals in urban street dusts of southwest Iran (Case study: Bushehr)[Full-Text[References]
TayebehTabatabaie, Fazel Amiri and Abdul Rashid b. Mohamed Shariff

Thirty street dust samples were collected from all over Bushehr city, Iran, to characterize the spatial distribution and sources of two soil heavy metals (Pb, and Mn) and for the interrelation patterns of these elements, anthropogenic, the multivariate analysis was applied. Samples were collected by the random systematic method. The concentrations of Pb, and Mn were analyzed with an ICP-AES. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used, and geostatistics was conducted for the data processing. The results showed that the main source of the Pb is anthropogenic, mines of Mn natural material. The result's finding of this research showed that multivariate statistical analysis, a powerful tool for identifying and monitoring sources of heavy metals of street dust.

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The Implementation of Interactive Multimedia Learning Autism (IMLA). Alpha, Beta and Pilot Testing Stages [Full-Text[References]
Jasni Dolah, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya, Toh Seong Chong

The increasing numbers of Autism have been increased lately. Even though many research dedicated to autistic children around the world but the outcome was too limited and only made known to the doctor and the parents. None of this outcomes could be shared and distribute to society because the outcomes was too technical and limited. The information's related to Autism are too general and only focus on certain cases. The main issues arises are how this information's could be learn and shared amongst society? This study proposes one prototype to be implemented which is the implementation of Interactive Multimedia Learning Autism (IMLA). The development of IMLA was resulted from rigorous researches that have been made before such as through extensive literature reviews and Preliminary Investigation (PI). This study will highlight the elements and process used in the development such learning theories, theoretical framework, alpha, beta and pilot testing. The findings from the study will lead to the implementation of IMLA and will be tested with real target respondents. The findings show that the significance levels of knowledge, awareness and motivation of target respondents are increased significantly.

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Medical Image Compression Using Region Growing Segmenation[Full-Text[References]
R.Arun & D.Murugan

The easy, rapid, and reliable digital transmission and storage of medical and biomedical images would be a tremendous boon to the practice of medicine. Patients in rural areas could have convenient access to second opinions. Patients readmitted to hospitals could have earlier imaging studies instantly available. Rather than waiting for others to finish with hardcopy films, medical and surgical teams collaborating on patient care could have simultaneous access to imaging studies on monitors throughout the hospital. This long-term digital archiving or rapid transmission is prohibitive without the use of image compression to reduce the file sizes. As medical/biological imaging facilities move towards complete film-less imaging, compression plays a key role. Although lossy compression techniques yield high compression rates, the medical community has been reluctant to adopt these methods, largely for legal reasons, and has instead relied on lossless compression techniques that yield low compression rates. The true goal is to maximize compression while maintaining clinical relevance and balancing legal risk. Now-a-days in medical field the digitized medical information such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), generates increasingly important volumes of data is an important challenge to deal with is the storage, retrieval and transmission requirements of enormous data, from one place to another place for urgent purpose including medical images. Compression is one of the indispensable techniques to solve this problem. In this paper we offer a lossless compression method with the segmentation for compression of medical images. In this method the medical image is segmented and compressed by wavelet method to increase the compression ratio and to store in a less space. Here we use the CT and MRI images and analyzed in detail.

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Convert Database Structure into Star Schema Structure for Data Warehouse[Full-Text[References]
Mohammed Abdulameer Mohammed, Prof. Nanna Suryana Herman, Harith Azam Abdullah, Mustafa Musa Jaber

The database has started in the 1960s to make designing, building, and maintaining easily for information system difficulties. Since this time the database uses as storage for data and information and salves the problem about saving them safely. The dramatically increase in governments and companies transactions meet by increase in their databases, data storage and quires which used to retrieve data from database. They use information processing system which is used for storage of everyday activities about them. However, information processing systems rely on online transaction processing (OLTP) in DB, which is not so easily accessible to the governments and companies' users. Moreover, relational database was not designed to support multi dimensional view. Need for Multi dimensional view, Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) and reducing time consuming for reports generating leads to the concept of a data warehouse. This study convert database into data warehouse based on a star schema structure by using several tools and techniques as software and hardware. We investigate how star schema makes fast respond for quire and for better performance. The star schema structure data can be viewed and analyzed as multi dimensional view and can be used for Online Analytical Processing.

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Virtual Learning Environments Based on the Learners Profile for Multi Learning Purposes[Full-Text[References]
Ahmed Isam Khaleel, Rozinah Jamaludin

Recently E-learning environment become more useful for presenting and providing learning materials over online services, which has gained significant popularity. E-learning is a multi-dimensional activity where each dimension should be most organization adequately supported by an e-Learning system to provide fruitful learning materials to those are interest to read by online, a new experience for most users. The core problem of the current E-learning representation is the formalization of the learning concepts, which form the backbone of knowledge base about the domain or task setting, otherwise the learner incapable to practice the different technology to enhance their ability to contribute. Hence, this study aimed to design and develop a virtual learning environment based on the user or learner profile. Additionally, the propose system provide users with multi learning materials based on their searching profile.

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Designing Tangible Multimedia for Preschoolers based on Multimedia Design Theories[Full-Text[References]
Chau Kien Tsong, Toh Seong Chong, Zarina Samsudin

Coupling of tangible objects and multimedia expression for preschool children has not taken place yet. The reasons could be the concern over possible physical clutter and confusion in display. The problem can be overcome by applying relevant multimedia design theories on the system. However, we have problem to find a design theory specifically used for leveraging tangible objects and multimedia objects. For the purpose of demonstrating the need of such design theory in a newly explored area, we divert our focus on the application of the well-established Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Dual-Coding and Cognitive Load theory. Such discussion serves as a grounding reference for other similar research in future. A relevant prototype named "TangiLearn" has been developed for a case study and the finding revealed that there is a need for specific full-fledged design guidelines in tangible multimedia.

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Artificial Neural Network Modeling in Hadrons Collisions[Full-Text[References]
Moaaz. A. Moussa, Mahmoud.Y. El-Bakry, A. Radi, E. El-dahshan, M. Tantawy

Evolutions in arti?cial intelligence (AI) techniques and their applications to physics have made it feasible to develop and implement new modeling techniques for high-energy interactions. In particular, AI techniques of arti?cial neural networks (ANN) have recently been used to design and implement more e?ective models. The neural network (NN) model and parton two fireball model (PTFM) have been used to study the charged particles multiplicity distributions for antiproton-neutron ( ) and proton-neutron ( ) collisions at different lab momenta. The neural network model performance was also tested at non-trained space (predicted) and matched them effectively. The trained NN shows a better fitting with experimental data than the PTFM calculations. The NN simulation results prove a strong presence modeling in hadrons collisions.

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Genetic Programming Model for Hadronic Collisions[Full-Text[References]
Mahmoud.Y. El-Bakry, Moaaz. A. Moussa, A. Radi, E. El-dahshan, M. Tantawy

High Energy Physics (HEP) is in need of powerful efficient techniques for various analysis tasks. Genetic Programming (GP) is a powerful technique that can be used for solving these tasks. In this paper, Genetic programming (GP) has been used to discover a function that calculates charged particles multiplicity distribution of created pions from antiproton-neutron ( ) and proton-neutron ( ) interactions at high energies. The predicted distributions from the GP-based model are compared with the available experimental data. The discovered function of GP model has proven matching better for experimental data.

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Interference and Compatibility Analysis of ARABSAT vis-à-vis EUTELSAT Systems and Networks[Full-Text[References]
Gasim Alandjani

The paper presents an electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility Analysis for ARABSAT and Eutelsat Networks. The analysis suggests that ARABSAT has to accept certain constraints required to protect Eutelsat. An EIRP spectral density of -34 dBW/Hz in the direction of the Eutelsat space station is proposed in the uplink bands 14.0 - 14.5 GHz. In the downlink bands, an EIRP spectral density of -34 dBW/Hz towards the Earth. In addition, in the uplink band 13.75 - 14.0 GHz Eutelsat has imposed a constraint of -28 dBW/Hz. Although slightly over protective when using the larger bandwidth ARABSAT carriers, this limit is considered reasonable taking into account footnote 5.502, which limits EIRP in the 13.75 - 14.0 GHz band to between 68 and 85 dBW . The uplink constraint of -28 dB/W/Hz offered by Eutelsat should be accepted. The results show that it will be possible for Arabsat to operate provided larger carrier bandwidths and antennas are used. The results demonstrates that for 27 and 36 MHz carriers, with antenna size of 3.5m, there is a positive C/I margin of around 4 dB. This is further improved with a 64 MHz carrier and 4.5m antenna size. In downlink direction Arabsat has priority for the majority of carriers and total priority in the band 12.2 - 12.5 GHz. However, where Eutelsat has priority (carriers 300KG9X and 35 M0G7W), analysis shows that EIRP of the 12.8 kHz ARABSAT carrier would need to be limited to 6.4 dB in order to meet the spectral density limit of 34 dBW/Hz. This is a reduction of 17 dB on the currently filed ARABSAT parameters. In the converse case, there are constraints on Eutelsat-3 required to protect Arabsat. In the uplink bands 14.0 - 14.5 GHz, an EIRP spectral density of -38 dBW/Hz in the direction of the ARABSAT space station. In the downlink bands, an EIRP spectral density of -28 dBW/Hz towards the Earth.

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Electronic Properties of Group V Substituted Fullerene: DFT Approach [Full-Text[References]
Mohamed M. El-Okr, Abd el baset H. Makky, Hanan Elhaes and Medhat A. Ibrahim

C59-X (X= C, N, P, As and Sb) was studied by Density Functional Theory DFT at the B3LYP/3-21G** level. Group V elements have been selected to be substituted in the fullerene-C60 cage in order to show the effect of such substations upon structural and electronic properties of the studied molecules. It is found that elements of Group V doped C60 have an electronic structure similar to those of n-type semiconductor. The electronic structure of electron donor (Group V-doped) of the C60 molecules demonstrates the possibility of using these systems in electronic applications as many properties as HOMO-LUMO gaps can be controlled by the appropriate substitution. At the same level of theory the effect of water, methanol, heptanes and acetonitrile upon C60, was studied in terms of geometry, HOMO/LUMO energy and total dipole moment. No changes in the calculated parameters were regarded as a result of solvents.

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A Study towards Identifying the Leadership Styles Head-Teachers Use in Elementary Schools in Libya[Full-Text[References]
Mohamed Elhadi.M Sharif & Mona Masood

The present situation of education, especially in some elementary schools, calls for attention. Management and administration of education at the school level needs improvement to ensure higher learning and achievement. Lack of discipline on the part of some teachers and a good number of pupils, is a cause for concern. One of the ways to address this situation is to create more positive climate that could enhance the performance of many teachers in schools, so that they can be more committed to their job; and the pupils improve on their behavior and academic achievement in Libya. This paper aims to introduce the main factors effect the leadership styles head-teachers use in elementary schools in Libya. The paper also addresses the current issues faced by the head-teachers in different elementary schools in Libya.

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Teaching the Qur'anic Recitation with Harakatt: A multimedia-based Interactive Learning Method[Full-Text[References]
Tariq Mssraty, Qais Faryadi

Today, the construction of knowledge from each chapter and verse, some rules of the Quran is integrated with the assistance of multimedia. This study aims to address the current problems faced by teachers' in teaching Qur'anic recitation in Malaysian primary schools. The main issue is related to pronouncing the Qur'anic sentences with correct recitation including all the Harakatt. Therefore, this study provides a suitable pedagogical model for teaching Qur'anic recitation among Malaysian primary students. The implication of the multimedia based interactive learning method envisaged here is to help students enjoy the learning process and improve their level of achievement.

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Unsteady MHD mixed convection flow of a viscous dissipating micropolar fluids in a boundary layer slip flow regime with Joule heating[Full-Text[References]
A. A. Bakra, Z. A. S. Raizah

Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in unsteady free convection flow with thermal radiation and thermal diffusion past an impulsively started infinite vertical porous plate subjected to a strong magnetic field is presented. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using two terms harmonic and non-harmonic functions. The influence of various parameters on the convectively cooled or convectively heated plate in the laminar boundary layer are established. An analysis of the effects of the parameters on the concentration, velocity and temperature profiles, as well as skin friction and the rates of mass and heat transfer is done with the aid of graphs and tables.

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Research relating to New Passenger Train Interiors for 2020 and beyond, in Partnership with Government, Industry and Academia[Full-Text[References]
John Wood, Jonathan Findlay

This paper discusses a research and design project initiative undertaken in partnership with a UK Government agency, a manufacturing company and academia. The project relates to the development of high speed trains with in service speeds of 340kh and projected speeds in excess of 500kh, and the proposal that business people will be able to travel as quick, or more quickly and economically by train over longer distances in comparison with established air travel, both in terms of financial cost and in utilisation and effectiveness of personal time. The project is proactive design research driven through exploratory creative concept design that addresses the fast changing and challenging future travel needs and expectations of business and industry. The concept is for a dedicated business specific passenger train carriage. The carriage designed so that it is adjustable and flexible in structure, floor size and layout, accommodation, furniture, equipment and services provided, enabling business user/s to specify their business requirements in the pre-booking of travel arrangements. As an integral component of the project is the research and application of new and developing materials, technologies and manufacturing processes, and the influence these will have in the generating of new creative innovative design concepts and their development to design realization

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Role of Interactive Computer Programming Courseware in Facilitating Teaching and Learning Process Based on Perception of Students in Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia[Full-Text[References]
Siti Fairuz Nurr Sadikan, Siti Fatimah Md Yassin

The Computer Programming is a skill that is needed in various fields such as engineering, medicine, environment, education, mathematics, and so forth. Interactive courseware requirements have an important role in teaching and learning programming. This study was conducted to examine the role of interactive courseware to facilitate teaching and learning processes based on students' perceptions. The research instrument used a set of questionnaire which was distributed and answered by 38 students in Bangi, Selangor. The study shows that students have positive perceptions towards the use of interactive courseware. This study suggests an interactive courseware should suit the needs and requirement of students for the original goal to be achieved using the software.

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Modelling Students' Mathematical Ability and Items' Difficulty Parameters: Application of the Rasch Measurement Model[Full-Text[References]
Ahmad Zamri bin Khairani, Nordin bin Abd. Razak, Hasni binti Shamsuddin

Measurement of students' ability is one of the most important purposes of educational measurement. Nevertheless, the purpose is considered difficult and inadequate based on the inappropriateness of the analyses used, especially when the students' ability measurement is always dependent of the test chosen for the studies. The purpose of this study is to explore the adequacy of the Rasch Measurement Model to provide so-called 'test-free' estimation of students' ability parameter based on their response in a set of items. A total of 411 Form 2 students were employed as sample for this study while a 40 multiple-choice Mathematics items provide a set of data for the modeling purpose. A Rasch Measurement Model software, the WINSTEPS 3.63 is employed for the purpose. Result showed that there is enough evidence of consistency between what been expected by the model and what been observed by the data. In short, results show that the Rasch Model analysis is able to provide richer interpretation towards better understanding of students' mathematical ability based on difficulty of the items. Implications of the results towards educational measurement are also reported.

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Electrochemical Synthesis, Characterization and Application of poly (4-vinyl pyridine-co-aniline)[Full-Text[References]
Joanna Lim Wee Ling, Bahruddin Saad and Sulaiman Ab Ghani

A novel copolymer, poly (4-vinyl pyridine-co-aniline) [poly (4VP-co-Ani)] has been synthesised. Formation of copolymer was simple and readily achieved at room temperature. Poly (4VP-co-Ani) was synthesized electrochemically using a conventional three-electrode system. Redox processes were studied with cyclic voltammetry (CV). Effect of pH on the electro copolymerization process was also investigated. Acidic medium was favoured for efficient polymerization. Result of electrochemical and spectroscopic analyses were discussed at length. FT-IR spectroscopy has indicated that traits from both 4-vinyl pyridine and aniline were coherently present in the copolymer structure. Since both Ani and 4VP have been known for their abilities to incorporate metal ions in their homopolymeric chains, the poly (4VP-co-Ani) has been utilised as a membrane for cadmium ion selective electrodes(ISE).

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Sky Brightness for Determination of Fajr and Isha Prayer by Using Sky Quality Meter[Full-Text[References]
Siti Asma' Mohd Nor, Mohd Zambri Zainuddin

Study of sky brightness was done during night twilight and morning twilight at Teluk Kemang, Negeri Sembilan, Pantai Cahaya Bulan, Kelantan and Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu. This study was done to ensure the time for beginning and ending of astronomical twilight are the same as the theory. Astronomical twilight is used to determine the beginning and ending of Fajr and Isha prayer time. Sky quality meter were used in this study to observe the sky brightness. The finding shows that the darkest the sky can go is to less than 20 mag per meter square in the morning (Subh) while in the night the sky can goes dark until less than 21mag per meter square. This data can be related to the sun altitude which is the condition to determine the time of beginning of Fajr and Isha prayer.

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The Effect of Different Electrodes for the Electrogenerative Recovery of Cobalt[Full-Text[References]
Soh Wen Min, Afidah Abd Rahim, Norita Mohamed

Cobalt was recovered electrogeneratively by using a batch cell. In this system, a spontaneous chemical reaction occurred where cobalt is reduced at the cathode and zinc is oxidized to produce a free flow of electrical energy without any external power supply. The performances of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) and porous graphite (PG) as cathodes were evaluated based on the time and percentage of removal in an electrogenerative cell. Cyclic voltammetry and polarization studies were conducted to study the characteristics of these cathodes for cobalt deposition. RVC performed better than PG for cobalt recovery as 99.9% of recovery was achieved in 120 minutes whereas for PG it was 80.8%. Based on the cyclic voltammograms, the cobalt deposited on RVC and PG underwent an oxidation process to form cobalt oxides.

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Retrieving and Reviewing Educational and Academic Effects and Satisfaction of Teachers and Students of Courses of Kerman Shahid Bahonar Teacher Training Center on Executing Pattern of Management on Education (Educational Administration)[Full-Text[References]
Ms. Parvin Salari Chine, Mr. Mohammad Reza Behrangi

The purpose of this article is to study the applicability of management education pattern () on the base of its nurturing and academic effects and teachers and students satisfaction in academic courses that are in common objects for a few majors in Kerman Shahid Bahonar Teacher Training Center. Complying with the , students were encouraged to follow the process of providing concept-related charts, comparing their charts with others', providing flashcards from main points of units' titles and subtitles, processing learning concepts, producing desired map of concept linkage, producing knowledge and making feedback. Acting as an advisor, the instructor guided students to be active. Random simple sampling method was used to choose a class from among classes of the teacher-training center. Pre and post test semi-experimental approach were used. The students' achievement from the first half of the Textbook (Group Counseling) were evaluated by a pre-post exam at the beginning and the end of the part. In the next half of the semester the next half of the book was taught by and the post exam was taken when it was finished. Pre and post exam were also conducted. T-test was used to compare the differences between the effects of the two half of the instructions. These differences were found to be highly significant at 95%. Also, attitudes of students were evaluated by Behrangi's 55 items questionnaire to compare nurturing effects of. It is, now, confirmed that not only using could increase academic improvement and nurturing effects but also it would cause the instructors to change their opinion regarding effects of traditional education. The suggestion for generalizing the results of this research to conducting different courses of teacher training center of Shahid Bahonar are documented English.

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Characterization and Identification of A ctinomycetes Isolated From Contaminated Soil in Riyadh[Full-Text[References]
Al-Kadeeb, Siham, A . Al-Rokban ,Ahlam ,H. and Awad, F

In this study, twenty soil samples were collected to isolate heavy metals resistant actinomycetes. The collection sites were chosen toward the four geographical directions, east, west, south and north of the gold factory in the second industrial city in Riyadh region at Saudi Arabia. Results has been shown that the best growth medium for actinomycetes isolation was the Agar-Albumin medium. From soil samples collected six isolates were able to grew in media containing 1 mM/100 ml of either aluminum, silver or cobalt ions .All isolates were found to be belonging to the genus Streptomyces. The isolates were classified on the basis of color into four strains. The first isolate was characterized by white color chain and was identified as S. albus, two isolates has gray color chain and were scored as S. diastaticus and S. atroolivaceous, those with red chain and comprised two isolates ,they were identified as S. violaceus and S. exfoliate and one isolate with yellow color chain identified as S. niveus. The recorded results showed that S. diastaticus and S. albus were the most tolerant actinomycetes to the concentration 1 mM/25 ml medium of aluminum, silver and cobalt.

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Philosophical Foundations of Education-Oriented Focus on Iran[Full-Text[References]
Parvin Salari Chine, Najmeh Soltaninejad

This article focuses on some basic philosophical orientation has been studied in Iran. In this paper from descriptive research method is used. In this way the first problem is defining , Then focus on the concept of curriculum integration as one of the systems has been studied, And if philosophy means love of wisdom, and wisdom to know the person was thinking and working methods, Because the methods and mentality of each individual Influenced by government policies and social practices in which lives are , And philosophy of the circumstances of time, place and type of community where growth is being affected and Given that the focus in each country and the government of any country depends on the policy , Type of government in Iran as the philosophical basis for effective integration focus has been studied , Research result has shown that the last time, social conditions, political and social governance, focusing on educational and administrative affairs of the country is required and one of the results of this social situation, focusing on all issues including education and the curriculum. And recommended considering already tried out a lot of focus is oriented, in this research, which Out whether this is true or not oriented focus with a strong foundation?

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Content Analysis of Rubric-based Online Discussion Forums for MIDT Students in Open University Malaysia[Full-Text[References]
Dr.Purushothaman Ravichandran, Prof.Dr.Abtar Kaur

In order to establish effective online communication in a learning management system (LMS), students need to be motivated to participate in discussion forums. Such motivation may be stimulated by the use of a Learning Management System (LMS), which improve access to learning materials, the provision of more timely feedback to students through on-line assessment (Breen, Cohen, and Chang, 2003), and improved communication among students and between students and faculty through the availability of bulletin boards, discussion forums and email facilities (Beard and Harper, 2002, Kang, 2001). However, it has always been a challenging task for a teacher, as to how to scale the students' interactions within the discussion forums. In order to track the effectiveness of online communication, content analysis servers as a technique, that enable researcher to study human behaviour in an indirect way through an analysis of their communication. (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2006). As such, data from 14 students from 11 different countries, who enrolled for postgraduate course (MIDT) at Open University Malaysia (OUM), were used in this study, to find the significance of their online discussion forum (ODF) contributions against their final scores. In order to predict if students' final scores did confirm linearly or not to forum scores, the predicted final score and the error associated with regression model were calculated. The normality test results (Shapiro-Wilk) indicated that forum score is normally distributed (significance value >0.05) and the final score showed some deviation from normality (significance value <0.05). Also, the F-test results from this study indicated, that the regression model is significant in explaining the variance in the final score using the forum score as the predictor variables, F (1,12) = 9.469, p<0.01. The regression coefficient indicated that the final score increased by 1.09% units with each 1% unit increase in the forum score.

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Environmental Impact assessment (EIA) for Drainage Water in Rural Areas of Egypt (Case Study) [Full-Text[References]
T. Elgohary, R. Elgohary

In the last two decades Egypt has taken the lead in applying the environmental monitoring systems for all sorts of developments. Several executive steps towards environmental protection were made, starting from the presidential decree 1982 of establishing the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, affiliated to Cabinet of Ministers, reorganization process of the EEAA in 1991, issuing the environmental action plan in 1992 and issuing law number 4 for the year 1994. This research presents Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) In Egypt, EIA and public participation, impact assessment methods, EIA for El Bahwo drain catchments area and gives the final results for this study.

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CPU Utilization Control System In Distributed Computing [Full-Text[References]
C. K. Low, T.F. Ang, T.C. Ling, K.K. Phang, L.Y. Por

Distributed computing system has been used as a tool to solve many large-scale parallel computational problems. However, due to the heterogeneity of the resources as well as applications, most of the dependent parallel tasks are not able to complete at the same time. If the waiting time for task processing increases, overall performance can be degraded significantly cause by the synchronization between parallel tasks. This research proposes a central processing unit (CPU) Utilization Control system, which is able to throttle the CPU usage by periodically, forces the associated processes to be idle for a short time. The released CPU power then can be allocated for other local jobs without scarifying the performance of dependent tasks.

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Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Nile River Bed Level Variation at El Menia Reach (Case Study) [Full-Text[References]
R. Elgohary

The Nile river bed level was varied along the years as a result of sedimentation and erosion processes This phenomena was carried out along the Nile river bed and along its banks as a result of water level variations which leaded to the changes of river cross section velocity profile. This changes in Nile river cross sectional area affected on the surrounding environmental by negatively attitude especially at El Menia Reach our case of study. This effects appeared in the form of shortage of cultivated lands along river bank at some parts, Also the rising of Nile river bed affected on different fish species and leaded the migration of this species from this area to some deeper wormer area along the stream course. Water plant stations intakes were effected too and the pipe intakes were clogged by sediments and forced the government to find another less sedimentary places for this intakes. Navigational course along the Nile river was affected too and some zones through the Nile stream were forbidden to ships to pass through it due to the shallowness of water depth. Environmental impact assessment was needed for this area to reach practical solutions to overcome the negative effects of this phenomena at El Menia Reach of the River Nile.

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Towards a Business Process Reengineering Model for Managing the SMES Information Technology Resources[Full-Text[References]
Muatamed Abed Hajer & Zawiyah Mohammad Yusof

Nowadays, most companies usually become aware of the problems regarding the implementation of business processes for managing IT resources. In such circumstances managers usually obtain a new integration of other models for enhancing the business and information processes according to the changed business needs. In the modern business practice, identifying the significant percentage form the driving mechanism of the market economy helped to overcome a number of issues in these markets. In this sense the adaptation if reengineering concept changed the traditional understanding for business conduct. This is due to using IT resources in all fields of industrial production. Therefore, IT recourses influence significantly the business activity of a number of organizations. This paper aimed to design a Business Process Reengineering (PBR) model for managing the IT resources in the SMEs. Prior researches were reported to indicate the effects factors on the business process in the SMEs.

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A Zero-day Attach Exploiting a Yahoo Messenger Vulnerability[Full-Text[References]
Monther Aldwairi, Haitham Noman

In computers security terms, vulnerability is a flaw in the computer system due to a bug or weakness in software, security policy and/or overall system configuration. Vulnerabilities are recognized if they are exploited by attackers using a tool to allow system violation. Unfortunately, there is no one standard for vulnerability reporting to date, and the debate continues between supporters of full discloser, non-discloser and responsible disclosure. We follow the responsible disclosure definition outlined by Shepherd, by reporting the issue to the vendor first and give a month to the vendor to establish a meaningful connection or provide a suitable fix [1]. Otherwise, go public with full disclosure. In this paper we discuss techniques to exploit a weakness in Yahoo messenger client. We successfully build a Trojan, called Caruso, which basically allows the attacker to gain access to the victim's Yahoo account without the need to crack the password.

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A Comparative Study of Usability Methods for Mobile Applications[Full-Text[References]
Bassfar Zaid, Rozinah Jamaludin, Bajaba Wafaa

Conducting sufficient usability test requires planning and attention to the evaluation details. In common, usability test methods for software take into considerations, planning usability questions, selecting a representative sample and recruiting participants, and preparing the test materials and actual test environment. Several issues were reported while choosing the suitable usability test method for mobile applications, especially for indicating the way for conducting the test. Therefore, this paper aims to demonstrate the most used testing methods for the evaluation purposes of mobile applications.

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Investigations of the Cr4+:Y2SiO5 Crystal Coupling Coefficients as a Solid Q-Switch for the Chromic Solid-State Lasers[Full-Text[References]
Sahib Neamah Abdul-Wahid, Methaq Mutter Al-Sultany, Adnan Hussein Ali

The passively Q-switching method has been used for the chromic solid-state lasers such as Ruby , Alexandrite , Cr:LiCAF , Cr:LiSAF and Cr4+:Y2SiO5. We have studied the saturable absorber crystal properties which are used in passive Q-switching for all these lasers . The molar extinction coefficient (e) , coupling coefficient of the saturable absorber (Ka) , the optical density (d) , the ground-state absorption cross-section (sa) of Cr:YSO , and the Q-switching efficiency (?) of the chromic solid-state lasers is calculated with a variable pumping rate (R). The results of Cr:YSO crystal are compared each others , and the behavior of (e), and (Ka) has been interpreted according to (s), and (d) , respectively . The Cr:YSO, Q-Switched Cr:LiSAF laser has a better passive Q-Switching performance than other systems.

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Assessment of Learner's Motivation In Web Based E-Learning[Full-Text[References]
Nehad T. Ramaha, Wan Mohd. Fauzy Wan Ismail

Due to the rapid growth of the use of computers and Internet in education a large number of Web Based E-Learning (WBEL) systems have been developed and implemented. However, most these systems do not consider the learner's motivation level during the learning process, while motivation is one of the most important factors for student achievement in learning. In this paper we argue that motivation assessment is very important for WBEL systems, therefore more research is needed in this area. A critical review of previous research on motivation assessment in e-Learning systems is also presented, and finally suggestions of how to assess the learner's motivation during a learning activity in a WBEL system. Benefits from our approach would maintain a learner's motivation during the learning process resulting in a higher performance level within the WBEL system.

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Community Perception on the Use of Over the Counter (OTC) Medications in Malaysia[Full-Text[References]
Amuthaganesh Mathialagan, Simreet Kaur

Over the counter (OTC) medications use for self medication is progressively increasing, but such medications are also liable for abuse and misuse. The aim of this study is to determine community views on use of OTC medicines. A cross-sectional study design was used to achieve the objectives of the study. Data were collected using a survey administered to 1000 members of the public in 5 different states of Malaysia. Data were coded and entered into a custom designed SPSS database for statistical analysis. Majority of the participants (60.4%) did not take regular prescription medications. Those without any long term illness, health problem or disability (60.4%) were the ones who took prescription medication regularly. Almost half of the participants (40.8%) reported visiting the community pharmacy less than monthly and 30.3% reported that a pharmacist influenced their choice of medication being purchased. The general public in Malaysia is highly aware that non-prescription medications could be abused. This survey discovered that the general public had a high level of awareness of the abuse potential of OTC medications and that pharmacist's recommendation influenced their choice. This indicates that in case of inappropriate OTC drug use management, a pharmacist should be given a more significant role to play.

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Issues and challenges of Research: Originality Based Document Classification and Information Extraction[Full-Text[References]
Hussam Eddin Alfitouri Elgatait& Wan Mohd Fauzy

As The Number Of Publications In The Knowledge Domain Is Still Increasing, Natural Language Processing (Nlp) And Techniques For Information Extraction From Texts Body Have Been Applied Widely In Different Fields. In Addition, The Scientific Writing Requires Ar-guments And Evidence, The Researchers Must Be Certain That The Source Of Information Is Reliable, Genuine And Valid In Order To Con-vince The Reader And Enrich The Knowledge. Therefore, This Paper Highlights The Current Issues And Challenges Of Using Different Information Extraction Techniques.

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Reducing Cognitive Load using RLOs with Instructional Strategies[Full-Text[References]
Yen Nee Chong, Fauzy M. Wan, Seong Chong Toh

This study explores the effectiveness of Reusable Learning Objects (RLO) integrated with two instructional strategies to reduce cognitive load as measured by the Paas mental effort rating scale. The main intention for utilizing the RLO strategy is to create smaller chunks of information to help reduce cognitive load, thus enabling incremental consumption of processed information as advocated in a constructivist environment. The RLO strategy has illustrated similar functionality of the working memory as indicated in the Cognitive Load Theory (CLT). The information delivered through two different instructional strategies with the incorporation of the RLO was expected to enhance learning with the reduction of cognitive load as learning progressed. However, does the reduction of cognitive load really reduce the mental effort invested by learners during the learning process? The subject matter selected for the RLO strategy was the Malaysian Form One English Literature Component. There were 160 subjects who participated in this study. Participants self-rated themselves using the Paas mental effort rating scale to measure their mental effort investment in their posttest. The results showed no statistically significant differences of the mental efforts between the groups of students following both instructional strategies. However, the effectiveness of the instructional strategies may potentially help reduce extraneous cognitive load.

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Predicting Fiberboard Physical Properties using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network[Full-Text[References]
Faridah Sh. Ismail and Nordin Abu Bakar

Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) is an engineered wood used in furniture industry as an alternative to solid wood. Besides using forest wood and rubber wood as the main source of fiber, oil palm biomass was proven as an excellent substitute. Regardless of any fiber used, identifying its strength level is the main issue. Therefore, prior to releasing processed fiberboards for manufacturing use, boards need to undergo test procedures for mechanical and physical properties as set by the standard. These tests are timely, especially to research institutions which involve various characteristics of boards. The most extensive procedures of BS EN standard are 24-hour thickness swelling, 24-hour water absorption and 48-hour moisture content. The aim of this research is to reduce testing time by excluding these lengthy tests. A model of each is produced to predict the properties of omitted tests using other properties of MDF, including fiberboard density and percentage of empty fruit bunch fiber. A prediction model was produced by the multilayer perceptron Neural Network containing seven input neurons for seven predictors. Only one hidden layer used with four neurons. Output layer contains three output neurons, one for each target. WA24hours obtained smallest SSE for both training and testing with 0.113 and 0.108 respectively. Prediction model has contributed to the increase in MDF testing efficiency based on British Standard European Norm (BS EN).

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Some Believes about the Rain and Rainnig in Iran (Case Study Lamerd City South of Iran)[Full-Text[References]
Mahdi Yousefi, Ali Edalati, Javad Askari Chavardi, Gholamreza Zamani, Amir Maleki

This article study the believes about rain in south of Iran, where the climate is arid and hot. Rain and raining has constantly played a key role in Iran's history, both in people's lives, attitude, believes and in the ruling system of governments in various periods of time. Nearly every aspect of Iranians' believes was under direct or indirect impact of the rate of rain. This is an existing fact easily observed in every aspect of Iranians' lives. In general, Iran has an arid climate especially in south, where, summers are dry and hot. In this region religious concepts are used to help the rain to be poured. They swear God to his prophet's name and sanctity Mohammad, for rain to be poured. This request says to God if rain does not pour, then it makes people very upset and sad while their animals are lost.

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Work-life Balance or Work-life Ambivalence? Managing Flexibility amongst Self-employed Teleworkers[Full-Text[References]
Mona Mustafa

The recent growth in teleworking has led to a variety of studies that analyse its significance along a spectrum of advantages and disadvantages from the point of view of the teleworker. These studies tend to stress either one end or the other of the spectrum and therefore give a somewhat bipolar perspective on telework (either 'good' or 'bad'). This article argues that teleworkers' experiences are characterised rather by ambivalence - that is, that teleworkers express conflicting attitudes towards their conditions depending on whether work or home interests are uppermost in their minds at the time. The article, which is based on diaries, questionnaires and interviews amongst 70 self-employed teleworkers in France, the UK and USA, concludes that work-life balance proves elusive because of the endemic role conflict that lies at the heart of self-employed teleworking.

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