Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2013 Edition
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TO Overcome DoS and DDoS Flooding Attacks in IP Multimedia Subsystem (NGN) using the Genetic Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)[ ]


IP Multimedia Subsystem designed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project to provide the access networks services and telecommunication services, plans to merge services like multimedia, data and voice conversation under one umbrella. In this research, network based anomaly detection system is proposed by using Genetic Algorithm rules to avoid such attacks like IP Spoofing and UDP Flooding which cause the DoS and DDoS attacks keeping in view to secure the IMS and also discussed the complete overview of IMS (NGN) based network architecture, their DoS and DDoS attacks which cause the unavailability of services to the users.IMS inherits many security issues because the No of billions users are in the form to interact with IMS to get large No of services like multimedia, data or voice conversation. Due the large usage of IMS services there is also the availability of malicious user to attack the IMS services and make the services unavailable for the intended user, which reduces the performance of IMS. IMS based abnormality detection method is proposed using GA as abnormality detector. Genetic Intrusion Detection system effectively detects intrusive attack in IMS system and shows low false positive results.

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Numeral Handwritten Hindi/Arabic Numeric Recognition Method[ ]


Handwritten numerals recognition plays a vital role in postal automation services. The major problem in handwritten recognition is the huge variability and distortions of patterns. The aim of the current research work is to develop a heuristic based method has good recognition efficiency for recognizing numeral free handwritten objects. In this research, the introduced method for extracting features from patterns is based on (i) the percentage of strokes in both horizontal and vertical directions and (ii) some morphological operations. The proposed method gives good recognition result, the attained recognition rate is 98.15%, the number of tested samples was 4500 samples.

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Modeling the pond slope of Mono River with an equivalent electric scheme for flood forecasting in Nagbeto [ ]


The catchment area of the dam on Mono River in Nagbeto measures about 180 km2 and counts among the small watersheds in the world. Forecasting in small watersheds (some hundreds of km2) takes generally into account rainfall. That's why a rainfall-runoff concept is adopted for the study. According to our observations, the filling process in the basin of the dam on a river follows the same law as the recharging procedure of a capacitor fed by a direct input voltage. Hence, we look for a synoptic model where the hydraulic parameters of the pond slope of a river were translated into electric terms and the main laws in Electrotechnics as Ohm and Kirsshoff ones were verified. So, the runoff is similar to a current and the height to a voltage, etc. An equivalent electric scheme of the pond slope of a river was designed and the equation which governs the water flood is set up and solved. The simulation in Matlab of the solution to that equation which describes the behavior of the water flood in the pond slope gives a result which is satisfactory. The time constant t of the RC equivalent electric scheme of the catchment area allows a flood forecasting with acceptable precision. The major difficulty of that mathematical rainfall-runoff modeling lies in determination of the hydraulic resistance of the catchment area. In the model the input is the maximal height of the water in the basin and the output is the time the water takes to reach that maximal height.

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The Survival Phenomenon of Kampong Kuningan Amidst The Development of Mega Kuningan Business-area in Jakarta[ ]


The urbanization process which is endorsed with globalization factor has directed to the increase of clashes between a planned space development and an unplanned organic space development. The problem may lead the emerged socio-spatial effects as a result of the succession and segregation of urban space. A kampong Kuningan, an evidence of city's development in Mega Kuningan business-area Jakarta showed no fully condemnation of the kampong. Even there are still several elements of the kampong space accommodated in the modern area. The objective of study is to comprehend the survival of kampong Kuningan amidst the effect of the urban development process.This study is conducted in three stages namely; to identify the urban development process, to analyze the kampong Kuningan spaces contribution in building survival, to extend the meaning of kampong survival in the context of urban space development knowledge. This study uses a qualitative approach based on naturalistic paradigm relying on field phenomenon analyzed inductively. The result shows that, the kampong is able to adjust to the urban development process. The survival grows from togetherness values, ability, tradition, and religiosity of its kampong residents, as a result of the people interaction with its space, activity necessity, and socio-cultural experience.

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Implementation of Fast Artificial Neural Network for Pattern Classification on Heterogeneous System[ ]


Neural networks have been part of an attempt to emulate the learning curve of the human nervous system. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) that come with a Graphics card have hundreds of processing cores, and have highly parallel architecture. Because of the highly parallel architecture of GPUs, it suits very well for parallel architecture such as Neural Network. In fact, GPUs have become a General Purpose Processor, and is a good option for implementation of many Parallel Algorithms, including ANN. Further recent advancements in GPU computing have made it easier to utilize the resources of a GPU. Specifically the programming model has been made much simpler. NVIDIA OR AMD OpenCL for example can be extremely helpful in accelerating ANN algorithms on GPUs. Thus OpenCL accelerated ANN algorithms can be used in many real-time applications, including image processing, object classifications, voice recognition and in a number of systems which require intelligence and auto control. This research thus aims at implementation of a Neural Network on a GPU in order to improve the performance as compared to CPU implementation in a particular application. Particularly, we have chosen NVIDIA OR AMD's GPU and OpenCL platform for this implementation.

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Performance of Chaos-Based MC-MC-CDMA in Frequency Selective Fading Channel[ ]


This paper presents the effect of chaos sequences on the performance of multi-code multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-MC-CDMA) communication system. Since a chaotic system dependence on its initial conditions, the multi-carrier scheme is established by using one chaotic sequence generator with different initial conditions for the code sequence set of M-ary modulation, and the multi-carrier scheme is established by using another chaotic generator with another different initial conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that the chaos - based MC-MC-CDMA system achieves significant performance improvement compared to Walsh-Hadamard codes in the conventional MC-MC-CDMA system.

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A Survey on Coded Modulation Techniques for Mobile Receivers[ ]


Coded modulation is a bandwidth efficient schemes that combines the function of coding and modulation. In this paper a comparative study of various modulation techniques such as Trellis coded modulation(TCM),Turbo Trellis coded modulation(TTCM),Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation(BICM) ,Iterative Decoding - Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation(BICM-ID) and Superposistion Coded Modulation schemes over Gaussian and Rayleigh Fading channels is made and presented in the context of 8 level PSK. The study is based on the comparison made for associated decoding complexity; block length and bandwidth efficiency for static channel scenario. It is shown that SCM constitutes the best compromise scheme, followed by BICM-ID.

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Compression Of Grayscale Image Using KSOFM Neural Network[ ]


Computer technology to human needs that touch every aspect of life, ranging from household appliances to robots for the expedition in space. The development of Internet and multimedia technologies that grow exponentially, resulting in the amount of information managed by computer is necessary. This causes serious problems in storage and transmission image data. Therefore, should be considered a way to compress data so that the storage capacity required will be smaller. The emergence of artificial neural networks in image processing has led to improvements in image compression. In this paper we have discussed method for image compression based on well known KSOFM (Kohonen's self organizing feature map) neural network.

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Fitness components of bivoltine breed CSR2 after introgression of multivoltine thermotolerance character of silkworm Bombyx mori L[ ]


Bivoltine rearing in tropical regions is highly unpredictable due to fluctuating temperature and humidity conditions. It is therefore extremely imperative to develop a stable bivoltine cocoon crop under adverse environment of the tropices. Improvement of the existing bivoltine lines through introgression of true multivoltine tolerant factors by conventional backcross breeding strategy leading to the development of Near Isogenic Lines (NILs) can bring sustained boon in the sericulture industry. A targeted breeding approach was initiated towards the improvement of productive bivoltine breed 'CSR2', developed in South India. In this regard, 'Nistari' and 'Sarupat' (indigenous multivoltine thermotolerant breeds of West Bengal and Assam respectively) were selected as donor parents for introgression of thermostable factors. Protein profiling of haemolymph indicated the presence of 102-kDa, 89 KDa and 86 KDa polypeptide in the indigenous multivoltines, but absent in developed bivoltine 'CSR2'. These proteins, as characteristic feature of thermotolerant multivoltine breed, have been successfully integrated in NILs. Esterase isozyme analysis revealed the presence of thermostable esterases (both specific and non-specific) in NILs of 'CSR2'. In case of ?-esterase three bands (Est1,Est2 and Est3) are present in multivoltine parent but in CSR2 Est3 is absent . Heat stable Est1 and Est2 have successfully integrated in all NILs of which Est2 is heat sensitive in CSR2. This marks the introgression of multivoltine thermostable factors into the improved NILs of bivoltine Silkworm breed 'CSR2' leading to improved survivability measured in terms pupation percentage that will help generate bivoltine seed cocoons in this zone for sustaining the silk industry.

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Partial discharge signal detection using ultra high frequency method in high voltage power equipments: a review[ ]


Partial discharge (PD) can be detected using ultra high frequency (UHF) method to increase the detection threshold and to improve the performance of on-line measurement of PD in noise environment. The PD emitted energy as electromagnetic emission, acoustic emission and ozone and nitrous oxide gases. We can use this emitted energy to detected PD signal. The best method to detect PD in gas insulate substation, power cable and transformer is by using UHF electromagnetic wave. UHF method have advantages such as high sensitivity, a good signal -to- noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, there are still some issues to be solved in the UHF methods, such as a clear understanding of the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves arising from the structure of the equipment, optimization of antenna design and calibration of charge. Furthermore, in on-site measurements and laboratory experiments it has been that UHF method gives avery moderate signal attenuations. In this paper, a review on UHF PD sensor connected at extra high voltage-termination of cables, UHF PD signals in a 132 kV gas insulated substation (GIS) transformer are described. Results from the measurement show that this method can give the precise value of PD signal.

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First Principle Band Structure Calculations of Zinc-Blende BN and GaN Compounds[ ]


Pseudopotential plane wave method within local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA) frameworks and GW approximation (in conjunction with the ABINIT package) is used to investigate lattice constant parameter () and band structure for zinc-blende BN and GaN. To be more specific, the Perdew-Wang92 (PW92) and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) flavors have been employed for exchange-correlation term of LDA and GGA, respectively. Lattice constant (), band gap energy () have been calculated using LDA and GGA approximations. The GGA results for () are strongly agree with the experimental and much more accurate than LDA values. The values of in both LDA and GGA methods are well accurate when compared with the other theoretical works. The values obtained are in a good agreement with other theoretical works especially for ZB-BN. On the other hand, the values are not in good agreement with the experimental due to the well known band gap problem of density functional theory (DFT). To improve the value, GW approximation has been used. It was found that the improvement is better for ZB-BN than ZB-GaN.

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Fuzzy Control System Review[ ]


Overall intelligent control system which runs on fuzzy, genetic and neural algorithm is a promising engine for large -scale development of control systems . Its development relies on creating environments where anthropomorphic tasks can be performed autonomously or proactively with a human operator. Certainly, the ability to control processes with a degree of autonomy is depended on the quality of an intelligent control system envisioned. In this paper, a summary of published techniques for intelligent fuzzy control system is presented to enable a design engineer choose architecture for his particular purpose. Published concepts are grouped according to their functionality. Their respective performances are compared. The various fuzzy techniques are analyzed in terms of their complexity, efficiency, flexibility, start-up behavior and utilization of the controller with reference to an optimum control system condition.

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Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Distributed Teams: A Study on the Mediating Effects of Organizational Justice in Software Organizations[ ]


Globalization has changed the dynamics of team working in software development. Part of adapting and accepting globalization is to work with a heterogeneous group of people located in different parts of the world with different perceptions, different attitudes and varied characteristics. The challenge for software development organizations in this scenario is to source, coordinate and manage an adept pool of professionals and help them work for complementing tasks of distributed teams, keep them motivated so as to practice extra role behaviors which will in turn help the organization grow its business. However, in order that distributed employees feel motivated, valued and respected; the organizations through their employee friendly policies create an environment for people to perceive organizational support and role efficacy. A fairly supportive system and effective utilization of competencies is likely to create a sense of organization being fair to employees. This research examined the relationships between perceptions of organizational support, role efficacy and organizational citizenship behavior by examining the mediating effects of organizational justice. A questionnaire was given to 970 software professionals. The responses of 276 people selected through a convenience sample across globally located software organizations was used for the study. The data collected from the responses was analyzed using factor analysis to rule out factors not contributing to the study. Further the data was analyzed using correlation coefficient and hierarchical regression tests to find out the relationship and mediating effects between variables. There are seven hypotheses in this study. All of which has been accepted. As predicted a significant relationship was found between perceived organizational support and organizational citizenship behavior mediated by organizational justice and role efficacy and organizational citizenship behavior mediated by organizational justice. Among the justice dimensions procedural justice was significantly related to OCB. Distributive justice has been found to predict sportsmanship, Altruism and, Conscientiousness and is negatively related to general compliance and civic virtue. Interpersonal justice was found to predict Altruism, General compliance and Civic Virtue, and negatively related to Sportsmanship and informational justice has been found to predict all the dimensions of OCB. The results show that certain behaviors are driven by the sense of being valued and trusted while other behaviors are common and individual specific. This study suggests that when software organizations seek to provide distributed members with a sense of comfort in distributed locations and employees are allowed some control over processes that determine the organizational outcome, they are more likely to perceive that their organization is supportive, feel affectively committed and are more willing to engage in citizenship behaviors. Thus software organizations desiring to create an organizational climate among distributed team that fosters organizational support, role efficacy and citizenship behavior must make every effort to improve perceptions of organizational fairness in their organizations.

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Cloud Computing the New Era and its Challenges Issue[ ]


Cloud computing, a rapidly developing information technology, has aroused the concern of the whole world. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software and information, are provided to computers and devices on-demand [1]. It provides the powerful ,low cost computing entity using the service models like SaaS (Software as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service), IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) to distribute the powerful computing capacity to end users' hands. This article introduces the background and service model of cloud computing. In this paper key security considerations and challenges which are currently faced in the Cloud computing are highlighted

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An Overview of DWDM Technology & Network[ ]


This article covers functions and applications of DWDM system components. The operation of each component is discussed individually. DWDM terminology like Attenuation, dispersion, and optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) are measures of optical signal quality and are the key factors involved in DWDM system design and operation. From transmitter to receiver, the quality of the optical signal and the path across which it travels determines if it is successfully detected and recovered at the receiving end. A description of each type of signal measure and its relationship to a DWDM system is given.

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Pitch Issues in Oriental Classical Vocal Music Practical Examinations[ ]


The objective of the research is whether the pitch issues affect the examination results for oriental classical vocal music practical. The null hypothesis is set as "the pitch issues do not affect the examination results for oriental classical vocal music practical". The 87 questionnaires were collected from the distributed 100, among the 2nd, 3rd and 4th year Bachelor of Fine Arts, Vocal Music Degree Students of a University. The qualitative participatory research is admitted by the researcher under direct observation, while the researcher is being an examiner for the music practical examinations of different Universities. Also the researcher had a Focus Group Discussion with the University Examiners. The discussion concludes to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore the conclusion of the research would be if pitch related issues are overcome, the failures in the oriental classical vocal music practical examination could be minimised.

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VLSI Architecture of Invisible Watermarking using Lsb and Lifting Scheme for Real time Copyright Protection[ ]


This paper proposes an improved blind image watermarking scheme based on wavelet tree quantization. The wavelet coefficients of the original image are grouped into wavelet super trees. Each watermark bit is embedded using two wavelet super trees. The watermark is extracted according to the statistical difference between two wavelet super trees. In order to better provide a trade-off between the strength of the watermark and quality of the watermarked image, the knowledge of the relation between Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) coefficients and Human Visual System (HVS) is applied to the watermarking algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is robust to both common image processing operations and geometric attacks such as rotation, scaling, cropping.

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Pilot Channel Estimation: A Performance Analysis of OFDM[ ]


We prefer OFDM technique to achieve high data rates in mobile environment. The task of estimating the frequency response of the radio channel which the transmitted signal travels before reaching the receiver antenna is known as Channel Estimation. A dynamic estimation of channel is necessary before the demodulation of OFDM signals since the radio channel is frequency selective and time-variant for wideband mobile communication systems. In this article the channel estimation techniques for OFDM systems based on pilot arrangements are investigated. The channel estimation based on comb type pilot arrangement is studied through different algorithms for both estimating channel at pilot frequencies and interpolating the channel. The estimation of channel at pilot frequencies is based on LS and LMS while the channel interpolation is linear interpolation, second order interpolation, low-pass interpolation, spline cubic interpolation, and time domain interpolation. Time-domain interpolation [18] is obtained by passing to time domain through IDFT, zero padding and going back to frequency domain through DFT. In addition, the channel estimation based on block type pilot arrangement is performed by sending pilots at every sub-channel and using this estimation for a specific number of symbols like BPSK, QPSK and 16 QAM has been carried out. The Performance comparison of all schemes by measuring bit error rate using different modulation techniques like 16QAM, QPSK, and BPSK has been discussed. Simulation results shows that comb-type pilot based channel estimation with DFT interpolation [16] performs the best among all other comb based channel estimation algorithms. This is again expected since the comb type channel estimation allows the tracking of fast fading channels and low pass interpolation does the interpolation in such a way that mean square error is minimized. For fast varying channels, performance of comb arrangement with low pass interpolation is much better than other. It has been concluded that block type of arrangement performs better when the channel is changing slowly and the comb type channel estimation allows the tracking of fast fading channels.

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Underwater Sensor Network[ ]


As electromagnetic waves do not propagate well underwater, acoustics plays a key role in underwater communication. Due to significant differences in the characteristics of electromagnetic and acoustic channels, networking protocols for underwater systems differ from those developed for wired and wireless radio networks. This paper explores applications and challenges for Underwater sensor networks. Underwater sensor nodes will find applications in oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore, exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation and tactical surveillance applications. We study the localization problem in large-scale underwater sensor networks. In this paper, several fundamental key aspects of underwater acoustic communications are investigated. Different architectures for two dimensional and three dimensional underwater sensor networks are discussed, and the characteristics of the underwater channel are detailed. We study the localization problem in large-scale underwater sensor networks. Underwater networks consist of a variable number of sensors and vehicles that are deployed to perform collaborative monitoring tasks over a given area. We have also discussed here the underwater network architecture with five-layer model.

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A Survey on Data Mining using Clustering Techniques[ ]


Data mining is the practice of automatically searching large stores of data to discover patterns and trends that go beyond simple analysis. Data mining uses sophisticated mathematical algorithms to segment the data and evaluate the probability of future events. Data mining is also known as Knowledge Discovery in Data (KDD).Basically there are different types related to data mining like Text Mining, Web Mining, Multimedia Mining, Spatial Mining, Object Mining etc. Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of assigning a set of objects into groups (called clusters) so that the objects in the same cluster are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other clusters. Data mining is evolved in a multidisciplinary field, including database technology, machine learning, artificial intelligence, neural network, information retrieval, and so on. In principle data mining should be applicable to the different kind of data and databases used in many different applications, including relational databases, transactional databases, data warehouses, object- oriented databases, and special application- oriented databases such as spatial databases, temporal databases, multimedia databases, and time- series databases. Spatial data mining, also called Spatial mining, is data mining as applied to the spatial data or spatial databases. Spatial data are the data that have spatial or location component, and they show the information, which is more complex than classical data. A spatial database stores spatial data represents by spatial data types and spatial relationships and among data. Spatial data mining encompasses various tasks. These include spatial classification, spatial association rule mining, spatial clustering, characteristic rules, discriminant rules, trend detection. This paper presents how spatial data mining is achieved using clustering.

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Studding and Analyzing Wireless Networks Access points [ ]


The purpose of this mini project is to enable the reader to understanding affairs and status of the wireless network in the Perdagangan area (PA) and in the Bangunan Sultan Bazar JB area (BSBJA) in Malaysia. We used wardriving to collect and analyze data to know the encryption technology, authentication scheme, configuration, transmissions speed, network topology and manufacturers which used in these wireless networks. In addition, advantage and disadvantage of the technologies and mechanisms which used to configure the access points of the Wireless.

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Neuropsychological and Volumetric Analysis Techniques Mapping Progressive Brain Structural Changes in Alzheimer's disease[ ]


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex progressive brain disorder. The concept of Mild Cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered as a subtle but measurable disorder that is greater than the normal aging controls. In this paper, we have explored the efficacy of neuropsychological and structural volumetric techniques changes of the human brain for the discrimination of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) of patients with AD and their age matched controls. Subjects consisted of 25 AD and 25 MCI patients and 20 age matched normal controls that underwent detailed neuropsychological and neuroimaging evaluation. The subjects who attended the memory clinic at SCTIMST were administered ACE, MMSE, RAVLT, Trail Making tests and also underwent MRI of brain and hippocampal volumes were obtained. When the neuropsychological performance of the three groups was compared it was seen that the AD performed significantly poorer than the MCI on 9 subcomponents in ACE and also on MMSE, RAVLT and Trail Making tests and the MCI had significant (p <.01) impairment on tests of memory compared to NCI. Volumetric analysis revealed a significantly lower hippocampus volume in AD (3.49+0.78ml) and MCI (5.97+0.93ml) compared to NCI (7.44+0.98). Patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type on comparison with Mild Cognitive Impairment have poor performance on tests of memory and greater hippocampal volume loss. Hippocampal volume is a determinant of memory function.

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Review of Design of Viterbi Decoder on FPGA for Noisy Channel[ ]


Convolutional encoding with Viterbi decoding is a powerful method for forward error correction. It has been widely deployed in many wireless communication systems to improve the limited capacity of the communication channels. The Viterbi algorithm, which is the most extensively employed decoding algorithm for convolutional codes. The two decoding algorithms used for decoding the convolutional codes are Viterbi algorithm and Sequential algorithm. In register exchange (RE) method by using the pointer implementation the problem of survival memory management of a Viterbi Decoder was solved, in each row a pointer is assigned in the SMU .Instead of copy data of the first row to the second, than altered the content of the pointer from one row of memory to point to another row of memory. If the initial state of the convolutional encoder is known, the entire survivor memory unit (SMU) is reduced to only one row. Thus, the one-pointer architecture, referred to as memory less Viterbi Decoder (MLVD).

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Study Of Various Fineness Of Fly Ash As A Partial Replacement Of Cement In Concrete[ ]


The purpose of this experimental investigation is to study the behavior of Concrete using Various fineness Fly ash. In this investigation was manufactured by usual ingredients such as cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and mineral admixtures such as Fly ash at various replacement levels. The water binder ratio (w/b) adopted is 0.45. The concrete used in this investigation was proportioned to various target a mean strength of 20MPa, 25MPa, 30MPa. Specimens such as cubes, were cast and tested for various mixes are cast with 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% replacement of various fineness Fly ash to study the mechanical properties such as compressive strength at different ages of concrete such as 7, 28, and 90 days. The mix Design as per IS 10262-1982.

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A Delay-Locked-Loop with a Quasi-Linear Modified Differential Delay Element[ ]


A Delay-Locked-Loop with a quasi-linear modified differential delay element is presented. By employing body feed technique in the bias circuit of delay cell in the Multi-Controlled-Delay-Line, applicable range for the controlled signal has been widen to under-threshold voltages, also the nonlinearity of the conventional current starved delay element the has been suppress by bias circuit. Moreover, improving the noise performance is achieved by taking advantage of the differential structure in the delay cell. The designed circuit has been simulated in ADS software, using TSMC-CM018RF Process with a 1.8V supply voltage. The operating frequency range of the proposed DLL is from 280 MHz to 820 MHz. The maximum and minimum rms jitters are 18 and 4.2 ps, at 280MHz and 820MHz respectively. The maximum power dissipation of designed circuit at 820 MHz is 4.13mW.

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Speed Power and Area Efficent VLSI Architectures of Multiplier and Accumulator[ ]


This paper describes the comparison of VLSI architectures on the basis of Speed, Area and Power of different type of Adders like Carry Chain Adder, Carry Look Ahead Adder, Carry Skip Adder, and Carry Select Adder and 32-bit pipelined Booth Wallace MAC Unit with Carry Chain Adder, Carry Look Ahead Adder, Carry Skip Adder, and Carry Select Adder is designed in which the multiplication is done using the Modified Booth Wallace algorithm and the pipelining is done in the Booth Multiplier and Wallace Tree to increase the speed. All Adder and MAC are described in VHDL and synthesized the circuit using 90 nm standard cell library on FPGA and Synopsys Design Compiler. As an hardware implementation all the adder and MAC are implemented on FPGA with test benches to cover all cases on Spartan 3E kit with LCD and Keyboard interfacing.

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An analysis of Gender inequality and National Gender Policy in Nigeria[ ]


Despite the existence of constitutional provisions and commitments to regional and international human right treaties and conventions, the right of women and girls are grossly violated and devalued in Nigeria and many African countries. In the light of the above, this paper critically analyze the issues of gender inequality giving emphases to the issue of the concept gender, the rationale behind national gender policy, situation analysis and framework, guiding principles of the national gender policy and above all, the critical areas of gender gap.

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A Connected E-Shape and U-Shape Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna Design for Wireless Applications[ ]


In this paper, dual operation E-shape and U-shape Patch Antenna feed by transmission line is presented and study the effect of antenna dimensions length (L), width (W) and substrate parameters relative dielectric constant(Er), substrate thickness on radiation parameters of Band width. The proposed antenna is designed on two-layer, one RT/Duroid 6006 laminate substrate and another ground plane with an area of 33 mm x 42 mm. This paper contains designing a Connected E-Shape and U-Shape Dual Band Patch Antenna for different wireless applications except for its narrow band width. The dual operation frequencies are 2.46 GHz and 4.9 GHz. A (-8 dB) bandwidths of return loss S characteristic for the dual band are 13.02 % and 3.28 % respectively. This connected U-shape & E-shape patch antenna is applicable to wireless local area net-works (WLAN).This paper suggests an alternative approach in enhancing the bandwidth of microstrip antenna for the wireless application operating at dual frequencies 2.46 GHz and 4.9 GHz respectively. E-plane and H-plane for the three frequencies is satisfactory within the bandwidth. E-plane and H-plane radiation pattern are provided.

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COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL, CYTOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON Capsicum frutescens Linn. and Capsicum annuum Linn. (SOLANACEAE1) .[ ]


The present study is set to investigate the comparative micro- and macro-morphological, anatomical, cytological and phytochemical properties of Capsicum frutescens Linn. and Capsicum annuum Linn., members of the family Solanaceae predominantly found in the Niger Delta Tropics, Nigeria. They are used as spices, vegetable and medicine. They are among the extremely pungent pepper. Their habits are annual sub woody plants which attain up to 65cm or more in height. The leaves are simple, glabrous, lanceolate to ovate with apex being acutely acuminate and the base being cuneate or abruptly acute and petiolate measuring 8.2 ± 1.67cm in length and 4.1 ± 0.322cm in width for Capsicum annuum Linn. and Capsicum frutescens Linn. Their glabrous stems are angular and the inflorescences terminal, flowers are axile in placentation borne at nodes. The petals are whitish and sepals greenish. The berry fruits are many seeded, globose shaped for C. annuum Linn. while linear for C. frutescens Linn. and borne at nodes. The epidermal studies reveal anomocytic stomata whereas the trichomes are simple uniseriate forms . The anatomy of mid-ribs and petioles showed bicollateral vascular systems. There are 2 vascular traces and nodeisunilacunar in each species, their stems have 5 to 6 vascular bundles, their petioles are associated with 2 rib traces at primary growth phase. At secondary growth phase, their mid-ribs and petioles revealed vascular arcs and the stems have rings of open vascular systems. The cytological studies showed a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 24. Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, combined anthraquinones, free anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides are present in both species.

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Study of IQS & Improvement in Harvester Combine IQS Score by TQM Approach: A Case Study of Harvester Combine SWARAJ - 8100 Model[ ]


IQS stands for Initial Quality Study. It is the evaluation of the product by customer's point of view when final product comes after manufacturing & is ready for dispatch. In IQS, all defects are recorded aggregate wise & overall IQS Score is generated. This is called Demerit score whenever it is discussed about improvement in IQS. TQM approach is followed for IQS score improvement in Harvester combine. Swaraj Division, Plant -2, Mahindra & Mahindra Limited manufactures Tractors, Harvester combine & Forklift. This plant has a capacity to produce 500 Harvester Combines per year. IQS is done on tractor & Harvester combine. Forklift excludes from IQS. Tractor & Harvester combine have IQS score if 106 & 3406 respectively. So, harvester combine was selected for improvement as it has high score as compared to tractor. In this work, using TQM methodology, data was collected from IQS. Major defects were identified by Pareto analysis in three aggregates i.e. HPU, Supplies & Design. Cause & Effect analysis was done for major defects to find out probable causes. Possible causes were identified from probable causes using technical skills, knowledge and experience. Possible causes were tested hypothetically by actual measurements and analysis. Corrective action plans were made for the valid causes. After observing and analyzing results, correction procedures were standardized and implemented. Overall IQS score of HC from major 14 defects of three aggregates were identified from Pareto analysis, reduced from 2119 to 1109, having 48% improvement. HPU score of major 5 defects identified from Pareto analysis, reduced from 1016 to 700, having 31% improvement. Similarly, Supplies and Design score reduced from 753 to 409 having 46% improvement and from 350 to 0, by eliminating all 4 defects respectively.

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A Fixed Point Theorem in Modified Intuitionistic Fuzzy Metric Spaces[ ]


Fuzzy Mathematics has seen an enormous growth since the introduction of notion of fuzzy sets by Zadeh in 1965. Kramosil and Michalek introduced the notion of fuzzy metric spaces which was later modified by George and Veeramani and others. The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces was introduced by Park in 2004. Many authors have studied fixed point and common fixed theorems for mappings on fuzzy metric spaces and intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. In this paper we prove a common fixed point theorem for a sequence of mappings in an intuitionistic fuzzy metric space.

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Heavy Quark - Light Diquark Approach to a Heavy Baryon in the Heavy Quark Symmetry Limit[ ]


The masses and distance configurations of the ground and excited states of heavy - charmed and bottom baryons JP =1/2+- ,3/2+-,containing a single heavy quark and a light diquark are studied within HQS limit of the HQLD sector of NRQCD framework. We find how the average distances between the heavy quark and the center of mass of the light diquark are smaller than the size of the light diquark which is in agreement with expectations from QCD sum rules and lattice QCD calculations.

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EARLY DETECTION & ALARMING OF A TRANSVERSE CRACK IN A RAILWAY TRACK (MODIFIED)[ ]


A train moving on tracks may meet an accident causing huge loss of property and innocent lives if there appears a defect of crack /gap/breakage or a loose fish plating in the continuity of either of the tracks. The defect of crack may be longitudinal or transverse. But the transverse crack or loose fish plating is more fatal. Hence, to detect such defects a theory along with a circuit is developed here on basis of phase cancellation and by application of series resonant circuit for facilitating a railway station master to signal the incoming train to stop accordingly through alarm and indicating bulbes to stop to avert an accident.

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An Innovative Method to study the effect of different Magnetic material (i.e. Dia, Para, Ferro) on the dynamics of an Oscillating Magnet using Tracker v1.7.5[ ]


In this geometry, anharmonic oscillator has been modified by introducing a permanent magnet clamped vertically; oscillating above different magnetic material plates (i.e. diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic) placed horizontally. The study on dynamics of an oscillating magnet like (1) measurement of displacement as a function of time, (2) kinetic energy of the system is done by video analysis using Tracker v1.7.5.

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Flat Plate Heat Exchanger Design for MTR Reactor Upgrading[ ]


The purpose of the present study is to investigate the performance of plate heat exchanger used in a research reactor for updating it and raise its power to 10 (MW).The objective also to extend the present knowledge of the thermo-hydraulic performance of PHE with consideration of channel geometries (Chevron angles). In this study the surface area density, the total number of corrugated plates and the pressure drop will be study at different Chevron angles, also the corrugation pitch. The effect of variation of Chevron angle on the heat transfer coefficient will be study. The Chevron angle will vary from (30° to 60°).This study aims to obtain an applicable model which is able to design flat plate heat exchanger for many applications.

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The Role of In-Service Training to Improve Human Resource Management and Organizational Performance[ ]


Organizations for their survival difficult to skilled personnel and innovative ideas are needed and managers should always be receptive to their creative professionals and ideas. This is absolutely correct with the training, all employees can be enhanced and sustained. Organizations should use the latest achievements in the field of educational technology and teaching aids and teach the use and application of this equipments to their man power. How to attract and retain skilled labor and efficient use of power and expertise of its people and devise ways of improving academic levels, including their practical and professional issues that according to them, have the manpower to make effective use of manpower planning will make it possible. Increase the educational level of population diversity, expertise, breadth and complexity of organizations, technology and rapidly changing expectations of people of other variables that contribute to efficient management of human resources for the program is important. However, human resource development is one of the principles of sustainable development. Companies that work in today's world of modern style of its main assets are their employees. Achieving sustainable development depends on human resources development and the importance of each factor depends on the proper and continuous training is conducted. In this article the role of in-service training in human resources management was investigated and different aspects of this type of training was presented. The results of other research are shown that in-service training has beneficial effect on organizational development and improvement.

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An Ultra Wideband Vertical Slotted Orthogonal Semi Elliptical Sheets Monopole Antenna with Finite Ground Plane[ ]


The paper presents UWB monopole antenna having Slotted orthogonal vertical semi elliptical sheets with finite ground plane. The simulated return loss, VSWR, input impedance and radiation pattern are discussed in this paper. The results show that the voltage standing wave ratio is less than 2 (VSWR< 2) and return loss (S11) is less than -10 dB along the operation bandwidth of 4.5 GHz to 13.8 GHz. The asymmetry in the feed position results in increase of the band width but degrades the radiation pattern.

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STUDY OF VOIP SERVICES AND ITS APPLICATIONS[ ]


Now a day's 'IP Telephony' is becoming an increasingly popular subject. Internet Telephony (Voice over IP) essentially means a voice message transmitted using the Internet Protocol. IP Telephony generally refers to the use of the SIP signalling protocol used to setup, control and manage voice. The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol for initiating, managing and terminating voice sessions across packet networks.IP Telephony based on SIP through mobiles phone enables the user to make voice call at very low call rates. One can use SIP phones to call your friends and family at any geographical location. But the restriction is both the party communicating must be SIP users. Because of the use of Internet facility helps in reducing the call rates. IP Telephony based on SIP through mobiles phone provides mobile environment for VoIP calls. VoIP would fail if remained wired. So through this system one can make VoIP call from their mobile phones which are having Internet access facility.IP Telephony based on SIP through mobiles phone had achieved the feature of portability which is absent the traditional telephone call system.

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Fusion of MRI and CT Brain Images by Enhancement of Adaptive Histogram Equalization[ ]


Image fusion is the process of combining two images into a single image, while retaining the important features of each image. The resulting image contains more information as compared to individual images. Multiple image fusion is an important technique used in military, remote sensing and medical applications.The result of image fusion is a new image that is suitable for human & machine perception. The histogram equalization method is useful in images with backgrounds and foregrounds that are both bright or both dark. In particular, the method can lead to better views of functional and structural parts in MRI and CT images. Different methods of image fusion are described that includes adaptive histogram equalization. Based on this methodology, the system is evaluated and the accurate output will be produced. The fusion algorithm of foreground images and background images is studied. Here, the foreground image is MRI and background image is CT image whereby the fusion rule selection is applied on them.

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Anytime A* Algorithm - An Extension to A* Algorithm [ ]


A* algorithm is a powerful tool that can be used to solve a large number of different problems. However, its computation cost may be unaffordable for some applications. To ease this problem and to adopt different application contexts, various extensions of A* have been anticipated. The main extension to the A* algorithm is Anytime Algorithm. This approach find improved solution as well as improve a bound on the sub optimality of the current solution. Anytime A* Algorithm is algorithms those can optimize the memory and time resources and are considered best for A* algorithm. When the time available to solve a search problem is limited or uncertain, this creates an anytime heuristic search algorithm that allows a flexible substitution between search time and solution quality. They can generate a fast, non-optimal solution and then refine it to the optimal if more time is provided. Some applications like Real Time Strategy (RTS) games have applied these algorithms to find a fast solution that will help the algorithm to prune some paths during the subsequent computation that will find the optimal solution.

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What Does Project Leadership Really Do?[ ]


The objective of article is to explore the importance of project leadership which has become essential for managing projects in complex and challenging environment. The study aims highlight a question that "what does project leadership really do?" This paper also draw attention to significance of project leadership as there is a limited research in the area of project leadership even though calls have been made for more research. It is apprehended that there is a vital need of effective role which must be able to lead and manage simultaneously and project leadership is considered critical to overcome such challenges. The roles and functions of project leadership have been highlighted and it becomes important to understand the difference between leadership and management as well as difference between project leadership and project management to determine the effect on success or failure of projects. Future research has been suggested for effective project leadership.

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Measuring and Processing the Brain's EEG Signals with Visual Feedback for Human Machine Interface[ ]


The fundamental purpose of this paper is to measure, record and analyze raw brainwave signals using an Electroencephalogram(EEG) sensor mounted on the surface of the scalp in a non-invasive manner through a Brain Computer Interface(BCI) and extract and segregate suitable data from it from which control output can be formulated for control of an embedded system. The extraction and processing of eye-blink information as well as attention levels deduced from Beta wave oscillations extracted from raw brain EEG data, is paramount for generation of control output from which the Human Machine interface (HMI) is derived. Neurofeedback enables for a more intuitive control system to be formulated.

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Non-Violence and Gandhian Socio-Political Thoughts[ ]


In the study ofdfsdfsddfdsf history of human civilization it is found that there was a continuous trend of torturing the weak by more powerful individuals or groups, exploitation of the poor by the rich and landed people, neglect of the illiterate by the educated people, socially over-powering women by men and as such injustices. Such social injustices are a constant source of discontent giving rise to conflicts. Instead of solving those conflicts they were always suppressed. In the progress of civilization and development of humanistic attitude, people are now gradually getting more and more concerned with Human Rights that demand social justice to all sections of the society. Extreme poverty and illiteracy among a major section of the population is the greatest tragedy for India. Also, in the global context a reasonable economic order through equitable distribution of wealth among different nations and more particularly among the people of the same country is very much needed to avoid conflicts and clashes. Keeping aside these basic facts, only a slogan for "peace" can't change the society. In this context, Gandhian socio-political thought based on non-violence can go a long way towards solving these problems.

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Overview of Biodiesel Production from Algae in Nigeria and Some Developing Countries[ ]


Presently the world's energy needs are met through non-renewable resources such as petroleum, natural gas and coal. Since the demand and cost of petroleum based fuel is growing rapidly, and if the present pattern of consumption continues, these resources will be depleted in few years. Hence, efforts are being made to explore alternative source of energy. An alternative fuel must be technically feasible, economically competitive, environmentally acceptable and readily available. Biodiesel is found to be environmentally friendly, non-toxic and biodegradable. The raw materials being exploited commercially by the developed countries constitute the edible fatty oils derived from rapeseed, soybean, palm, sun?ower, coconut, linseed, etc. Use of such edible oil to produce biodiesel in Nigeria and some developing countries is not feasible in view of a big gap in demand and supply of such oils. However, there are several non-edible raw materials that can be used to place such edible fatty acid oil, such as algae, which could be utilized as a source for production of biodiesel. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the biodiesel production from algae in Nigeria and some developing countries.

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Some New Trigonometric, Hyperbolic and Exponential Measures of Intutionistic Fuzzy Information.[ ]


New Trigonometric, Hyperbolic and Exponential Measures of Intutionistic Fuzzy Entropy and Intutionistic Fuzzy Directed Divergence are obtained and some particular cases have been discussed.

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