IJSER Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2012 Edition
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Performance Evaluation of Mobile Network Interconnections in Nigeria[Full-Text[References] pp 1-10
Ohaneme Cletus O., Akpado Kenneth A., Alumona Theophilus L., Emenike Ijeoma S

The adoption of the Interconnect Clearing Houses (ICH) in Nigeria is a long awaited development expected in the telecommunication industry. This paper presents an insight into network performance evaluation and quality of service (QoS) improvement of mobile cellular systems in Nigeria using an ICH as a case study. The components of mechanisms of analyzing and evaluating the various networks are discussed. The paper also identifies the important Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for QoS evaluation which are used in evaluating the Mobile networks. Two assessment parameters such as Call Completion Ratio (CCR) and Answer Seizure Ration (ASR) for evaluating the traffic analysis of the networks in Nigeria are deployed. The parameters are applied on four mobile network systems in Nigeria using the general models simulated in Matlab for evaluating network performance. The result of the study shows that the QoS of mobile system in the country is not 100% reliable and still needs to be improved upon.

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A Study of Clinostomum affecting Oreochromis niloticus in small water bodies in Eldoret-Kenya[Full-Text[References] pp 11-18
Ochieng V. O., Matolla G.K., Khyria S.K.

Two hundred and seventy nine specimens of Oreochromis niloticus from Kerita and Kesses dam were examined for Clinostomum parasites. Four hundred and thirty eight parasites were found on the two hundred and seventy nine fish specimens. This was done between December 2010 and February 2011. The gut of Oreochromis niloticus were opened and checked for Clinostomum parasites, the number of the parasites found were recorded. The sex, total length and weight of fish were also recorded. The parasites were mostly found attached to tissue behind the buccal cavity; this was associated to presence of adequate air supply (Coulibay, 1995). This made it more probable that the Clinostomum parasite in this study was Clinostomum tilapiae. The site of attachment on the fish tissue showed a cyst, the metacercariae is suspected to make this cyct as a form of protective mechanism to wall off and prevent displacement. The cyst was also concluded to have been produced by the fish as a defense mechanism to prevent further damage of tissue by the parasite Kesses and Kerita dam had a parasitic prevalence of 75.71% 59.14% respectively; this difference was associated with the different human activities existing between the two dams, causing water quality differences. In both dams, Male fish showed high intensity than female fish, this was associated with the breeding habits of O.niloticus which has the male fish spending long time in the shallow waters

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Multiconverter Unified Power-Quality Conditioning System: MC-UPQC[Full-Text[References] pp 19-23
T.Charan Singh , L.Kishore, T.Sripal Reddy

This paper presents a new unified power-quality conditioning system (MC-UPQC), capable of simultaneous compensation for voltage and current in multibus/multifeeder systems. In this configuration, one shunt voltage-source converter (shunt VSC) and two or more series VSCs exist. The system can be applied to adjacent feeders to compensate for supply-voltage and load current imperfections on the main feeder and full compensation of supply voltage imperfections on the other feeders. In the proposed configuration, all converters are connected back to back on the dc side and share a common dc-link capacitor. Therefore, power can be transferred from one feeder to adjacent feeders to compensate for sag/swell and interruption. The performance of the MC-UPQC as well as the adopted control algorithm is illustrated by simulation. The results obtained in PSCAD/EMTDC on a two-bus/twofeeder system show the effectiveness of the proposed configuration.

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Impact of Biotic Interferences on Yousmarg Forest Ecosystem, Kashmir[Full-Text[References] pp 24-36
BHAT MOHD SKINDER, ASHOK K. PANDIT

The present investigation of forest ecosystem was undertaken during May 2010 to Dec 2010. The main aim of the study was to analyze the impact of biotic interferences on Yousmarg forest ecosystem. The cumulative effect of the biotic interferences was significantly seen in the reduction of vegetation cover. The present study revealed that the prominent factor for the exploitation of the vegetation cover of the study area at herbaceous level is simply the overgrazing. The increasing disturbances not only disturb the plant species diversity, richness and evenness significantly but various plant species have been got completely eliminated from grazing area by different kinds of interferences like overgrazing, deforestation, forest fire, tourist impacts etc. It has been observed that about 10 species were absent in the grazing area where as all species were present in the fenced (protected) area .Most of the species have medicinal value like Achillea millefolium, Fragaria nubicola, Taraxacum officinale, Prunella vulgaris, Potentilla reptans, Rumex hastatus, etc. The data showed that the importance value index (IVI) of Pinus wallichiana at all the three sites like Nabrepather, Mashid Nar and Chota Yous of Yousmarg area, gets constantly decrease from protected site to unprotected site while as there is overall decrease in the IVI of other two species like Picea smithana (spruce) and Abies pindrow (fir).

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Matter and Empty Universe[Full-Text[References] pp 37-40
D.I.Sanitsar

We do not know what is the minimal and maximal both side unlimited of our universe system. I suppose in the unlimited of Universe the matter transfers to emptiness. on the contrary from emptiness regenerate new matter.

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Removal of Baseline wander and detection of QRS complex using wavelets[Full-Text[References] pp 41-45
Nilesh Parihar, Dr. V. S. Chouhan

ECG signals are used to detect the heart rate and heart abnormalities. For extraction of ECG features and detection of QRS complexes it is required to remove baseline wander and minimize the noise interference. In this paper we proposed a technique to remove baseline wander using Kaiser Windowing filter and wavelet transform, among which wavelet is most powerful and effective tool for analyzing transient signal. The algorithm is developed in matlab with standard CSEECG database.

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Trust Vs Complexity of E-Commerce Sites[Full-Text[References] pp 46-48
Devendera Agarwal, R.P.Agarwal, J.B.Singh, S.P.Tripathi

E-Commerce suffers from uncertainty which can produce devastating results. The user first checks the level of security and then proceeds further. At the same time the user switches to another e-commerce site if he has to deal with several layers of security. To overcome this drawback e-commerce sites are now finding a solution of maintaining high security (Trust) with lesser complexity as far as possible. Our paper focuses on the issue of development of a framework to provide an optimal relationship between the two.

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Implementation of Genetic Algorithm for Automatic Test Pattern Generation[Full-Text[References] pp 49-54
MrsRachna singh,Dr.Arvind Rajawat

This paper presents, genetic based algorithm for random test pattern generation .Genetic algorithm solve many search and optimization problem, effectively. In genetic algorithm, the optimized test vector is generated, which enhances the fault coverage and improve the global search .As, a result a new random-based test pattern generation technique based on GA was presented. Experiment results showed that the genetic algorithm improved the ability of global search and increases the fault coverage. This algorithm improves the test size with a factor of about 25% in comparison with other approaches for ATPG.

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Some New Trigonometric, Hyperbolic and Exponential Measures of Fuzzy Entropy and Fuzzy Directed Divergence.[Full-Text[References] pp 55-59
Jha P., MishraVikas Kumar

Uncertainty and fuzziness are the basic nature of human thinking and of many real world objectives. Fuzziness is found in our decision, in our language and in the way we process information. The main use of information is to remove uncertainty and fuzziness. In fact, we measure information supplied by the amount of probabilistic uncertainty removed in an experiment and the measure of uncertainty removed is also called as a measure of information while measure of fuzziness is the measure of vagueness and ambiguity of uncertainties. Shannon [2] used "entropy" to measure uncertain degree of the randomness in a probability distribution.

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Residents Awareness Towards Landslide Disaster In Penang[Full-Text[References] pp 60-66
Habibah Lateh, Vijaya Govindasamy

This study aims to identify the resident awareness of landslides disaster. The objective of the study is to identify the level of resident awareness of landslides disaster in Penang. A total of 240 people representing ten of each of the six districts in the state of Penang in the sample by simple random sampling method. Data collected is analyzed using the Statistical Package For Social Sciences (SPSS) using percentages and frequencies. The results showed that the level of resident awareness of landslides is moderate. This means that the government and political parties need to increase resident awareness of landslides disaster. In addition, the knowledge resident of landslides is moderate too. So still plenty of room for improvement to ensure a landslide awareness program carried out properly and transparently.

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Improved Decision tree algorithm for data streams with Concept-drift adaptation[Full-Text[References] pp 67-70
K.Ruth Ramya, R.S.S.Vishnu Priya, P.Panini Sai, N.Chandrasekhar

Decision tree construction is a well studied problem in data mining. Recently, there has been much interest in mining streaming data. Algorithms like VFDT and CVFDT exist for the construction of a decision tree but, as the new examples are added, a new model has to be generated. In this paper, we have given an algorithm for construction of a decision tree that uses discriminant analysis, to choose the cut point for splitting tests thereby optimizing the time complexity to O(n) from O(nlogn). Also various adaptive learning strategies like contextual, dynamic ensemble, forgetting and detector approaches have been analyzed and handling of concept-drift occurred due to gradual change in data-set is discussed using naïve Bayes classifier at each inner node.

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Speed of convergence. CEE and Western Balkans countries[Full-Text[References] pp 88-94
Enton Duro

The implications of neoclassical model in growth theory are still dominant. One of the implications is convergence hypo-thesis which means that in the long run income per capita will converge in the steady state level. With regards it is suggesting a natural methodology for finding support of convergence hypothesis. Different researches found the speed of convergence for different "convergence club" countries and regions around the world. Regarded to this it is suggested" convergence club" countries for Albania which is composed by Central, Eastern Europe (CEE) and Western Balkans countries because of same similar characteristics. The observed period for this study is 2000-2010 and the explanatory variable is GNI per capita. In this study, after testing the convergence hypothesis in cross-sectional data set through regression analyses, it is estimated the speed of convergence around 2% per year between this "convergence club" coun-try

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A Discrete-event Coordinates Methodology For A Composite Curve[Full-Text[References] pp 95-104
I. AKIIJE

This paper gives information about the results of investigation on a discrete-event simulation methodology to compute coordinates of a composite curve through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) system. Tangible modelling and simulation validity was done using general purpose application programs that is readily available rather than costly and tedious conventional hand method. In the methodology, deflection angle, tangential angles for the two transition curves and central circular arc, together with deviation angle computations, were successful modelled and simulated via ICT approach. Coordinates produced as the result of the process are useful set of numbers in Eastings and Nothings to defining the entry transition curve, central circular arc and the exit transition curve of a highway or railroad composite curve at site. The conclusion in this study is that a discrete-event simulation is a suitable methodology for computing useful coordinates for setting out of a composite curve meant for a safe highway or railroad.

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S - compact and S - closed spaces[Full-Text[References] pp 105-112
Alias B. Khalaf and Nehmat K. Ahmed

The objective of this paper is to obtain the properties of compact and closed spaces by using nets, filterbase and -complete accumulation points.

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Barriers and benefits of implementing a power quality program: Case Study Libyan distribution networks[Full-Text[References] pp 113-121
Saad S. Sultan, Mohamed K. Darwish

The purpose of this paper is to explore the obstructions faced by Libyan distribution networks in implementing a power quality program (PQP). It is also to state the benefits, which would accrue by implementing a PQP, which would make a major impact on Libyan distribution networks (LDNs), and which could be applied and adapted internationally. In order to achieve these objectives, an extensive literature review was conducted to understand the barriers and benefits of implementing a PQP, followed by a power quality survey questionnaire and interviews. Data were collected from LDNs, both from departments and individual staff members. Both SPSS 15.1 and Nvivo 9 were used in performing the analysis. The results revealed that no power quality program exists. Out of 16 barriers, 12 were statistically significant different since the P value <.05), which indicated that Libya distribution systems have already surmounted a few of the barriers to implementing a PQP effectively. The overall benefits of PQP implementation, which would have a positive impact on LDNs, are 11 benefits. Improving power quality disturbances (PQDs) and achieving the objectives of the implementation of PQP are, influenced by the distribution networks in tackle the obstacles, which remain. The findings of a LDN survey were compared with other studies and suggestions were made for the future improvement

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Performance Analysis of Subspace Methods Used in Blind Channel Identification[Full-Text[References] pp 122-128
T.Priyadarsini

A subspace-based method is proposed for estimating the channel responses of single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system. Our technique relies on minimum noise subspace (MNS) decomposition to obtain noise subspace in a parallel structure from a set of pairs (combinations) of system outputs that form a properly connected sequence (PCS). The developed MNS-OFDM estimator is more efficient in computation than subspace (SS)- OFDM estimator, although the former is less robust to noise than the later. To maximise the MNS-OFDM estimator performance, a symmetric version of MNS is implemented. We present simulation results demonstrating the channel identification performance of the corresponding OFDM-based SIMO systems employ cyclic prefixing approach

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Non-Restoring Divider Circuit Using a MCIT Based Adder Cell having Low Energy and High Speed Array[Full-Text[References] pp 129-137
Owk Prasanth Kumar

The paper discusses the design of 1-bit full adder circuit using MCIT. This proposed full adder circuit is used as one of the circuit component for implementation of Non- Restoring divider circuits. The proposed adder and divider schematics are designed by using SPICE and their layouts are generated. The divider circuits are designed by using standard NMOS and PMOS 180nm feature size and corresponding power supply 1.8 V. The parameters analyses are carried out by HSPICE analysis. We have compared the simulated results of the Shannon based divider circuit with CMOS adder cell based divider circuits. We have further compared the results with published results and observed that the proposed adder cell based divider circuit dissipates lower power, gives faster response.

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Stimuli Sensitive Interpenetrating Network[Full-Text[References] pp 138-143
Pham Trong Binh and Hsu, Hao-Chun and Zhao Zhenyu

Hydrogels are three-dimensional, cross-linked polymer networks that can absorb a large amount of water or solvent without dissolution. Due to their high absorbency, soft consistency and other properties, such materials can be used in medical industries to produce artificial organs, contact lenses, dressing for wound treatment and drug transporting devices. In this research poly(N-Vinylcaprolactam) (PVCL) hydrogels were synthesized with different cross-linkers. It was found that cross-linkers affected the stability of the hydrogel and those with high hydrophilicity enhanced its swelling capacity. Our experiments showed that ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA) was the ideal cross-linker. Hydrogels of an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) composed of the thermo-sensitive PVCL and pH-sensitive poly(N-acryloyl-N'-ethylpiperazine) (PAcrNEP) were prepared via sequential polymerization. They were characterized for their thermo and pH-responsive behaviour by time dependence, equilibrium and oscillatory swelling studies. The results showed that these IPN successfully exhibited a combined pH and temperature-sensitivity at a temperature range of 20-35oC and a pH range of 3-6. This is a milestone in the study of hydrogels because most of them focused mainly on gels sensitive to basic medium only. The network also exhibited superior swelling capacity compared to pure PVCL even at high pH. Oscillatory swelling study showed that the IPN was able to respond to pH pulses quickly and reversibly. Dye absorption studies showed that IPN is a potential purifying agent. It was also found that the IPN is a good substrate for growing nanoparticle. Further research may include permeation studies of the IPN to test its ability for drug delivery

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Implementation of AODV protocol with and without fuzzy logic for reliable multicast routing in adhoc networks[Full-Text[References] pp 144-149
R.Senthil Kumaran

A major aspect of adhoc networks is that the nodes can move randomly, which requires the routing protocols in adhoc network to quickly respond to the network topology change in order to guarantee successful data packet delivery. Multiple routing paths are established to provide extra schemes of video streaming or multicast transmission and enhance the robust transmission against unreliability and limited bandwidth of wireless links. In this paper, AODV routing protocol can be modified with fuzzy logic named fuzzy modified AODV routing (FMAR) protocol for multicast routing in mobile adhoc networks . The fuzzy logic weighted multi-criteria of the protocol is used to dynamically evaluate the active route life time in order to determine the appropriate routes. Due to frequent node movements, the topologies of mobile adhoc networks change rapidly . The Fuzzy rule base depends upon the number of hop counts, sent controlled packets and the energies of the nodes on the routes. The enhancement of FMAR protocol was implemented for quickly maintain and repair the routes with the dynamic Lifetime of the routing table before they crashed. The Fuzzy rule base depends upon the number of hop counts, sent controlled packets and the energies of the nodes on the routes. The simulation results of enhancement of FMAR protocol will be efficient than FMAR protocol with respects to the node mobility, the packet delivery ratio, average route acquisition latency delay, the routing overhead and the average end to end delay.

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An Investigation on The Strength and Workability of Concrete Using Palm Kernel Shell and Palm Kernel Fibre As A Coarse Aggregate[Full-Text[References] pp 150-154
Emiero. C, Oyedepo O.J

The study examined the compressive strength and workability of concrete using palm kernel shell and palm kernel fibre as a partial replacement for coarse aggregate. Lightweight aggregate obtained using, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Palm kernel Fibre (PKF) respectively as partial replacement for coarse aggregate. Batching was done by volume using a water cement ratio of 1.11/2 :3 and 1:2:4. The concrete obtained of size 150 x 150 x 150mm3 was crushed using manual compression testing machine at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days respectively. The result of the specific gravity test using water displacement method and the sieve analysis for palm kernel shell are 2.59 and it has an S-shape curve; while 4.70 and 0.265 obtained for the coefficient of uniformity (Cu) and coefficient of curvature (Cc) respectively indicate that the aggregate is uniformly graded and can be used for the production of light weight concrete. Also the values of the slump obtained for mix 1:1½:3 and Mix 1:2:4 for concrete produced with (PKS) and (PKF) are 30mm and 38mm which indicate true slump. The concrete mix ratio PKS:PKF of 50:50 for 1:1½:3 and 1:2:4 has compressive strength of 12.29N/mm² and 10.38N/mm² after 28 days, which confirms light weight concrete.

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Personalizing M-learning Systems Using Recommender Systems[Full-Text[References] pp 155-159
Mahsa Baniardalan and Mehregan Mahdavi

In mobile learning, there is no limitation for the number of learners; it is more attractive than traditional learning, more convenient and cheaper for updating, quicker in terms of broadcasting, less bulky and it is easier to transfer information. In addition, the studies show that today, personalization is an important prerequisite for attracting learners in order to consider their requirements and interests and to provide proper context for the learners. This can result in improving the quality of learning. In this paper, a comprehensive model is presented which includes personal, contextual, and environmental properties. Based on these parameters, the recommender system suggests educational materials in a proper manner such that the learner is attracted to the learning system. The system's performance could be evaluated using questionnaires.

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Study of Ion Sound Propagation Waves in Thermal Plasma[Full-Text[References] pp 160-164
Ghoutia Naima Sabri

Plasma can support a great variety of wave motion. Both high frequency and low frequency; electromagnetic and electrostatic waves may propagate in plasma. The primary emphasis has been placed on the study of electrostatic waves because the ease with which such waves may be excited and detected and because the collisionless damping of waves predicted by Landau can be conveniently studied. In this paper we will discuss the propagation of ion sound waves in the collisionless thermal plasma by calculating the dispersion relation using fluid theory. The kinetic treatment shows clear that these waves are subject of strong Landau damping for weak temperature of ions compared to the one of electrons. the interest of this study can be applied to some astrophysical phenomena more precisely in the study of the generation of these waves in the topside ionosphere at low latitude sunrise and sunset.

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A Proposed Solution for Sorting Algorithms Problems by Comparison Network Model of Computation[Full-Text[References] pp 165-168
Mr. Rajeev Singh, Mr. Ashish Kumar Tripathi, Mr. Saurabh Upadhyay, Mr.Sachin Kumar Dhar Dwivedi

In this paper we have proposed a new solution for sorting algorithms. In the beginning of the sorting algorithm for serial computers (Random access machines, or RAM'S) that allow only one operation to be executed at a time. We have investigated sorting algorithm based on a comparison network model of computation, in which many comparison operation can be performed simultaneously.

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Merging of independent MANETs-RCF process model: Check the performance Delay and throughput of server when IP Address conflict Occurs [Full-Text[References] pp 169-174
Chand Mukesh, H.L.Mandoria

As the number of nodes increases the complexity of MANET [1, 11] increases in various issues. For this reason various approaches has been produced to reduce the complexity such as cluster head technique and dominating set based gateway technique. Another issue is distribution of IP in MANET. There are various approaches is given to assign the IP address but they are not much effective and each and every approach has its limitation. In this paper a conflict free process model is proposed to solve the configuration problem where two or more than two MANET merge and remove the limitation from the above-mentioned approaches .And also the performance of server due IP address conflict is tested with the help of a scenario to solve IP address configuration [2, 4, 8, 13, and 16] problem in mobile adhoc network. Simulation in this thesis shows that duplicates address in a MANET affects the system in various ways.

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Symbian phone forensics-An agent based approach[Full-Text[References] pp 175-180
Deepa Krishnan, Sathish Kumar.S, A.Arokiraj Jovith

Smart phones like the older mobile phones are fast becoming a life style choice. These sleek devices with large amount of personal information in them make smart phone forensics, a key component in any criminal investigation. The paper presents a contrast between hardware and software approaches and highlights the key advantage of the software approach i.e. the speed at which actionable data can be made available with less technical knowhow. Moreover, the proposed plug-in based agent development provides an extensible framework to handle customizations that will matchup with each unique nuance of phone platform and model. The paper summarizes the finding by unveiling a prototype module development, using platform SDK and on-phone agent. The main focus is the simplicity and extensibility of proposed approach but at the same time the paper does warn about the possible impact to device memory and contrasts with other alternatives

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Optimizing water fountain as community based therapy for better health continuance - Preliminary Study[Full-Text[References] pp 181-192
Dr. Nasser Abbas Abd El Aziz, Mr. Jahangir b. Kamaldin, Dr. Yohei Kobayashi, Prof. Dr. Eva Banninger Huber, Pro.Dr. Didier Grandjean, Dr. Takemi Fujikawa

Music has a countless of health-related benefits, both psychologically and physiologically. However, because the healthful effects of music have not been fully explored scientifically, many questions about the efficiency of music have not been answered yet.Scientific attention begin to recognize this concept for alternative treatments especially for pain relief management, stress reduction, improvement of sleep patterns, development of general physical and mental wellbeing (Mullooly et. al, 1988).With the advancing technologies such as EEG (Electroencephalogram) and ECG (Electrocardiogram), physiological effects of sound on human mind and body can be investigated and quantified (Abdul Kadir et. al, 2009). Many authors reported that more researches are needed to study the effects of music on patients' stress and anxiety reduction (Bradt J and Dileo C 2009).A clinical trial had done on the effects of music therapy on female breast cancer patients' anxiety following radical mastectomy and concluded that music therapy has positive effects on decreasing their anxiety (Xiao-Mei Li etal 2011). The healing aspects of natural sounds therapy including water sound are beginning to get a lot of interest in the medical fields. Numerous studies conducted on the value of natural sounds as a therapy for various psychological treatments (Coensel BD etal 2011).

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Iran's Legislative Criminal Policy in Prevention from Crime[Full-Text[References] pp 193-196
Fatemeh Nouri

The society must be immune from anti social actions, while these actions are performed, i.e. general officials should do some actions that prevent individuals from committing this action. These strategies are called preventive actions. Criminal policy, which has involved control methods, was restricted to use oppressing method for a long time, but following this method's failure, tendency to preventive actions taking was generated.The goal of this research is to determine preventive criminal policy in Iran's laws and regulations. The duty of preventing from crime has been undertaken by judicature in the constitution but next to it some references undertake this duty in customary laws that this shows that it is essential to form a coordinated institution in order to prevent from crime.

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Iran Criminal Policy Due to Electronic Crimes[Full-Text[References] pp 197-199
Fatemeh Nouri

One of the most dangerous crimes that compromise socio-economical and political securities of the society is electronic crimes that have been manifested in the world era with its modern forms simultaneously with development in science and technology so the only condition for fighting against modern crimes and their prevention is to identify, analyze and recognize completely how they are committed. At the moment, in one hand there is no sufficient equipment in order to resist against crimes, on the other hand modern criminal policy does not have enough cognition and knowledge in order to fight against this new offenders. This study is aimed to explain concept of computer crime, identification of specifications and its different kinds and investigation of present legal solutions and indication of possible defects regarding high speed computerization of commercial-industrial and servicing activities in Iran.

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Energy Efficient Lighting Control System Design For Corridor illumination [Full-Text[References] pp 200-205
Jayashri A.Bangali, Arvind D.Shaligram

Energy efficient corridor illumination in commercial and residential buildings is becoming increasingly important in the energy conservation era. Lighting control systems with adequate algorithms are basically used for energy saving. The integration of daylight with electric light in building corridors during daytime hours is a key element in designing the lighting control system. The most common form of electric lighting control is the on/off "toggle" switch. Other forms of lighting control include occupancy sensors, daylight sensors, clock switches, a variety of manual and automatic dimming devices, and centralized controls. The selection of sensor and type of lighting control depends on the application and the area where it is used. Mostly, occupancy sensor and photosensors are used in corridors. The corridor is not always occupied with people, rather people are moving continuously in a corridor. So, required illumination in a corridor is less as compared with a room or a hall. The twilight and night time illumination requirements are different and have additional behavioral and security issues associated. For corridors, required illumination or light intensity usually ranges from 50 to 100 lux [1]. The main aim of this paper includes the study and analysis of the good practice of energy-efficient lighting for corridor. The major findings in this study are that the energy-efficient lighting design could still be achieved without sacrificing the visual comfort and aesthetic requirement of the building, which is always a major issue of the owner. However, Energy-efficient lighting could be more easily implemented if it is considered right from the early design stage

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Efficacy comparison of teaching problem solving skill and communication skills on pleasure and self-esteem in third boy students of Tonekabon city[Full-Text[References] pp 206-210
Shahnam Abolghasemi, Hamidreza Vatankhah, Nikta bazleh, Samira Safdari, Hadi Moradi

Aim of present study is Efficacy comparison of teaching problem solving skill and communication skills on pleasure and self-esteem in third boy students of Tonekabon city. Statistical society consists of 150 third boys students of Tonekabon city that have studied in educational year of 89-90. Among them 45 people had selected classified randomly in three 15 people groups (two experimental and one control group) as a sample. In order to data collecting, it is using oxford joyful (1990), Cooper Smith self-esteem questionnaire (1967) and these data were analyzed by using statistical methods of multiple co-variance analysis, Ben Freon alpha and pursuit test, that finally below results are obtained: teaching communication skills is more effective in students' self-esteem and joyfulness. teaching problem solving skills is effective in increasing students' self-esteem and joyfulness. Teaching communication skills are more effective in increasing joyfulness degree than teaching problem solving skill. there is no meaningful difference between efficacy of teaching communication skills method and problem solving skill on increasing students' self-esteem.

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Real Time Vehicle License Plate Recognition Based on 2D Haar Discrete Wavelet Transform[Full-Text[References] pp 211-216
R. T. Lee, K. C. Hung, and H. S. Wang

This thesis to present a new approach for license-plate recognition using 2D Haar Discrete Wavelet Transform (HDWT) and Artificial neural Network. This thesis consists of three main parts. The first part is to locate and extract the license-plate in an image. The second part is to train of the license-plate. The third part is to real time scan recognize of the license-plate. Traditional license plate recognition system design complexity. The paper present is a vehicle license plate after 2D Haar Discrete Wavelet Transform three transforms, select only after the third conversion coefficients of low-frequency part of the image pixels, image pixels into one-sixty fourth, thus reducing the number of scanning image pixels, increasing rapid implementation of recognition work and the memory usage. This article is to directly scan for license plate recognition, without recognition of the individual characters. This new approach is a real time recognition, experimental results of license plate recognition rates can be as high as 95.33%.

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Bai's Secret Sharing Scheme for Highly Secured AOMDV Routing Protocol[Full-Text[References] pp 217-220
C. Chandrasekar, Lt.Dr. S. Santhosh Baboo

Security in wireless network is of a great concern in the present wireless environment. Security is becoming a much essential part in wireless communication as intruders are very much keen in attacking the transmitted route or any node to steal the data packets It is indispensable to provide security to the network from the intruders and their security attacks. In order to provide a secured environment, it is essential that routing protocol exploited in a MANET should be of highly secured from the intruders. There are several routing protocols exist but most of these protocols makes use of only a single path. Therefore, proposed a Highly Secured Ad-hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing protocol (HSAOMDV) using the Bai's secret sharing scheme. Secret sharing scheme allows to distribute a secret only between a set of participants in a communication process by providing each participant a share. By this manner only the group of participants are allowed to reconstruct the secret. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed HSAOMDV, it is compared against AOMDV and SAOMDV (AOMDV with Shamir's Secret Sharing Scheme). Number of packets received by HSAOMDV routing protocol does not decreased with intrusion of malicious nodes in the network and the packet delivery ratio also comparably high than the other two routing protocols.

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Factors Affecting the Performance of Hindi Language searching on web: An Experimental Study[Full-Text[References] pp 221-235
Kumar Sourabh, Vibhakar Mansotra

With the internet growing at an exponential rate the web is increasingly hosting web pages in different languages. It is essential for the search engines to be able to search information stored in a specific language. The native users also tend to look for any information on web nowadays. This leads to the need of effective search engines to fulfill native user's needs and provide them information in their native languages. The major population of India use Hindi as a first language. The Indian constitution identifies 22 languages, of which six languages (Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Bengali, Marathi and Gujarati) are spoken by at least 50 million people within the boundaries of the country-there are a large number of them living outside the country. The Hindi language web information retrieval is not in a satisfactory condition. The presence of Hindi on the World Wide Web is still limited and tentative because of attitudinal and technical factors. Besides the other technical setbacks the Hindi language search engines face the problem of morphology, phonetics, word sense disambiguation etc. The performance of search engines is affected by these problems. This paper covers the comprehensive analysis and also the comparison of the affect of language structure related factors (morphology, phonetics, WSD, synonyms,) on the performance of search engines supporting Hindi language

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Gain Flattening and Noise Figure Analysis of a Dual Stage Bowtie WDM EDFA Configuration in C-Band[Full-Text[References] pp 236-242
Ricky Anthony, Sambhunath Biswas

The paper presents an improved gain flattening and noise figure analysis in the C-band regime using an equalization filter of a dual stage single mode polarization maintaining bowtie erbium doped fiber amplifier. The configuration uses two in-line 980nm laser pumps. The gain and noise figure variation with fiber length, pump power and temperature of the system for C-band communication have been investigated. With equalization filter, a gain and noise figure flatness (p-p) of just 1.1dB and 2.3dB respectively, in 1530-1565 nm BW, for optimized 150 mW and 250 mW pump lasers was obtained. The gain has also shown temperature dependent variation, with minimum fluctuation of 0.71dB at 200C. Based on results, the system feasibility as in C-band communication has been discussed.

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Numerical Simulation of Non-Premixed Turbulent Methane-Air Combustion[Full-Text[References] pp 243-249
O.A Erinfolami, O.S Ismail, O. Oyewola

This paper examined the heat-transfer coefficients and the Nusselt number for turbulent flow for a methane-air flame occurring in cross-flow streams in an open duct. The governing equation of momentum, energy, mass fraction and radical nuclei concentration were solved in a fully coupled fashion at each control volume. The model encompasses conservation equations of gas components participating in the process and energy equation. A FORTRAN code was written with a Tridiagonal matrix solver (TDMA) used to obtain the temperature, velocity and particulates profiles on the flat plate. The Nusselt number for the flow was calculated and plotted as a function of the calculated Rayleigh number. It was observed that a curve obtained with temperature and pressure far from the critical region approaches the line obtained with a classic correlation.

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Blind Handicapped Vs. Technology: How Do Blind People Use Computers? [Full-Text[References] pp 250-254
Prof.Reeta Singh

Several companies today market computer programs that allow a blind person to use a standard computer. These computer programs are called "screen readers". A screen reader is itself a standard Windows computer application, but its job is to run alongside the other programs running on a computer and "tell" the blind person what is on the screen. Because a blind person cannot see what is on the screen, a screen reader typically has a built-in speech synthesiser which, although perhaps sounding a bit like a robot, speaks information to the user through the normal sound speakers of the computer itself. People with some limited sight typically use a different kind of screen reader which magnifies and enhances the image on the screen to make it easier to see, and some people use both speech and magnification at the same time. But whether a person uses speech or magnification, typically the screen reader is just a computer application that comes on a CD and easily installs on most computers.

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Design and Implementation of Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor[Full-Text[References] pp 255-259
Amira Mahmoud Olayan, Amal Zaki, Hazem Hassan

This paper offers an analytical modeling of thin-filmed, multi-layer piezoelectric sensor. In this work, analysis and simulation of a thin plate pressure sensor is carried on using both mathematical models and finite element analyses. Experimental methods, in the form of full-field-of-view laser microscopy, are applied to show the internal structure of the fabricated pressure sensor and update the computational models. The combined approach of the two methods is used to determine the elastic modulus and the thickness of the diaphragm of the pressure sensor.

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Enabling Poor People to Overcome Poverty and Innovative Access to Finance for Small and Medium Enterprises in the United Republic of Tanzania by Rotating Savings and Credit Association Method[Full-Text[References] pp 260-265
A. Ranjith, R.Thandaiah Prabu, P. Albert Shelton

The United Republic of Tanzania is an emerging economy with high growth potential. With per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of US$500, the economy has shown strong and consistent growth in the last two decades the Tanzanian economy went through a period of successful transition in which economic liberalization and institutional reform led to a recovery of GDP growth to more than 7% per year since 2000. However, during the same period, the country has been unable to achieve significant reductions in poverty. Approximately 90 per cent of the United Republic of Tanzania's poor people lives in rural areas. The incidence of poverty varies greatly across the country but is highest among rural families living in arid and semi-arid regions. The main aim of this paper is to enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty and increase their savings by introducing The Rotating Savings and Credit Association (Rosca) method. It plays an important role as a financial intermediary in many parts of developing countries. It flourishes in both urban and rural settings, especially where formal financial institutions seem to fail to meet the needs of a large fraction of the population

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Designing an Automated Wheel chair with Stair Crossing Facility[Full-Text[References] pp 266-273
Mst. Nasima Bagum, Choudhury Abul Anam Rashed, Sanjoy Kar

Now a day's all comforts in human life is the result of revolutionary advancement in technology. Modern Automation techniques; a part of technology is utilized in this design of "Automated Wheelchair" to give user a fully automated control. But the key story is not about control. The key approach was to find an easier way to cross inclined stairs with users. A new phenomenon was found from engineering analysis to cross stairs in an efficient way by the proper selection of wheel radius. The comfort is dedicated to the people who are suffering in normal movement. The developed 'Automatic Wheel Chair' would provide a comfortable and dynamic life-style to the handicaps which might be very much closer to their dreams.

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A Case Study on Implementation of Prince2 Methodology In Automotive Industry In Malaysia [Full-Text[References] pp 274-277
Saima Saad, Abdullah Ibrahim, Omme Asma and Muhmmad Saad Khan

Operations & Management division is the backbone of any corporate organization and it is the key factor to improve the performance of the industry. Global competition of automotive industry required well-organized project management in each area for satisfaction of customer and quality. The new approach of Project Management is Project Management PRINCE2 (PMP2), is the generic framework, which is design to suit every type of project in industry. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the impact of project management prince2 methodology in Malaysian automotive industry. PRINCE2 is a structured method for effective project management. PRINCE2 has established in UK as generic, process based approach to project management. In view of the fact that its emphasis on, the dividing the project into manageable and controllable stages. This research will encourage the implementation of Prince2 methodology in automotive industry of Malaysia. Additionally, it will encourage the prospect utilizations of PMP2, which ultimately improve the human performance in automotive industry.

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Abortion and Challenges of Teenage Pregnancy in Lagos, Nigeria[Full-Text[References] pp 278-287
Atere. Adewole Akinyemi, Ayodele. Johnson Oluwole, Omololu. O

The study examined the influence of abortion on the lives of pregnant teenage girls in Lagos. The study adopted an exploratory and descriptive research design. Copies of a questionnaire were administered on one hundred and five girls selected from Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State who participated in the study. The study conducted ten in - depth interviews involving medical experts, parents and teenagers who were purposively selected. These data were analysed. Findings of the study supported the outcomes of previous studies that adolescent girls are hesitant to discuss their past exposure to abortion; have divergent perceptions of abortion and display inadequate though varying knowledge of the implications of abortion for their future reproductive health. Moreover, the study found evidences of cultural and religious inhibitions that discourage girls from public discussion of their sexual behaviour. Scared by the disgrace that such an act might cause, most girls deliberately do not access abortion services from specialists. Therefore, the study suggests that government legalises abortion to enable experts handle abortion and post abortion needs of adolescent girls. This will salvage many innocent babies and girls who might be involved in unsafe abortion from experiencing fatality. Otherwise, quackery in the health sector may continue to undermine all progressive health initiative to lay siege on the lives of vulnerable unborn babies and the life chances of their adolescent mothers in Lagos.

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