Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2013 Edition


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Detection of Faulty Region on Printed Circuit Board With IR Thermography[ ]


This paper presents detection of faulty region of PCB by thermal image processing. Thermal imaging is used for analysis of thermal reliability of PCB. With variation in temperature fault can be detected. To detect faulty region, thermal image of a faultless PCB and faulty PCB is taken by the thermal camera and comparison is done for defect detection. Here feature extraction is done with Principal Component Thermography (PCT). The Principal component analysis (PCA) applied on thermographic image data is called as Principal Component Thermography (PCT). The PCT used for processing IR sequences is mainly based on thermal contrast evaluation in time. The SVD computation technique is used in place of actual PCT to reduce the amount of computation that is needed. Then Euclidian distance is used to detect faulty region by comparing features. So faulty region is get detected.

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Intelligent Multidimensional Database Interface[ ]


In the present computing world, most new-generation database applications need for intelligent interface to enhance efficient interactions between database and the users. Database query language SQL could be difficult to the non-expert users and learning these formal queries takes a lot of time. In this paper, we discussed mapping of natural language queries to SQL rather than building normal query and a user simply poses the question in everyday verbiage language. Furthermore, we introduce a dynamic approach to determine the tables and attributes involved in the query by using database metadata schema. Our approach will minimize the time that used to build the queries thus minimizing the code size and effort for building query. We also propose a dynamic component that helps in building any NLIDB this component is linked to all the NLIDB system's components and helps to build the dictionaries and database schema graph.

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Conventional Open Truck and Hauled Container Systems of Waste Collection in Khulna City: A Comparative Analysis[ ]


Collection is one of the tires of municipal solid waste (MSW) management; therefore, it’s proper planning and implementation can serve as a foundation for a sound waste management system. The two most common collection systems of Khulna city are open truck (OT) based collection and hauled container system (HCS). A study has been carried out for evaluating the collection system of MSW and comparing them. In contrary, time and motion survey, interview of municipal staff, conservancy officers, conservancy inspectors and drivers and truck crews were carried out as study methodologies. Results show that within the round trip haul distance of 20-35 km, OT can make at least 4 trips and HCS can make 3 trips per shift. The study also reveals that actual trips made and the trips for which fuel is allocated were not always being the same. Time ratio of traditional OT container collection for pickup, unloading and travelling was around 7, 4 and 83% of total trip time, respectively. For demountable container collection time ratio was 3, 3 and 85%, respectively. Result shows that capacity usages of vehicles were 82-93% and 79-87% for OT and HCS, respectively. Moreover, time efficiency ratings were found 38-41% and 39-43% for OT and HCS, respectively.

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A Study on the Safety and Ergonomics for Construction Works in Chittagong[ ]


A large number of construction works are continuing everyday in Bangladesh as an emerging developing country where labor is plentiful and cheap. Ergonomics for construction works in Chittagong was carried out to observe the present status of practicing safety regulations and ergonomics principles by the construction workers. A survey using of questionnaire, participatory approaches, on-the-spot assessments and interviews were used as tools for investigation. The collected data were subjected to descriptive statistics. Those responding to the questionnaire had an average age of 30.1 years, 37% workers fall in the age range 20-30 years, worked an average of 42 weeks in a year, and had an average of 4.5 years work experience in building construction. The survey results indicated that low back pain back injuries constitutes 25% of total work related musculoskeletal symptom due to the manual handling of heavy materials followed by wrist and elbow injuries constitute 19.8% due to cutting operations. From the study it was also found that total 19 construction workers reported seeing physicians for their musculoskeletal injury and 5.5% of total workers reported seeing physicians for lower back injury. Awkward postures, fixed posture, and working in the same position for long periods were identified as the leading causes of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Chi-square model showed that ergonomic risk factor prevails in all age ranges and major six works related musculoskeletal symptoms are not dependent on construction area. We also discuss the aspects which negatively affect the workers, and the interventions required in order to improve ergonomics in construction work processes, which has the scope of using in all the constructural places.

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Parametric Optimization Of Tig Welding Parameters Using Taguchi Method For Dissimilar Joint (Low carbon steel with AA1050)[ ]


Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG) process is an important component in many industrial operations. The TIG welding parameters are the most important factors affecting the quality, productivity and cost of welding. This paper presents the influence of welding parameters like welding current, welding speed on strength of low carbon steel on AA1050 material during welding. A plan of experiments based on Taguchi technique has been used to acquire the data. An Orthogonal array, signal to noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the welding characteristics of dissimilar joint and optimize the welding parameters. Finally the conformations tests have been carried out to compare the predicted values with the experimental values to confirm its effectiveness in the analysis of strength.

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Physicochemical Characteristics and Biodegradation of Pharmaceutical Effluent.[ ]


Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) industries suffer inadequate effluent treatment due to the presence of recalcitrant substances, insufficient carbon source and nutrients. Biodegradation is the ability of microorganisms to metabolize pollutants in soil, sediment and water environment. There is great awareness in the positive impact that microorganisms play in protecting environmental and human health. A large number of pre treatment systems are employed to remove these pollutants to prevent a host of problems that may arise in the biological process thereby reducing the efficiency of the treatment plant. Pharmaceutical effluent collected was characterized for their pollution characteristic and resultant analysis showed that the total suspended solid (TSS) and total dissolve solid (TDS) were 150.4 and 120.7 mg/l respectively while biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 1720 and 5680 mg/l respectively. These values are high when compared to World Health Organization maximum permissible limits (Chikogu et al., 2012).Initial treatment of this effluent with selected organisms yielded slight reduction in the solid concentration, BOD and COD, hence optimization of biodegradation of the selected organisms. Optimization of biodegradation with 2% carbon source and nitrogen respectively showed improved biodegradation of pharmaceutical effluent with maltose showing 78.5% TDS reduction, cassava starch 95.8% BOD and 97% COD reduction respectively in Saccharamyces cerevisea treated pharmaceutical effluent. Similarly yeast extract was best utilized by Saccharamyces cerevisea with 99% BOD, 82 % TDS reduction and 90.5% growth in the treated effluent while it reduced COD to 98.2% in Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated pharmaceutical effluent. However optimization of biodegradation with carbon and nitrogen sources was not properly utilized in Aspergillus niger treated effluent.

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Geothermal gradient of the Niger Delta from recent studies[ ]


In this paper, subsurface temperature measured from continuous temperature logs were used to determine the geothermal gradient of NigerDelta sedimentary basin. The measured temperatures were corrected to the true subsurface temperatures by applying the American Association of Petroleum Resources (AAPG) correction factor, borehole temperature correction factor with La Max’s correction factor and Zeta Utilities borehole correction factor. Geothermal gradient in this basin ranges from 1.20C to 7.560C/100m. Six geothermal anomalies centres were observed at depth in the southern parts of the Abakaliki anticlinorium around Onitsha, Ihiala, Umuaha area and named A1 to A6 while two more centre appeared at depth of 3500m and 4000m named A7 and A8 respectively. Anomaly A1 describes the southern end of the Abakaliki anticlinorium and extends southwards , Anomaly A2 to A5 were found associated with a NW-SE structural alignment of the Calabar hinge line with structures describing the edge of the Niger Delta basin with the basement block of the Oban massif. Anomaly A6 locates in the south-eastern part of the basin offshore while A7 and A8 are located in the south western part of the basin offshore. At the average exploratory depth of 3500m, the geothermal gradient values for these anomalies A1, A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 are 6.50C/100m, 1.750C/100m, 7.50C/100m,1.250C/100m,6.50C/100m,5.50C/100m,60C/100m and 2.250C/100m respectively. Anomaly A8 area may yield higher thermal value at greater depth than 3500m. These results show that anomalies areas of A1, A3, A5, A6 and A7 are potentially prospective and explorable for geothermal energy using abandoned oil wells in the study area. Anomalies A1, A3.A5, A6 occur at areas where drilled boreholes were not exploitable for oil and gas but for the remaining areas where wells are so exploitable there appears no geothermal anomaly. Geothermal energy is environmentally friendly, clean and reversible.

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Minimal feature set based classification of emotional speech[ ]


This paper proposes the use of a minimum number of formant and bandwidth features for efficient classification of the neutral and six basic emotions in two languages. Such a minimal feature set facilitates fast and real time recognition of emotions which is the ultimate goal of any speech emotion recognition system. The investigations were done on emotional speech databases developed by the authors in English as well as Malayalam - a popular Indian language. For each language, the best features were identified by the KMeans, K-nearest neighbor and Naive Bayes classification of individual formants and bandwidths, followed by the artificial neural networks classification of the combination of the best formants and bandwidths. Whereas an overall emotion recognition accuracy of 85.28 % was obtained for Malayalam, based on the values of the first four formants and bandwidths, the recognition accuracy obtained for English was 86.15%, based on a feature set of the four formants and the first and fourth bandwidths, both of which are unprecedented. These results were obtained for elicited emotional speech of females and with statistically preprocessed formants and bandwidth values. Reduction in the number of emotion classes resulted in a striking increase in the recognition accuracy.

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A Framework of Secure Biometric Based Online Exam Authentication: An Alternative To Traditional Exam[ ]


In the past fifteen years the use of Internet technologies has been substantially growing for delivery of educational content and online learning has become increasingly popular and evolved. Online examination is an integral and vital component of online learning. Student assessment in online learning is largely submitted remotely without any face-to-face interaction and therefore, student authentication is widely seen as one of the major challenges in online examination. This study aims to investigate potential threats to student authentication in the online examinations and analyzing the benefits and limitations of the existing authentication approaches. Online examinations pose a unique problem, in that it can be very difficult to provide true user authentication. Due to the inherent anonymity of being online, compared to taking an examination in a classroom environment, students may attempt to artificially boost their scores in online examinations by having another individual take the exam for them, which a typical user/password authentication scheme cannot detect. For this purpose, we propose the Framework of Secured Biometric student authentication in Online Examinations. This framework uses a multi-modal authentication approach to secure online examination. The solution comprises of two layers of authentication i.e. student biometric authentication and Knowledge based authentication. In this paper, we propose a framework that provides security to improve on-line examination by utilizing technologies such as biometric authentication based Keystroke Dynamics. This paper attempts to address this important problem by proposing a theoretical framework that incorporates available biometric authentication technologies in conjunction with Knowledge based authentication. Discussions on future research and possible implications of the proposed theoretical framework for practice are provided.

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Double Pyrolysis of Chrome Tanned Leather Solid Waste for Safe Disposal and Products Recovery[ ]


Disposal of chrome tanned leather waste (CTLW) generated in leather processing industries has many environmental implications. This paper presents a double pyrolysis (PI & PII) method to dispose hazardous chrome tanned leather solid waste by converting it into useful products. When CTLW was subjected to double pyrolysis, three major products obtained were; (i) an energy enriched combustible gas (32.01% - PI & 42.45% - PII ); (ii) a high fraction condensate (33.32% (PI & PII)) and (iii) a carbonaceous residual ash containing trivalent chromium (34.67%- PI & 24.23% -PII). In addition, 2.73% of liquid fuel, 75.24% of nitrogen enriched liquid and 22.03% distillate tar as sub-products from the high fraction condensate. Various instrumental analysis using SEM/EDAX, GC-MS, 1H & 13C NMR and TGA revealed that the products were free from toxic chromium species and contains both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The residual ash displayed high thermal stability when run under nitrogen atmosphere (simulating 1st pyrolysis). The observations on generation of no toxic compounds upon double pyrolysis, suggests the suitability of this process towards achieving safe disposal of hazardous leather solid waste and to recover useful products.

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Simulation and Processing Techniques of Surface Electromyography Signal to Control a Lower Extremity Exoskeleton[ ]


In recent years, surface electromyography (sEMG) signals which reflect directly human muscle activity have played a significant role in control of a lower extremity exoskeleton system. Our study concentrates on simulation and processing techniques of sEMG signal that we are applying to our exoskeleton robot. Simulation and experiment results are presented and analyzed deeply to validate the techniques mentioned. These results are being applied in our ongoing design of a lower extremity exoskeleton system which is used to assist a soldier to walk with or without load carrying.

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Implementation of Interface between AXI Protocol and DDR3 Memory for SOC[ ]


This project deals with implementation of interface for efficient SOC. It accepts the Read / write commands from AXI and convert into DDR3 access.AXI protocol is an open standard on chip interconnect specification for the connection & management of functional blocks in SOC. In this project, an interface between a master (processor/user) & slave (DDR3 memory) was designed. This interface will transfer the data from master to slave & vice versa. This interface implemented is called as DDR3 Controller, Which is specially targated for the DDR3 memory Apart from the designing DDR3 controller, The communication is achieved between the master & the slave using various resd / write commands of AXI protocol .Certain novel features of AXI protocol like variable length burst (from 1 to 16 data transfer per burst) & fixed wrapping burst are included in the design to achieve the data transfer.Our design has been implemented with respect to latency reduction and improvement in various performance parameters and the design is simulated Modelsim Synthesized on Xilinix successfully.

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Routing Methodology for Secure Transmission of data in Virtual Private Networks[ ]


The paper attempts to streamline the process of data transmission in a wired Virtual Private Network (VPN), with a view to foresee the occurrence of attacks and attach a sense of security to its travel. It translates the sequence of generation of keys in the process of routing and be-hives a sequence to wait for the related certificates before the transfer of data packets It avails the facilities in the hose architecture to relay the methodology in the minimum bandwidth path and ensure an uninterrupted data transfer over the leased lines in the private dedicated network. The design allows the stream of message to continue in alternative directions between the chosen source and destination in the event of occurrence of disruptions. The procedure springs up with computation of performance indices through Network Simulator-2 (NS-2) to exhibit the viability of the formulation for use in the practical world.

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Energy Efficient Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Network with CDMA Nodes[ ]


The paper attempts to evolve a routing scheme with a view to improve the utilization capacity and enhance the life time of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The focus charters to design a Cluster based Ad-hoc on Demand Distance Vector (CAODV) algorithm to facilitate the transfer of information in a composite network with both Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and non-CDMA nodes. It avails the use of a high energy node to commensurate the process and ensure a smooth flow of traffic among a host of CDMA source and destination nodes. It inscribes to be-hive the merits of CDMA nodes in enhancing the rate of data transfer and create a congenial environment for large scale transmission. The approach orients to acquire the best performance in terms of metrics with minimum expenditure of energy to foster an energy efficient routing mechanism. The Network Simulator (NS2) based simulation results obtained over specific time frames reveal the applicability of the proposed strategy in the present day context.

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Engineering Change Management - Implementation[ ]


Almost all Engineering Change Management systems focus is on approving changes and it e-circulation. The most important and critical part of engineering change life cycle is its implementation. Which involves lot of practical scenarios, multiple departments. An improper implementation can lead to major loss to organization which in many cases will not be realized. This paper try to present the complications involved in engineering changes.

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A Semigroup Approach to Semilinear Functional Differential Equations in a Banach Space[ ]


A Class of semilinear autonomous functional differential equations of retarded type is studied by associating with it.

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Influence of physical parameters, such as pH and temperature on biodegradation of dimethoate by Actinomycetes sp isolated from pesticide contaminated grape field soil from Nashik, Maharashtra, India[ ]


Present work is based on biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticide dimethoate in liquid MSM medium with micro organisms. The Actinomycete sp was found to be capable of utilizing dimethoate as sole carbon and energy source and could rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 100 ppm and showed maximum growth in a MSM. The concentration of the dimethoate in the solution decreased exponentially with the increased exposure time. Actinomycetes sp. could tolerate dimethoate upto 900ppm. In current study, several factors influencing dimethoate degradation were investigated. Complete disappearance of dimethoate was detected after 3 days of incubation. UV-Visible spectroscopic analyses revealed the complete mineralization of dimethoate. Changes in pH of MSM medium to basic range supported the biological transformation. The optimal pH and temperature growth conditions were 8.5 and 30°C, respectively. The microbial consortia could prove to play a valuable role for the bioremediation of dimethoate contaminated soil.

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A Study on Incidence of GIT (Stomach) Cancer in Relation to ABO Blood Group and Rh Factor in Bangladesh.[ ]


The ABO blood type, an easily accessible factor in patient’s genetic makeup, has been associated with many diseases, though the explanation for the association with ABO blood groups and some disease is still unclear. A correlation of blood group antigen expression in tumor with metastasis and prognosis has been reported for various human malignancies, such as GIT, breast and prostate cancer as the blood group carbohydrates expressed on cell surface of metastatic cancer cells function as cell adhesion molecules. The prime object of this project was to elucidate the incidence of GIT (Stomach) cancer in relation to ABO blood group and Rh factors in Bangladesh, so as to assess the utility of ABO blood group as a preclinical marker.

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Somalia Educational Institutions And Total Quality Management In Education[ ]


This research paper comprises of primary and secondary data. It investigates weakness and strengthens of educational institutions in Somalia. The primary purpose of the paper is to give information practitioners of education particularly those in Somalia to improve the quality of education; and to know how suppliers of education in Somalia apply TQM in education in their institutions. Total Quality management is a business approach designed for customer satisfaction and this paper examines how education suppliers in Somalia satisfied the requirement of their customers. Interviews with teachers, students, school principals and administrators of universities and also some parents and searched websites and other educational sources that could be found education data of Somalia all indicate the need for application TQM approach in educational institutions in Somalia. Although this report was academic research but includes important references and information about Somalia education that would be useful for the scholars and supporters of education.

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Selecting Integrated Approach for Knowledge Representation by Comparative Study of Knowledge Representation Schemes[ ]


In Artificial Intelligence, knowledge representation is a combination of data structures and interpretive procedures that leads to knowledgeable behavior. Therefore, it is required to investigate such knowledge representation technique in which knowledge can be easily and efficiently represented in computer. This research paper compares various knowledge representation techniques and proves that integrated approach is a more efficient and more accurate knowledge representation scheme.

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On The Generalized Fuzzy N-normed Spaces Including ? Function[ ]


The fundamental aim of this paper is to consider and introduce fuzzy ?-n-normed space, where ? function is introduced originally by Golet in [6].

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Parametric study on Index property of soil by adding course sand for Granular Sub-base.[ ]


Most of the study were done in past for making expansive soil (like black Cotton soil or ordinary soil) suitable for embankment and sub grade construction work by adding one are more material in to the soil. For utilization of locally available gravel soil for sub base work and relevantly for reusing the wastage of dismantled material (obtained from dismantling of road pavements) there is a need of detail parametric study on index and other properties of local quarry soil/gravel soil/murrum/Garbage of dismantled road pavement material with admix of stone dust/river sand/fine aggregate on different percentage. In the present study we are investigating suitability of waste quarry soil obtained from disintegration of laterite stone by adding the soil with suitable percentage of river/nalla sand.

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A Note on Integro-Differential Explicit Method of the Master Equation Solution[ ]


A new theoretical approach is presented for solving the master equation of nuclear preequilibrium states, based on an explicitly integrated method. Earlier ad hoc hypothesis was proposed to follow mathematical derivation of the master equation reasonably, thus providing an explicit method to derive the dependence of probability distributions of exciton levels occupation. Few theoretical comparisons were made, based on approximation formulae of the present solution.

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