Volume 7, Issue 7, July 2016 Edition


Publication for Volume 7, Issue 7, July 2016.


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THE ROLE OF ICT IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING[ ]


Language is the mirror of human life which delineates the life of human. Language speaks man’s personality. It is the cosmic medium like imparting the common information society. English and ICT have become essential tools for a number of non-datum and emotions of everyday life. English language has become a global language because of its numerous functions and preferences over several other languages over the globe. English has become the window to the world. English is not only the mother tongue of Britain but also to so many countries like Canada ,USA ,Newzealand etc .It is also used as second language in many countries like Nigeria, Ghana etc. English has become a medium for business and interactional purposes among other functions .English is playing a major role in every field such as medicine, engineering, education, art and law, music etc. As the world is changing, there must be changes in language learning. But contemporaneous collide of globalization, the expanse of English and technological development have transformed our learning and teaching English as a Lingua franca in an unprecedented way. In every aspect of human life, Science, Information, Technology are playing a vital role .Even in the field of education the technological developments have started a new page. Traditional methods of teaching are not showing great impact on the learners. Technology has become a tool for making the learners innovative and also became a source for motivating the learners towards learning. To compete with this native speakers of English.

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SQAREM-A Customized Model for SQA, Reuse[ ]


In the era of Information technology, Quality is major competing weapon in all sectors to gain the market share, productivity, performance and profitability. The software development with reuse promises many benefits like reducing efforts, cost, time, and schedule but involves many constraints. Quality assurance means assuring the quality. In this a model SQAREM is proposed which involves Input, Output factors and metrices, tools. The Input factors are monitored, controlled to imbibe quality into the system, application. The model is based on ISO 9126 model and can be customised as per the user needs. It can be evaluated on basis of model's criteria using metrices of quality and reusability.

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A Simplified Formular For Analysis Group Efficiency of Piles in Granular Soil[ ]


The main purpose of this paper is to present a new method for analysis group efficiency of frictional piles in granular soils. This method is based on consideration of the shear around the perimeter of the group defined by the plan dimensions + the bearing capacity of the block dimension at the points. Thus, the analysis presented here is based on frictional resistance of piles combine to point load in granular or sand soil and some other factors similar to the analysis presented by Sayed and Bakeer. Besides, stiffness of the pile cap also confirmed that it influence significantly to the distribution of the structural loads to the individual piles and this factor was examined in the presented method. The results from numerical analysis and full-scale field test have obtained a good match together also shown that numerical modelling techniques may come to a suitable agreement with practical experiment results to analyse for group efficiency of piles.

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Scope of Utilization of a Hybrid System of Solar and Wind Energies as a Storage System in Palestine[ ]


Energy is a vital item for the development of any nation. People of Palestine are living in critical situation regarding their needs of energy due to the lack of fusel fuels and other conventional resources; in addition to the continuous Israeli occupation, which has been about seven decades. It depends totally on the occupier for the supply of petroleum and petroleum products and more than 90 % of its electricity needs. By this, the occupier controls the energy needs and hinders the utilization of the natural resources in the country and worse than that he divided the country into four regions separated by reinforced concrete walls which made connecting it to single energy and electricity network rather impossible. Despite all these hindering's, the Palestinians are taking every possible chance to overcome these obstacles and utilize their natural resources. In this paper, the scope of utilizing a hybrid system of solar and wind energies, which are readily available in most regions in Palestine, and store them to be used when they are needed both in the populated regions and in the remote areas of the country. The use of these types of renewable energy will reduce the green gases emissions and results in a cleaner environment. Furthermore, a system for heating and cooling building, using these storage materials, is also presented and discussed.

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PV Powered Induction Motor Drive for Water Pumping[ ]


In the rural area the solar photovoltaic fed induction motor drive system is the most efficient system to pump the water for drinking water, water treatment and agricultural purpose. Life in rural area is without electricity due to the increasing demand of electricity and increasing cost of fossil fuel. This paper deals with the implementation of photovoltaic power to drive the three phase induction motor by integration of boost converter topology with constant voltage control scheme and three phase inverter with SPWM control strategy. This system can satisfy the basic need of life without electricity in rural area. The performance of proposed system is obtained for fixed radiation and constant ambient temperature. The boost converter topology is used to step up the input voltage. The desired output of boost converter is obtained by the constant voltage control technique. The three phase inverter is controlled by SPWM control technique. The whole proposed work carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment using SimPower system and Simscape tool box.

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Solution of Coupled Electromagnetic and Thermal Problems in Gas Insulated Bus Bar[ ]


The magnetic field produced by an alternating current flowing in the conductor of the gas insulated bus bars in gas insulated substations induces eddy currents in the metal parts nearby. The eddy current losses and the outer field can be reduced by optimizing the gas insulated bus bars geometry. This work deals with the influence of gas insulated bus bar enclosure geometry on the power losses and temperature distribution of gas insulated bus bars of substations having separately enclosed bus bars, and since the current carrying capacity of the gas insulated bus bar is limited by maximum operating temperature, it is very important to apply the heat transfer coefficient on the boundary surfaces to predict the temperature distribution in the gas insulated bus bars. The temperature distribution is predicted by coupled magneto-thermal finite element analysis. A harmonic electromagnetic analysis is performed to determine the current losses in the gas insulated bus bar. The electromagnetic analysis is followed by a steady-state thermal analysis to determine the temperature distribution in the gas insulated bus bar; also a fluid analysis has been used to get the temperature distribution of SF6

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Defining Level of Service Criteria of Urban Streets using Divisive Analysis (DIANA) of Hierarchical Clustering and GPS Data in Indian Context[ ]


Level of Service (LOS) for heterogeneous traffic flow on urban streets is not well defined in Indian Context. Hence in this study an at tempt is taken to classify urban road networks into number of street classes and average travel speeds on street segments into LOS categories.

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MANAGING THE CUTANEOUS SINUS TRACT OF DENTAL ORIGINE[ ]


Draining cutaneous sinus tract in chin area may be caused by chronic periapical dental infections.Misdiagnosis of these lesions usually leads to destructive invasive treatment of the sinus tract that is not correct and curative.

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Heat Transfer Analysis in Internal Combustion Engine Piston Using Comsol Multiphysics: A Case Study of Tri-Cycle[ ]


The transient nature of heat flowing involving more than single variable, complicated method of measuring temperature across the length of the liner and ambiguous boundary conditions pose serious problems for the analysis of heat transfer rate on the piston of an internal combustion engine using FEM (Finite Element Method). This present study analyzed the heat transfer rate on the piston of a Tri-cycle engine. The studied piston was selected based on its applications in automobile and other engineering applications. The analysis was basically on the transient state forced-convection and conduction heat transfer. As initial condition, the temperature distributions were considered along the piston at a range of 523K – 673K. The parameter used for the simulation were liquid (Gasoline), Gases (Air) and Aluminium silicon UNSA96061 (Piston). The modeling and simulation were performed by using COMSOL-Multiphysics 4.3a software. The mesh optimization was undertaken by using FEM techniques to predict the maximum and mimimum temperature on the piston at every stages of simulation with time dependent. It was discovered that the temperature along the piston of the try-cycle varies with respect to time. The transient analysis revealed that the temperature of the piston at the TDC (Top Dead Center) in the first power stroke is higher compare to the subsequent power strokes, which is an indication that more heat is transfer at subsequent power strokes. Probable recommendations were later made.

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Designing and Analysis of Cryogenic Storage Vessels[ ]


Cryogenics is a study of science which deals with the behavior of extreme low temperatures. Cold converts is a kind of a pressure vessel which is meant for storage of liquid oxygen and nitrogen or argon under required pressure conditions. The materials used for this equipment are discussed and analysed in this paper. The designing procedure follows according to the industry norms.

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AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF PLANNING OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) IN A KNIT COMPOSITE FACTORY[ ]


The Purpose of the study is to show an empirical planning to maintain supply in the whole knit composite supply network. We have shown the importance of input and output balance in the raw materials that if we want a certain amount of output in a process than what should be the amount of inputs in each process considering its process loss% and that amount of raw material should be delivered to that particular machine. Moreover supply chain management has a strong relationship with machine arrangements, personnel management and last but not the least obviously inventory management. We have a plan here for manufacturing 100000 pieces T-shirt what should be the proper supply of raw materials to complete the order and within a possible lead time of 90 days

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Modelling the Exchange Ability of Nigerian Currency (Naira) with respect to US Dollar[ ]


This paper investigates the exchange strength of Nigerian naira with respect to United States dollar and fit an appropriate model to the data using Box Jenkins approach, the data spans the period 1972 to 2014. The result revealed that the exchange rate of naira to a U.S dollar has been relatively stable from 1972 to 1985, and then a continuous upward trend from 1985 to 2014.The series was slightly stationary after 1st difference and sufficiently stationary after 2nd difference, meaning that the series was either I (1) or I (2). Base on the selection criteria AIC and SIC, the best model that explains the series was found to be ARIMA (0, 2, 1). Test of model adequacy confirmed that the model is adequate (i.e the errors were white noise) and a forecast for period of six (6) years terms was made and the forecasted values were all within the confidence limits and it indicates if positive measure is not taken, the value of naira will continue to depreciate.

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Financing sustainable development: - models and key mechanisms in aplication to protected areas[ ]


Sustainable development is one of the most important global issues today. The needs of modern man in a consumer society such as ours, are limitless. Nature, on the other hand, provides limited options to respond to all human needs. The process of harmonizing human needs and possibilities of environment to react in a way that does not jeopardize their relationship is sustainable development. Increased urbanization, high rate of population growth, exhaustion of natural resources and climate change present the greatest threats to sustainable development, and the risks in small countries like Montenegro are even greater. Although Montenegro can boast with favourable topography and geographical location, as well as significant natural resources and high protected area, it is facing a number of challenges and weaknesses, many of which were increased during the financial crisis. The key issue regarding protected areas is their preservation and overall contribution to the individuals and society either through education and research or visits in order to fulfil their needs. However, if it is possible it is important to establish their actual financial sustainability in order to achieve aforementioned preservation. Lack of success in this process may lead to the decrease of life quality in the society. Even though it is meant to be protector and manager of such areas state sometimes fails to do so. In this paper we are dealing with characteristics of Montenegrin protected areas, specifically when it comes to the financing and financial sustainability. The special attention was given to the models and mechanisms which are identified and recommended to be put in place in order to resolve problem of financial unsustainability of protected areas in Montenegro.

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Effect of Salicylic Acid and Azithromycin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa[ ]


10 clinical isolates of pseudomonas were collected from College of Science department of Biology/Al-Mustansiriyah University . This bacterium was able to grow on Pseudomonas agar as a selective medium for Pseudomonas genus .The ability of the isolates to produce biofilm were tested using congo red plate method .Results showed that 70% isolates were not biofilm producers while other isolates 30% produce it in different degrees .Screening of proteolytic bacteria All isolates tested for their proteolytic did not observe presence clear zones around the streak on the skimmed milk agar (an indication of protease production). But Screening the Collected Isolates for Phospholipase Production 80%(8/10) isolates were found to produce phospholipases on the surface of eggyolk agar plates.

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Parametric Estimation in Construction using Bootstrap in Regression Models[ ]


Construction industry is one of the most vast and rapidly growing industries of today. A large part of the income of the society goes into construction of various infrastructures. Hence it is of utmost importance that capital is spent effectively, avoiding the chances for wastage. For this purpose, proper forecasting of cost that maybe incurred would effectively help in assessing the feasibility of a project. Various forecasting methods are now available in the engineering industry. In this paper, the forecasting method used is regression analysis. The construction parameter used here for cost estimation is quantity. 10 various types of construction project details were collected. The various construction phases were grouped into 10 important parameters. The cost and quantity values of these parameters were noted and their relationship was found using regression analysis. Bootstrapping was carried out to increase the validity of models obtained. The models thus produced would help in cost estimation of future projects accurately in the early stages itself. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the developed models is ranging from 0.5 to 0.99 after bootstrapping. This indicates that the relationship between the dependent and independent variables of the developed models is good.

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The Impact of Strategic Planning on Moroccan SME’s Performance[ ]


Among managementactivities, the planning function retainsincreasinglyattention of authors being interested in SME's(small and medium-sized enterprise) performance. Indeed, there are many authors who think that by following a strategy building formal process, SMEs can increase chances of success, whileothersconsider that by trusting their manager’sintuition, SMEscan stimulate creativity and develop important competitive advantages at the same time.Further to these controversies, we aim through this communication to partakein this debate mattering to both researchers and managers by revising the relation between strategic planning andSMEs' economic performance.So as to handle this matter, weverify nearby 100 Moroccan SMEs, the degree of importance they grant to strategic planning. We also examine how SMEs strategic planning may or not be associated with their economic performance as measured by average variation profits over the last three years.

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Design and Classification of EEG and ECG Signals for Detection of Seizures based on Prototype Recognition[ ]


Nervous system disorder that causes huge problem to develop into persons unconscious suddenly, often with violent actions of the body the patient understanding the challenge in everyday life. When a seizure occur, it strength grounds injury or endangers the existence of the patient, the EEG (electroencephalogram) in arrange analysis the performance of the intelligence through seizures at the same time the brain signal might have an effect on the heart electrical activity. We have calculated the middle tendency and covariance of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as per study the heart is the hub of circulatory system whereas brain is the hub of the nervous system so; we can say that heart and brain interact with each other in a method that spirit can have an effect on intelligence and vice-versa. Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures (convulsions) over time. Locate the signal era in EEG recording is database manually it tricky and occasion overwhelming i.e. the automatic finding of such action is of immense significance. One more positional practice of EEG signals examination forecast of epileptic behavior previous to they happen, as this will enable the patient to take suitable safety measures. In this research we proposed a new method ADAPTIVE COGNITION SIGNAL ANALYSIS (ACSA) Algorithm which implies to combination of signals extracted which is used to analysis and precaution disorder of seizures diseases. The result which ensures the name of diseases in predetermined manner by using of our proposed ACSA algorithm.

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Channel Matrix Shaping Scheme for MIMO OFDM System in Wireless Channel[ ]


Performance enhancement is the key requirement of today’s communication world as it proceeds towards a 4G wireless technology. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) along with Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) system is an excellent air interface solution to the next generation wireless communication. The advantage of incorporating MIMO technique is to improve the data transmission reliability through diversity and to achieve higher data rate through spatial multiplexing. Space Time Block coding (STBC) with MIMO OFDM System has peerless performance against multipath effects and frequency selective fading whereas Bit Error Rate (BER) and receiver complexity is low. This paper presents a technique to improve the robustness of STBC-OFDM System with multiple transmitting and receiving antennas. The channel matrix of the frequency selective channel is shaped into a piecewise flat fading channel by the proposed scheme. We concentrate on quasi-static Rayleigh fading wireless channel and the technique that achieve good performance at high SNR’s. In addition to its higher level performance, the proposed scheme has low computational complexity due to the use of short block length Walsh Hadamard Transform (WHT).

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Investigating the effect of Mechanical force, Feedstock composition and Binder ratio on the energy content of Solid biomass Pellet fuel[ ]


Biomass has been the first type of fuel ever used as an energy source since the beginning of human civilization. Less valued biomass agricultural residues including rice husk, maize cob, coffee husk and saw dust are potentially available. One way of using these biomasses is through pellet densification by combining these biomasses with different composition and with help of binder and through the application of mechanical compressive force. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the percentage feedstock composition, binder ratio and the amount of the applied compressive force on the energy efficiency of noncarbonated pellet. Starch has been used as a binder and extracted from cassava root tubes. The feedstock has been prepared in two levels of compositions; the first is by having equal composition of each feedstock and the rest feedstock by weight. To investigate the effect of mechanical force, three compressive forces has been used. The result demonstrated that applied pressure, feed composition and binder ratio have a significant effect on the physicochemical properties of the produced pellets. The caloric value of the pellet has increased with the change in application of compacting force. So we conclude that due to the Water Boiling Test (WBT) conducted to analyze the energy efficiency of the pellet fuel, pellets produced through the application of 180kN takes a minimum time to boil one liter of water with a minimum fuel consumption.

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ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL CONSTITUTIONALISM FOR MITIGATING EARTH’S CLIMATE CHANGE – LEGAL PERSPECTIVE[ ]


Role of International constitutionalism, now-a-days, increased to take issues of its own to provide improved qualified living conditions of the people in the World. Indeed international legal regime has offered so many mechanisms that has been eroga omnes principles but these international instruments are considered only in this regard as soft law i.e., declaration, frame work, submission of State reports, nature that would represented as one of the garner participation. The hard law principles i.e., conventions, treaties, more shrinking to participations from these kinds of treaties that the States are feels themselves to participate and ratify treaties. This is warning to that States to pose entire world to warm. This situation urgently warranted to world countries to implement Koyoto Protocol and after taken mandates needs to negotiate with successors members. This issue is also impliedly affect the economic conditions and the matter already placed in U.N. Security Council for it involved economic and security as well as international economic issues. Therefore the issue of climate change is directly involves dramatic changes in human development and well being. This background, the paper analysis historical and scientific background, international constitutionalism for mitigating earth climate change particularly after the Koyoto Protocol frame work to present scenario of COP21, 2015, and India’s role for mitigating climate change.

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ANN ARCHITECTURE FOR SIGNAL PROCESSING APPLICATIONS[ ]


ANN finds its applications in various signal processing applications such as image recognition(image processing techniques),pattern recognition, system identification, different types of filters(FIR,IIR) and other control problems. In this paper, a multilayer perceptron with more than one hidden layers is considered and for the image processing application such as image recognition, A design of an architecture for multilayer perceptron neuron network is achieved using FPGA. The design is implemented by using the different activation functions such as linear activation function, hard limiter activation function, piecewise linear activation function etc.. A neural network was implemented by using VHDL hardware description Language codes and XC3S250E-PQ 208 Xilinx FPGA device. The results were presented using Xilinx Foundation 9.2i.

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Automated Data Partitioning Scheme For High Performance Transactional Systems[ ]


Data Partitioning Strategies in modern transactional processing systems have a significant impact on the overall performance, throughput and scalability. In order to maximize the benefits, many such systems settle for weak consistency models. Modern Transactional Systems have a hybrid architecture that is a combination of client server machines and distributed environment. This paper proposes a system which uses an optimal automated data partitioning technique based on machine learning which can considerably reduce workload on server preventing its failure. A retail website framework and focus on local optimization (client server level) to achieve high performance is considered.

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Designing a Customized Analog Display in Lab – Observed Issues and Their Solutions[ ]


In a measurement system, the measured entity is exhibited to the user using a display or indicating system. This display unit can either be analog or digital. In several applications, an analog indication is preferred over digital. This paper deals with a customized analog display unit that forms the part of a newly developed sensor which performs a specialized application. As this customized display system caters to some special features of this new sensor, it can be used for similar applications also in future. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the problems that were encountered while designing this customized display unit and the corrective modifications taken to eliminate those. These modifications make the new analog display more reliable.

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Multi-Channel Acoustic Echo Cancellation Using Harmony Search Algorithm[ ]


Non uniqueness and misalignment problems that associated with Multi channel acoustic echo cancellation are due to the correlation between the sound signals. Our aim is to reduce these problems by improving the sound quality. So many methods are proposed for the maximum result. But we cannot achieve the best result. Here we use Harmony search algorithm to get the optimum result. Through harmony search algorithm we get optimum result by reducing the error rate. The amount of decorrelation in each sub-band, measured in terms of the coherence, can be controlled arbitrarily by varying the parameters. The HS algorithm improvises, update and check operators obtain optimal solution for defined objective function. To obtain better solution the control parameters are adjusted. It achieves a superior performance in the echo reduction gain and offers the possibility of frequency selective decorrelation to further preserve the sound quality of the system. Simulation results for the proposed algorithm have shown a significant improvement in convergence rate compared with existing techniques.

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A Soft Computing Based Approach For Anomaly Detection In IDS[ ]


Protecting computer networks from internal and external threats has become a major issue. Intrusion detection system (IDS) collects information from a computer or network of computers and attempts to detect intruders or system abuse. Soft computing techniques are used in IDS based on anomaly detection methods and also in rule-based expert systems where the knowledge is usually in the form of if-then rules. Network behaviors can be categorized into normal and abnormal. We need to extract the most important data that can be used to efficiently detect network attacks.This research work attempts to use soft computing techniques for Intrusion Detection System. The aim is to reduce the False Positive rate and False Negative rate.

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Classification of Stress and Non Stress Groups Based on Physiological Parameters[ ]


With the deteriorating condition of mental health in the country, it has become increasingly important to monitor the mental health of an individual. Mental ailments like anxiety and depression are mostly caused due to high levels of stress. Acute stress can be easily measured in a consistent and timely way than chronic stress. Anything that requires a mental, physical adjustment or a response is termed as stress. Changes in stress level can be detected by monitoring the changes in physiological parameters of the body such as blood pressure, electro dermal activity and heart rate. In this work, it has been found out that high levels of stress are best correlated with mean arterial pressure – a feature of blood pressure and it is also observed that there is a significant difference between the changes in physiological features of stress and non stress groups.

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Image Compression using Wavelet and Ridgelet Transform[ ]


In real time applications, image compression plays a very important role in efficient storage and transmission. At present, many transform based compression techniques are developed and utilized. Aim of this paper is to evaluate and analyze Image Compression Techniques using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Ridgelet Transform. The performance parameters such as Compression Ratio (CR), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) are evaluated based on the algorithms for several standard colored images. The simulation result shows that both the techniques provide sustain faithful compression and reproduction of the images, preserving the quality of the images.

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A Comparative case study to identify Programming Bugs in ANSI-C based system using Formal Software Verification[ ]


Software is the most complex part of today's safety critical embedded systems. Most embedded systems are legacy designs those are written in a low level language such as ANSI-C or even assembly language. Conventional testing methods often fail to detect hidden flaws in complex embedded software such as device drivers or file systems. This deficiency incurs significant development and support/maintenance cost for the manufacturers. Model checking techniques have been proposed to compensate for the weaknesses of conventional testing methods through exhaustive analyses. It has become very demandable way to find those hidden bugs in program and correct the software. Whereas conventional model checkers require manual effort to create an abstract target model, modern software model checkers remove this overhead by directly analyzing a target C program, and can be utilized as unit testing tools. In my research, we present a comparative analysis and the applicability of model checking tools for software in embedded systems.

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Privacy Preserving Error Control Data Detection of Packet Reducing In Wireless Adhoc Networks[ ]


In this Privacy preserving and Error Control Data Detection of packet reducing in wireless adhoc networks, while noticing a sequence of packet losses in the network, it determines whether the losses are caused by link errors only, or by the combined effect of link errors and malicious drop. Link error and malicious packet dropping are two sources for packet losses in multi-hop wireless ad hoc network. Malicious nodes that are part of the route deed their information of the communication framework to selectively drop a small amount of packets precarious to the network concert. The packet dropping rate is analogous to the channel error rate, conventional algorithms that are centred on perceiving the packet loss rate cannot accomplishing satisfactory detection truthfulness. To recover the detection accuracy, and exploiting the correlations between lost packets, to ensure truthful calculation of these correlations, a homomorphic linear authenticator (HLA) based public auditing architecture is introduced that allows the detector to verify the truthfulness of the packet loss information reported by nodes.

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Bioleaching of pyrite and chalcopyrite by new isolated thermotolerate sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus tandzuti sp.nov[ ]


New gramnegative bacterium was isolated from acid drainage water of Tandzut gold-polymetallic ore deposit of Armenia. Bacteria are capable of oxidizing sulfur, thiosulfate and tetrathionate as energy sources. The growth of bacteria is possible in the range 25-40 with optimal temperature 37 oC. The optimum pH is 2.8 for the growth on sulfur and tetrathionate and 4.0-4.5 for thiosulfate. The G+C contents in DNA is 54.6 mol /%. Analysis of 16S r RNA sequence of isolated bacteria indicates high level of similarity with analogous sequence of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. However, DNA–DNA hybridization value between genomic DNA of isolated bacteria and At. thiooxidans was only 51%. On the basis of the above mentioned genotypic peculiarities as well as phenotypic differences (higher optimal temperature for growth and greater size of cells), the isolated bacteria was identified as a new species of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus tandzuti strain 5 (type strain – At. tandzuti INMI-6966). At.tandzuti in mixed culture with moderate thermophilic sulfobacilli allows to conduct the oxidation of pyrite and chalcopyrite in autotrophic condition with intensity observed during mixotrophic growth of sulfobacilli in the presence of yeast extract.

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Experimentation to fretting wear and counter measure in dv seat grinding of PF 45 pump[ ]


Companies are experiencing intense competitive pressure due to globalization. Hence the main objective of this company is to satisfy the customer needs and demands. This project mainly focuses on reducing the oil leakage associated with the PF-45 pump assembly line at industrial companies. PF is the German abbreviation for ‘PUMP WITH FOREIGN DRIVE ‘. It is a fuel injection pump used for diesel engine, locomotives, marine engines, agricultural farm equipment’s and such other engineering applications.

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THE IMPACT OF HUMIDITY ON INDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF BUILDINGS IN WARM HUMID CLIMATE OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA[ ]


The paper discussed major discoveries of the impact indoor humidity has on inmates’ thermal comfort in warm humid climate of Abia State. A detailed field study was undertaken in the major urban areas in the state. A total of one thousand five hundred individuals were requested to complete questionnaire based on ASHRAE seven point’s thermal sensation of +3 (hot) to -3 (cold). Indoor thermal comfort parameters of temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were measured. Particular measurements of indoor relative humidity were noted. The analysis showed that residents expressed thermal comfort at wide range of relative humidity. A relative humidity of 78% mean value was optimal. The effect of relative humidity on occupant’s thermal perceptions could not be established by regression models. The study applied a quadratic regression model for predicting mean indoor relative humidity based on indoor temperature and got the same result as in Djamilia (2014). The a model which could be applied to predict an approximate indoor relative humidity value when needed, was developed and applied by Djamiliai in Djamilia (2014)

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Exosomes from G Coupled Receptor Kinase (GRK2) Knock-down Cells Suppress Fibroblast Apoptosis Potential Mechanism by Which GRK2 Inhibition Provides Protection after Myocardial Infarction[ ]


Heart failure is a progressive condition where the heart cannot pump the amount of blood that the body needs to survive. After Myocardial Infarction (MI), heart muscles die and scar tissue forms, reducing the heart’s ability to pump blood. These scar tissues are formed due to cardiac fibroblasts apoptosis. It has been observed that the expression of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) increases following MI and reduction of GRK2 expression in animal models prevents progression to heart failure following cardiac injury. Exosomes are known to be active in cell-to-cell communication in the heart and carry many signals for modulation of gene expression including miRNA. Therefore the hypothesis was made that exosomes carrying signals for GRK2 inhibition will prevent fibroblast apoptosis. Mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells were exposed to exosomes carrying GRK2 specific siRNAs or control siRNA. Exosomes with either control or GRK2 siRNAs reduced fibroblast cell death, however, GRK2 siRNA containing exosomes were more potent inhibitors of apoptosis. A search of the miRNA database, miRbase, to find naturally occurring miRNAs that may have the same effect as GRK2 siRNAs and therefore explain the effect seen with exosomes alone, resulted in only match - the miRNA miR-761. This miRNA is known to reduce expression of Mitochondrial Fission Factor (MFF) which regulates cardiac fibroblast apoptosis. This data is the first evidence that GRK2 inhibition may protect cardiac fibroblasts from apoptosis. It also provides evidence that naturally occurring miRNAs such as miRN-761 encapsulated in exosomes may provide more targeted treatment for patients post myocardial infarction thus lowering a patient’s risk of heart failure.

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