Volume 1, Issue 1, October 2010 Edition
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Online Banking: Information Security vs. Hackers Research Paper[[References]


In this paper I will discuss four scenarios regarding cyber crimes specifically directed at financial institutions and give specific examples. Also, I will discuss the malicious Zeus and URLzone bank malware Trojans that is currently causing security issues and threats to some financial institutions. Expected results from study and research is to bring awareness of increased activity of cyber-attacks directed at financial institutions, call for a global alliance against cyber-pirates, and point out that financial institution's have a responsibility to protect and secure information as custodians of their customer's sensitive/legacy data online.

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Server Consolidation: An Approach to Make Data Centers Energy Efficient and Green[] [References]


Data centers are the building blocks of IT business organizations providing the capabilities of centralized repository for storage, management, networking and dissemination of data. With the rapid increase in the capacity and size of data centers, there is a continuous increase in the demand for energy consumption. These data centers not only consume a tremendous amount of energy but are riddled with IT inefficiencies. All data center are plagued with thousands of servers as major components. These servers consume huge energy without performing useful work. In an average server environment, 30% of the servers are "dead" only consuming energy, without being properly utilized. Their utilization ratio is only 5 to 10 percent. This paper focuses on the use of an emerging technology called virtualization to achieve energy efficient data centers by providing a solution called server consolidation. It increases the utilization ratio up to 50% saving huge amount of energy. Server consolidation helps in implementing green data centers to ensure that IT infrastructure contributes as little as possible to the emission of green house gases, and helps to regain power and cooling capacity, recapture resilience and dramatically reducing energy costs and total cost of ownership.

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FPGA Implementation of Optimized DES Encryption Algorithm on Spartan 3E[] [References]


Data Security is an important parameter for the industries. It can be achieved by Encryption algorithms which are used to prevent unauthorized access of data. Cryptography is the science of keeping data transfer secure, so that eavesdroppers (or attackers) cannot decipher the transmitted message. In this paper the DES algorithm is optimized using Xilinx software and implemented on Spartan 3E FPGA kit. The paper deal with the various parameters such as variable key length, key generation mechanism, etc used in order to provide optimized results.

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Effects of eutrophication on fishpopulations in the vicinity of Rumujilake in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria[ ]


There were high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in the lake which supported algae bloom and resulted in water level decline. Massive blooms of algae were observed, a lot of which were the potentially toxic blue-green variety. Eutrophication specially favoured water lettuce and water ferns. Eutrophication was observed to have arisen from sediment and nutrient deposition into the lake which emanated from soil erosion and other agents of pollution such as excess phosphorus and nitrogen. There was increased growth of aquatic weeds especially in areas receiving high nutrient loads. Floating vegetative mat produced by algae resulted in significant oxygen depletion from the water and lower levels of nutrients in sheltered areas which are breeding and nursery grounds for fish such as catfish. The rapid proliferation of algae and other aquatic weeds in the lake due to eutrophication in areas receiving high nutrient load led to adverse effect on fish production as fish breeding areas were destroyed. Also, the polluted water harboured disease vectors which attacked fish. The weed and vegetative mat negatively affected productivity by disrupting important food chains. The weed shaded phytoplankton from sunlight and reduced air circulation in the water. Eutrophication caused diversity loss in the fish populations as well as changes in phytoplankton composition with the blue greens becoming dominant giving rise to algal blooms.

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The usage of exogenously supplied plant growth regulator on the formation of adventitious roots on Cassava shoots developed in vitro[ ]


Auxillary shoots developed from buds explants from the 14th day after culture. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) achieved 100 percent in vitro rooting of shoots after 30 days of culture. Kinetin promoted vigorous shoot development and elongation. IBA promoted rooting of auxillary shoots in vitro as well as root regeneration when transplanting rooted plants. Further, it promoted new root initiation, increased root elongation rate, number and uniformity of rooting. IBA accelerated the translocation of nutrients from the upper part of the auxillary shoots to their basal ends by increasing the activity of the enzymes which increased hydrolysis of carbohydrates that became additional energy source in the rooting response of cells. IBA also promoted the qualitative features of the root.

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Control of fruit dropand development in tomato,LycopersicumesculentumMill, using plant growth regulators[ ]


Generally, the exogenous application of different plant hormones increasedfruit yield of tomato. The higher fruit set and reduction in fruit drop induced by the applied plant hormones resulted in increase in growth rate of fruits and the concomitant increase in the final fruit size.The exogenous application of giberrellic acid (GA3) increased tomato plant height even after the end of hormone treatment and had a positive effect on petal elongation and inflorescence stalk length. Tomato plants treated with giberrellic acid (GA3) increased the number of inflorescences per plant by 28% as compared to the Control. Both giberrellic acid (GA3) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) achieved significantly higher levels of fruit set than the Control.

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An investigation into the role of plant hormones in the perturbation of seed dormancy in Okra seeds[ ]


Abscisic acid (ABA) was observed to have induced dormancy in the okra seed treated with it as it gave just about 5% germination rate. The Control (without any growth regulator) had 50 percent germination rate after 10 days. Gibberellic acid promoted seed germination as 99.5 percent of the seeds germinated within 10 days after sowing. It promoted seed germination by breaking dormancy in the seeds. In treatment 3 (T3) containing abscisic acid and Fluridone, seed germination was 40% after 10 days and increased to 75% after 14 days from the date of seed sowing, suggesting that Fluridone inhibited the effect of ABA by breaking dormancy in the seeds. In treatment 4 (T4), GA3 inhibited the effect of ABA by breaking seed dormancy and promoting seed germination,however, the rate of seed germination was significantly lower than in treatment 2 (T2), where gibberellic acid was the sole plant growth regulator. Gibberellic acid stimulated the elongation of plant internodes. Plants treated with gibberellic acid were at least three (3) greater in height in comparison to other treatments after 28 days of acclimatization.

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Dwarfing of a local tomato, LycopersicumesculentumMill.,variety susceptible to logging for improving its’ of market value[ ]


Gibberellic acid stimulated the elongation of plant internodes in tomato plants. Plants treated with gibberellic acid (GA3), as the sole plant growth regulator, were at least two (2) folds greater in height in comparison to the control and at least four (4) folds higher than other treatments after 8 weeks of acclimatization. Treatment with gibberellic acid gave a mean plant height of 202 cm, while the Control plants were 96 cm tall. All applied plant growth retardants (Ancymidol, Chlormequat chloride, Paclobutrazol, Uniconazole) inhibited the activity of endogenous giberrellic acid in the plant, thereby giving rise to plants with shorter internodes and plant height.Gibberellic acid promoted leaf growth and apical dominance in tomato plants.

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Manipulation of Okra plant height using Gibberellic acid and its biosynthesis inhibitors[ ]


Gibberellic acid stimulated the elongation of plant internodes. Plants treated with gibberellic acid (GA3), as the sole plant growth regulator, were at least three (3) folds greater in height in comparison to the Control and seven (7) folds higher than other treatments after 8 weeks of acclimatization.The Control plants, without any applied growth regulator or inhibitor of gibberellic acid biosynthesis, grew taller than the plants treated with either gibberellic acid (GA3) and Ancymidol or GA3 and Paclobutrazol. This result indicates that both Ancymidol and Paclobutrazol inhibited the activity of giberrellic acid in the plant, thereby giving rise to plants with shorter internodes and plant height. Gibberellic acid promoted leafgrowth and apical dominance in Okra plants. However, the exogenously applied inhibitors of gibberellic acid biosynthesis such as Paclobutrazol and Ancymidol inhibited or blocked the synthesis of gibberellic acid which resulted in stunted growth or reduced stem elongation in plants treated with either of them.

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The physiological effects of Colchicine in Okra, Hibiscus esculentus L,plant growth and development[ ]


The Okra seed germination percentage of 79.3 % was significantly lower in plants treated with Colchicine when compared to untreated plants (i.e. Control) with 94.8%. Okra plants treated with Colchicine also exhibited reduced height as well as the mean number of leaves per plant. The mean stomata size was observed to be significantly higher in plants treated with Colchicine in comparison to the Control. The mean stomata size of the Control plants was significantly lower than those seen in plants treated with Colchicine.Plants treated with Colchicine were shorter than those of the Control. The plants treated with Colchicine also had thicker and coarse leaves which were greener in colour in comparison to the Control. Higher number of branches which portrayed a bushy growth habit, thicker roots and stems were also recorded in Colchicine treated plants. Treatment of cells with Colchicine resulted in cytologically changed cells. Examination of the internal tissues also indicated that the tissues had been polyploidised following Colchicine treatment. Flowers from treated plants exhibited enlarged pollen grains. The mitotic spindle formation was inhibited in chromosomes of colchicine-treated plants observed under the microscope using acetocarmin preparations. Polyploidy cells were observed in roots, stems, pollen, and other tissues.

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Inhibition of frog development from the larva of African clawed frogs (Xenopuslaevis)[ ]


In this study, the positive control (1µg/L thyroxine) triggered notable acceleration of metamorphic development compared to all treatments with thyroid hormone inhibitors or antagonists. Thyroxine treatment led to progressive development in the tadpoles which lasted throughout the 30 days of this study. Thirty-day (30-day) exposure of frog larva (Xenopuslaevis) to Propylthiouracil (PTU) led to considerable reduction in tadpole growth rates and the developmental stage as well as hind limb length. Propylthiouracil caused a complete inhibition of metamorphosis as tadpoles did not develop after stage 54 within 30 days of exposure to chemical. Propylthiouracil induced the inhibition of tail elongation as compared to the control.

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