Volume 14, Issue 3, March 2023 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication
Publication for Volume 14, Issue 3, March 2023 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication
Register for IJSER Research Forum
IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database
   
Wireless Sensor Network - Fire Recovery Using adapted Dijks-tra Algorithm for Firefighting (Geo - Dijkstra) [PDF]
Loay Bushara, Abuagla Babiker, Salaheldin EdamFire disasters are considered the most important challenges in the real world where the risk of fire disasters directly affects human, material and environment. The damage of the fire is not affecting the individual only, but also it can be for the society direct or indirect. The impact of fire may be reflected on the activities of daily life such as factories, gas reservoirs, petroleum refineries, gas stations and power plants in addition to industrial facilities of various kinds. In all mentioned cases it is very necessary to respond very fast to crises. This paper, proposed an improvement for the normal Dijkstra algorithm (Geographical â€“ Dijkstra) to be adapted with the fire crises. This adaptation focuses on the minimum arrival time for fighters and safest path for human and assets. Thus, the proposed adaptation fulfills the automatic and quick recovery of firefighting with less loss of human and assets.
The case study is about Elshagra gas depots company layout in Sudan. The validation of the adapted Dijkstra algorithm has been achieved by comparing the case of Elshagra gas deposit for firefighting in two cases. The first case is based on a node diagram (represents the companies) with road turns, and the other one is without considering the road turs. Two scenarios are used, in the simple one few numbers of nodes are used, and then the distance from the firefighting to fire location is measured. However, in complicated scenario a number of nodes are added, and the same distanced is measured. The simulation results are obtained using MATLAB. Firstly, the normal Dijkstra is used which selects the shortest path from firefighting to fire location. Secondly, the road turn is added to the adapted Dijkstra. It is very important to notice that the adapted algorithm has taken different path with similar total distance, but it has some sort of intelligence of choosing the path with a smaller number of roads turns and even if the number of road turns are equal it has the capability of choosing the path with road turns that enable the firefighting car to move faster. The shortest path between source and destination using normal Dijkstra. Firstly, to guide firefighting unit through shortest path to recover fired location(s), and the shortest path without road turn value is differing than short path with road turn value which clearly shown an effect of road turn and this adapted Dijkstra called GEO-Dijkstra which represent the geographical location.
Traffic Classification in Computer Networks: Methods and Techniques for Efficient Data Analysis [PDF]
Sanjiv Mishra, Dr. P. M. GoelTraffic classification enables a variety of applications and topics, including Quality of Service, security, monitoring, and intrusion detection that are of use to researchers, accountants, network operators, and end users. Capitalizing on network traffic that had been previously hand-classified provides training and testing data sets. The classification of network traffic can be done using Machine Learning Method. The simulation can be done with help of a program built in Shell Script. It requires network protocol headers and the properties of unknown traffic for a successful classification stage.
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING-BASED EAR RECOGNITION: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO BIOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION [PDF]
Swati Kumari, Vijay BhandariFor identification and authentication of human ears we use automated ear biometrics system .Automated Ear Biometrics has recently emerged as a new area in Biometrics.The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility of using ears for biometrics as well as devicing techniques for human identification using ears.This work can be broadly divided into three different parts.First, we find edge extraction with different filters like Laplacian of Guassian ,derivative operators, Gabor and Guassian filter.In the next part, a method for ear detection from side face image is proposed.The detection is based on the detection of helix of an ear.The complete outer curve of ear is constructed from the expected helix curve.Further decisions are made on a constructed curve whether it is helix curve of ear or not.Last thing is human identification using ear. A method for human identification using ear by approximation of lines using dynamic programming.The approximated value lines thus obtained are used as features for matching ear images.
Stability Enhancement of SMIB System: A Performance Comparison between FACTS Devices and Fuzzy Logic Control [PDF]
Navneet Singh Rana, Dharmesh JhangThe power system is a dynamic system subjected to various disturbances which leads to unstable conditions. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices have been used in power systems for the improvement of its dynamic performance. In this paper performance comparison of different FACTS controllers (STATCOM, SSSC, UPFC) for SMIB system have been dis-cussed. The investigation on the performance of the proposed Fuzzy Logic based UPFC Controller in damping the oscillations thereby enhancing the stability of single machine infinite bus system is done. The performance of Fuzzy Logic based UPFC controller is compared with conventional PI based UPFC and the superiority of proposed controller is established.
Enhancing Wind Power Generation with Neural Network-Based Control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator [PDF]
Shrikant Kurla, Rohit ChabbraTo complement the other types of pollution-free generation wind energy is a viable option. Previously wind turbines were operated at constant speed. The evolution of technology related to wind systems industry leaded to the development of a generation of variable speed wind turbines that present many advantages compared to the fixed speed wind turbines. In this paper the phasor model of DFIG is used. This paper presents a study of a doubly fed induction generator driven by a wind turbine connected to the grid, and controlled by artificial neural network ANN controller. The behaviour of the system is shown with PI control, and then as controlled by ANN. The effectiveness of the artificial neural network controller is compared to that of a PI controller. The SIMULINK/MATLAB simulation for Doubly Fed Induction Generator and corresponding results and waveforms are displayed.
Does Inflation special effects on the Sectorial Indices in the Indian Stock Market? An Empirical Analysis [PDF]
DR SURAJ E SIn this study, the involvement of rate of inflation on the sectoral indices in the Indian Stock Market is investigated. Stock indices of various sectors and inflation rate are taken from secondary sources. Correlation is used for data analysis with the help of SPSS to verify whether the rate of inflation has any effect on stock prices. The results of the research shows that the rate of inflation has no direct effect on sectoral stocks, as there are other factors which cause variation in the price of sectoral stocks.
Transactional Data Analysis using Machine Learning in the Banking Sector [PDF]
Kishan Shetty, Amir Sahil ShaikThe use of transactional data analysis in the banking sector has become increasingly important in recent years. With the rise of digitization, banks have access to vast amounts of data that can be used to improve their operations and make informed business decisions. Transactional data analysis allows banks to assess the creditworthiness of loan applicants, determine interest rates, and target marketing efforts to retain loyal customers. In this study, we reviewed the literature on the use of statistical and machine-learning models for transactional data analysis in the banking sector. Our findings show that these models can be used to create insights into various aspects of customer behaviour and the performance of banking operations. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for transactional data analysis to provide valuable information to the banking sector and help drive growth and profitability.
Song recommendation based on facial expression [PDF]
Aishwarya Shetty,Apeksha prabhu,Prof.Suparna,Dr.Shahina ParveenA user's facial expressions can reveal his or her level of emotion. These expressions can be
obtained from the system's camera's live feed. In the area of computer vision (CV) and machine learning
(ML), a lot of research is being done to train machines to recognize different human emotions or moods.
Machine learning offers a variety of methods for detecting human emotions.
A review of existing music systems revealed that many music applications rely on the user's past listening
choices rather than recommending songs based on their current emotion. The goal of this project is to
identify emotions in human faces using real-time data and to suggest songs according on those emotions.
Music is a great unifier. It binds us despite our differences in ages, backgrounds, languages, interests and
levels of income. Due to its accessibility and ability to be used alongside daily activities, travel, sports, and
other activities, music players and other streaming apps are in high demand. Digital music has emerged as
the main form of consumer content that many young people are looking for because to the quick growth of
mobile networks and digital multimedia technology.
Music is frequently used by people as a tool for mood control, specifically to improve mood, boost energy,
or soothe tension. Additionally, listening to the correct music at the right moment can help with mental
wellness. So, music and feelings in people are closely related.
As a result, the proposed system is an interactive platform for suggesting music depending on userâ€™s
present emotional state. This also could be a great feature to be incorporated in existing music player
Denoising methods have been proposed for CFA images, and the choice of method depends on the specific application and the level of noise present in the image. [PDF]
Sumit Sammarwal, Prof. Karan KharbandaAbstract- Single sensor digital color still/video cameras capture images using a color filter array (CFA) and require color interpolation (demosaicking) to reconstruct full color images in demosaicking, sensor noises can cause color artifacts that are hard to remove later by a separate denoising process, because the demosaicking process complicates the noise characteristics by blending noises of different color channels. The quality of demosaicked images is degraded due to the sensor noise introduced during the image acquisition process. The conventional solution to combating CFA sensor noise is demosaicking first, followed by a separate denoising processing. This strategy will generate many noise-caused color artifacts in the demosaicking process, which are hard to remove in the denoising process. Few denoising schemes that work directly on the CFA images have been presented because of the difficulties arisen from the red, green and blue interlaced mosaic pattern, yet a well designed â€œdenoising first and demosaicking laterâ€ scheme can have advantages such as less noise-caused color artifacts and cost-effective implementation. The Paper shows different types of denoising process of CFA images.
Management, labor control, and workers' productivity are critical factors in shaping the labor conditions in Nigeria. [PDF]
DR. Mahesh K. Sahu And Kaleo G. AvanoThis paper examines the labour conditions in Nigeria by reviewing the conventional theories of labour productivity, like the scientific management of Frederick Taylor, the human relation approach and the various need and motivational theories. It also to observes the alienation of the Nigerian worker from his own product and his fellow worker. The study recommended among other things that production and distribution of goods and services should be controlled by labour. The government should steer clear of influencing labour union organization.
Solanum verbascifolium Linn. is a plant species in the Solanaceae family that is commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions. The plant is known to have several uses in traditional medicine, as well as in culinary preparations. [PDF]
1*Rich, T. S; 2Luoven, H. I. and 3Tenlah, J. K.The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.
Effect of cashew oilcake (Anacardium occidentale) on blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens in CÃ´te d'Ivoire [PDF]
Diomande Masse, Fofana Daouda, Koffi Camille, Kouame Mathieu, Kamagate MamadouAbstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of cashew oilcake on the biochemical blood parameters of broilers. Thus, five (5) experimental feed rations were formulated: F0 (with 0% cashew meal and 100% soybean meal); F100 (with 100% cashew meal and 0% soybean meal); F75 (with 75% cashew meal and 25% soybean meal); F50 (with 50% cashew meal and 50% soybean meal); F25 (with 25% cashew meal and 75% soybean meal). Subsequently, five (5) batches of 60 chicks (Cobb 500) of 3 days of age and not sexed were fed with the 5 diets (F0, F100, F75, F50 and F25) for 6 weeks. On their 45th day of testing, the chickens were fasted overnight before blood sampling. Using a syringe, blood was drawn from randomly selected chickens in each batch at the level of the air vein. The blood is then collected in dry tubes and EDTA tubes containing anticoagulants that have been labelled and numbered for each batch. The samples were then packed in a cooler and taken to the laboratory of the CHU of Cocody (CÃ´te d'Ivoire) for biochemical blood analysis. The biochemical blood parameters of the experimental broilers did not show any significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the control subjects. The lipid balance of the experimental birds remained within the usual norms for broilers. Thus, the total cholesterol (TC) level recorded ranged from 1.18 to 1.31 g/L, the triglyceride (TG) level ranged from (0.187 to 0.327 g/L), the high density cholesterol (HDL) level ranged from (0.21 to 0.265 g/L) and the low density cholesterol (LDL) level ranged from (0,852 Ã 0,998 mmol/L). In addition, the renal parameters did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the control subjects. Apart from the urea level of the birds (0.1 and 0.115 g/L), the other renal parameters evaluated, such as creatinine (3 and 3.5 mg/L) and blood glucose (2.05 to 2.3 g/L), were within the usual norms for broilers (9.09-18.18 mg/L) and (2-5 g/L) respectively. In addition, the liver parameters of the evaluated birds did not show any significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the control subjects. The level of Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT) (3.75 to 8.5 IU/L) was within the usual range (< 50 IU/L), while the level of (GPT) (359.07 to 365.15 IU/L) was above the usual range (< 275 IU/L) for broilers. This could be an indicator of the presence of liver cytolysis or muscle lysis responsible for the elevated OGTT (Lakehal, 2013). The blood ionogram of the experimental birds did not show any significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the control subjects and only the kalaemia (K+) level (6.85-7.97 mEq/L) was slightly higher than the usual value (4.6-6.5 mEq/L) for broilers. In sum, the incorporation of cashew oilcake in the poultry ration had no adverse effect on the health of the broilers during the trial. Cashew oilcake had similar effects to soybean oilcake on blood biochemical parameters of broilers. Cashew oilcake can therefore be a valid replacement for cashew oilcake in the poultry ration.
Key words: cashew nut, feed intake, broiler, blood biochemical parameters, ionogram.
A Network-on-Chip (NoC) architecture is a communication framework used in complex System-on-Chip (SoC) designs to connect various IP cores or processing elements. [PDF]
Abdullah Mohd, Rafija KhanAbstractâ€” In olden days, the communication between different IP cores in System-on-Chip (SoC) was point-to-point communication. Due to this point-to-point communication the interconnection wires between the IP cores were more in number. So the complexity of SoC will be more and the power consumption is also high. To overcome these disadvantages a new SoC paradigm introduced. i.e. Network-on-Chip(NoC). Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an approach to design a communication subsystem between different IP cores in System-on-Chip (SoC). This paper presents a genetic algorithm based automated design that synthesizes application specific NoC topology and routes the communication traces on the interconnection network. The design technique solves multi-objective problem of minimizing power consumption and the router resource. Network-on-Chip (NoC) is regarded as a solution for future on-chip interconnects. However the performance advantages of conventional NoC architectures are limited by long latency and high power consumption due to multi-hop distance communication among process elements. To solve these limitations, we employ GA technique on-chip communication as express links for transferring data so that transfer latency can be reduced.
A Generalized Performance Analysis of a Family of the Frequency Modulated Transformer Isolated LLC Resonant Converter [PDF]
Aniagboso J. Onah and Marcel U. AguThis paper presents a generalized performance analysis of six related topologies of the frequency modulated (FM) LLC dc/dc converter with transformer isolation. The traditional first harmonic approximation (FHA) is used to obtain the generalized converter dc output to input converter gain as the switching frequency and the output load vary and an example actual converter dc gain (obtained by Matlab/Simulink simulation) is used to show the degree of accuracy of the FHA analysis relative to the actual dc gain over a specified converter switching frequency variation range. At the LLC converter specified rated output power of 300W and 400V constant output voltage, the converter circuit design parameter values and the transformer turns ratio are determined at the assumed tank resonant frequency of 100 kHz using the FHA analysis. For the designed converter, it is found that to maintain the output voltage constant at the rated value under load variation from no load to rated load, the required converter switching frequency obtained using FHA analysis does not correctly predict the actual required frequency obtained using Matlab/Simulink simulation. With the converter switching frequency limited to ensure converter operation only in the inductive mode in regions less than or equal to the tank resonant frequency, the converter steady state performance (studied using Matlab/Simulink simulation) show ZVS turn on and relatively low current turn off of the converter semiconductor switches and ZCS turn on and turn off of the converter rectifier diodes under load variations from no load to full load for all values of the specified dc input voltage range.
STEPWELLS: CONSERVATION OF RAINWATER [PDF]
NALINI FADNAVISWhen people started saving water from earlier times till now, complexity in design become more intricate. From simple great bath of Indus valley civilization to massive stepwell of Abhaneri step- by- step we wrote our whole history and many epics but never tried to save those magnificent structures. On the other hand, preservation of amenities for worst time is in blood of Indians, ironical to this statement maintaining natural hydrological cycle became very much difficult to accomplish. While conservation is essential for the development of our heritages, development of country and development of its citizens we not proceeding positively to its direction.
Although, modernization and globalization are away from principles of simple Indians but with changing time and humane valuesâ€¦ we all have changed. As in this changing scenario when human is not helping the other human how water could be helpedâ€¦? Moreover in the race of becoming more unique, more powerful and position- seeking, we are losing our principles, swiping away from human basic need â€œROTI, KAPDA, MAKANâ€ to â€œPIZZA, ZARA, and CARâ€. I think every journey whether of people, resources or sustaining natural heritages would become tough in a country like India as it was never be a simple country. At every hundred meters language changes, people and thinking would also be. Every change is not simple and one individual canâ€™t change the world. This is the simple approach for understanding the future issues regarding water resource and its impacts on the society as villages are converting to cities, cities to mega- cities while resources are limited to an extent. Especially in the regions of arid climate zones people maintain a natural process of recharging, collecting and harvesting rainwater by adding alum in water at Jaisalmer region to purify water and make it habitable for intake to human body â€“ itâ€™s the best and cheapest methods for purifying it. And the structures used for its collection is called stepwells. Stepwells are the means of primary water source in earlier times in India where it also serves as social gathering place of the society. Letâ€™s see how much these stepwell can teach the technology of the contemporary India.
Wireless Backhaul Software Defined Networks: Routing Strategy and Resource Allocation Implementation [PDF]
Muhammad Anis, Muhammad ZubairThe necessity for software defined networks (SDN) to boost the degree of programmability of the cellular wireless backhauls is dependent on greater complexity of these backhauls. One significant challenge with SDN networks relates to provisioning of a consistent resource consumption of network resources and is also called resource allocation. How to properly load balance network resources is the main concern in the context of a SDN wireless backhaul. In order to manage these network and IT resources, SDN wireless backhaul can combine distributed backpressure policies. These can also be used to manage computing resources by allocating the processing load brought on by OpenFlow (OF) switch requests among the available distributed SDN controllers. The routing of level granularity in the SDN application greatly influences the data plane performance, indicating a trade-off between control plane and data plane performance overfill. Additionally, it demonstrates how a distributed, dynamic backpressure strategy takes care of load across SDN controllers, outperforming static mapping strategies by a wide margin.
Design and Implementation of an Electronic voting system: A case study of Lagos State University Studentsâ€™ Union [PDF]
Bolanle Hafiz MattiThis paper detailed the design and deployment of an electronic voting system for Lagos State University (LASU) Students Union Elections. The electronic voting system was developed in order to allow students to cast their votes in a more convenient manner while also ensuring improved efficiency of the voting process; this is expected to significantly reduce the defects associated with traditional voting processes such as mistakes and electoral malpractices. The electronic voting system deployed helped to solve the various problems associated with a conventional voting system that depends on physical ballot papers and boxes. The implementation is based on a combination of hardware such as fingerprint scanners, internet modems, and switches as well as software applications used in configuring the electronic voting platform which includes PHP (used for server-wide interactions), MySQL (for database management), HTTPS (for provision of additional security to eliminate external interference with the system, and web browser (to access the voting platform).
Having tested the electronic voting system during the LASU Students Union elections under the supervision of the Vice-chancellor and other management members of the institution, the system was adjudged to have made possible, free, and fair elections, with election results released immediately without any form of delay. The implementation of an electronic voting system for the electoral process in LASU ended as a success. Everybody who participated in the process applauded the system and even encouraged it to be taken to the next level. Hence, it is thus recommended.
Utilizing AI based Image processing for Disease Identification [PDF]
Aaryan DalalNovel methods were developed in this research exercise to analyse and identify colour changes on urinalysis strips accurately and with ease. The research extensively used Urinalysis strips and colour correction cards. The color correction cards help to detect images and ultimately aid image processing in any lighting condition. A python program was written and utilized to detect color thresholds and give results that include an accurate analysis of the urine strip test, and the diseases that apply to the results.
A Survey on Healthcare Services Integrated for Business Intelligence [PDF]
Ibrahim El-Hinnawi,Engy Yehia,Romany ZareefQuality of service in health care has been a related issue and is directly related to organizations' growth on the profit side and market share. Health care requires quality improvement in the services provided to maximize patients' satisfaction. The healthcare system has been developed and hospitals in Egypt are looking for quality improvement techniques to attract patients' electronic health records and meet their expectations in providing a distinctive service. There is no research or knowledge available to us to understand and evaluate the behavior of healthcare professionals. Many developing countries face a lack of health care services. Lack of health-care services in developing countries; Lack of insurance coverage. We discussed previously in this article that many health consumers cannot afford the high cost of primary care due to the unavailability of some insurance services. This paper aims to focus on the impact of quality of service on patients' satisfaction in hospitals to ensure maximum patient satisfaction. The proposed framework was first designed to implement (BI) models to improve quality in the healthcare sector, healthcare services, patient awareness, and the functioning of integrated networks to provide healthcare services in Egypt, as well as to assess professional behavior and health care services within the framework of healthcare in Egypt. In this research, the performance of quality standards in healthcare services has been improved based on healthcare methodology.
Implementation of a Channel-Aware Routing Protocol in the Network Simulator for Underwater Acoustic Communication Networking [PDF]
Adesoji Bello, Bolanle Hafiz MattiOver two-thirds of the earthâ€™s surface is
occupied by water, however, the level of
research in the field of Underwater Wireless
Sensor Networking (UWSN) does not
necessarily commensurate with the size and
potential. Importantly, the underwater
acoustic channel is susceptible to signal
degradation as a result of the dynamic and
harsh state of the environment such as high
propagation delay and limited channel
bandwidth. The above challenges are the
motivation behind the Implementation of The
Channel-aware Routing Protocol (CARP) in
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networking.
CARP  is a cross-layer routing paradigm that
collaboratively leverages the link quality
estimation between neighboring sensor nodes and the hop counts from the sink to determine the next relay node for packet forwarding. In this work, CARP was implemented in Aqua-Sim-NG, an ns-3-based underwater wireless sensor network simulator that simulates underwater acoustic channels with high fidelity. The goal of this work is the optimization of routing performance in underwater acoustic
Power gating technique In CMOS Full Adder cells, power gating can be used to reduce leakage power and ground bounce noise. [PDF]
Adder is the paramount circuit for many complex arithmetic operations. The adder cells mainly focus on reduction of power and increasing of speed. For mobile applications, designers work within a limited leakage power specification in order to meet good battery life. The designers apart from leveling of leakage current to ensure correct circuit operation also focuses on minimization of power dissipation. The power reduction must be achieved without comprising performance which makes it hard to reduce leakage current during normal operation of mobile. Power Gating is one such well known technique where a sleep transistor is added between actual ground rail and circuit ground. The device is turned off during sleep mode to cut-off the leakage path. This technique results in a substantial reduction in leakage at a minimal impact on performance. This paper will focus on reducing sub threshold leakage power consumption and ground bounce noise during the sleep to active mode transition. In the present paper we will propose low leakage 1 bit CMOS full adder circuit in 90nm technology with supply voltage of 1V. We will perform analysis and simulation of various parameters such as standby leakage power, active power, ground bounce noise and propagation delay using Cadence Spectre 90nm standard CMOS technology
The development of a waterproof breathable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane as a moisture barrier for fire protective suits [PDF]
Swati Raj, D.S. Dubey, Akash Verma, Ajay Sharma, N. K. Singh*Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a remarkable membrane material. Due to its high melting point, PTFE fine powder cannot be processed using the conventional melting processing methods. Instead, techniques such as paste extrusion, rolling and sintering have to be employed.
The water vapor transport properties of polymer membranes are critical in applications of waterproof breathable clothing materials. Several test methods are available for measuring the permeability of polymer membrane or laminates but they are either time-consuming or require large amounts of sample. A new test apparatus was devised for determining the water vapor permeability of polymer. Additionally, the water vapor transport behavior of the PTFE membrane does not depend upon the water content in the polymer.
Unsintered PTFE films were uniaxially stretched using Universal Testing machine at a speed of 100 mm/sec and sintered in the stretched position by blowing hot air of temperature 3700C over it for 5 minutes and cooled down to room temperature. Sequential biaxial stretching of PTFE film has been done by first stretching in transverse direction and sintered in the stretched position and then stretched in longitudinal direction and sintered similarly as mentioned above. MVTR of both uniaxially and biaxially stretched films was determined by inverted cup method and the MVTR was found to be 4500 g.m-2.24 h-1 for uniaxially stretched and 5075 g.m-2.24 h-1 for biaxially stretched film as per ASTM E 96. These high values of Moisture Vapor Transmission Rate (MVTR) show good breathability of the films and are quite suitable for using as a waterproof breathable moisture barrier membrane for fire protective suits.
In addition, we describe a precision PTFE stretch operation with asymmetric heating system, and how it can be used to improve the properties of PTFE membrane. Different stretching ratio (none and 50%), asymmetry heating temperature (420oC), and different heating time (5 and 10 s) were used to modify the PTFE membrane pore size. It was found that a higher stretching rate tends to result in larger pore size and broader pore size distribution at the same heating time. At a shorter heating time and without stretch at asymmetric heating process, the porosity of PTFE membrane was increased from 50 to 70% and the mean pore size was decreased from 0.15 to 0.08 mm.