Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2012 Edition
Cover Page Cover Page      Download Index File/Journal Page No. Detail Download Index File/Journal Page No. Detail       IJSER Research Group http://www.ijser.org/forum/index.php Register for IJSER Research Forum      IJSER Xplore IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database
An Efficient Shortest-Path Aided Back-Pressure Routing over Multihop Wireless Network[Full-Text[References]
T. Antony Thobias, P. Vijayananth, S. Manikandan

This project proposes a new optimal routing/scheduling back-pressure algorithm that not only guarantees network stability (throughput optimality), but also adaptively selects a set of optimal routes based on shortest-path information in order to minimize average path lengths between each source and destination pair. Our results indicate that under the traditional back-pressure algorithm, the end-to-end packet delay ?rst decreases and then increases as a function of the network load (arrival rate). The proposed particle swarm optimization based back pressure algorithm adaptively selects a set of routes according to the traffic load and energy efficiency so that long paths are used only when necessary, thus resulting in much smaller end-to-end packet delays as compared to the traditional back-pressure algorithm.

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Effect of water use efficiency on growth and yield of hot pepper under partial root-zone drip irrigation condition[Full-Text[References]
Tarawalie Ismail Foday, Wengang Xing, Guangcheng Shao, Chunli Hua

Partial root-zone drip irrigation was tested to investigate effect of water use efficiency on growth and yield of hot pepper in a greenhouse condition. This study was conducted to compare effect of partial root-zone drip irrigation (PRDI) and examine how it affected soil water distribution, water use, growth, photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and yield of hot pepper. The experiment was designed with three irrigation Schedule of 30%, 50% and 100% of ETo respectively, on four stages of plants growth; (i) Seedling and vegetative, (ii) flowering and fruit setting (iii) Vigorous fruit bearing (iv) Late fruit bearing. Irrigation water amount was calculated according to daily evaporation. There were nine treatments rows and irrigation was carried out three times per week.Results showed that, the average moisture content on both sides on each treatment was relatively constant or rose slightly as the highest was 25.20±0.23 and the lowest 21.05±069 for the right side while for the left side the highest was 24.66±0.68 and the lowest 21.59±0.22 as shown in table 3.2 and 3.3. High photosynthesis rate was recorded in treatment 1 with an initial irrigation schedule of 30% of ETo at seedling and vegetative growth, whereas, high stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were recorded in treatment 9 (control row) with 100% irrigation schedule of ETo throughout the four stages of plant growth. At 150 days after transplant hot pepper plants were harvested. The result further showed that moderate water at 50% of ETo during Vigorous fruit bearing can increase yield production and this was manifested in Treatment seven with irrigation schedule of 50% of ETo had the highest harvest yield of 3501g followed by treatment 9 (control) with 2982g and the lowest was recorded on treatment 6 with 1239g.The result also indicated that, treatments 1 and 8 also responded low to yield with 1489.86g and 1506.17g respectively, and also to dry biomass and water use efficiency, however, treatments 4, 2 and 3 recorded moderate yield. Fig 3.6 gives the full details of data analysis on yield, dry biomass and two water use efficiency

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A Simplified Pipeline Calculations Program: Liquid Flow (1)[Full-Text[References]
Tonye K. Jack

A multi-functional single screen desktop companion program for piping calculations using Microsoft EXCELTM with its Visual basic for Applications (VBA) automation tool is presented. The program can be used for the following piping geometries – circular, rectangular, triangular, square, elliptical and annular. Fluid properties are obtained from built-in fluid properties functions.

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Internally oxidized Ag-based alloys; the passivation and the influence of chemical composition[Full-Text[References]
Jožica Bezjak A. Professor

The aim of this work was to analyse the mechanisms of hindered internal passivation of silver based alloys which was obtained by the modification of basic chemical composition. A generalisation of the phenomenon, experimental verification and the estimated range of micro-element concentration is also introduced. The ability for inoculation of a particular alloy is determined by the differences between the formation energies of oxides, as well as their crystallographic similarity. Therefore, for the investigated Ag-Zn alloys, Mg was selected as the micro-alloying element. The influence of 0.001 up to 0.5 mass % of Mg added to the selected alloys was analysed. By changing the chemical composition,internal passivation was hindered, internal oxidation rate was increased, and considerably greater (redoubled) depths of internal oxidation were achieved.

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Middle Graded Offices of an Organization and Internet Use[Full-Text[References]
Dr Irfan Zafar

This research project is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of Office Internet use in middle graded employees of a government organization related to the research and development field of work. Does using the Internet affect Professional's development? Do employees become efficient in their work? Does professional skills and performance suffer or improve? Does it help them to complete their official assignments? In this research study, a wealth of opinions and anecdotal evidence has attempted to answer these basic questions. At one extreme are the Internet enthusiasts who view Internet use as the panacea for all that plagues society, including inadequacies in the organizational system. At the other extreme are the Internet alarmists who view Internet use as undermining the very fabric of society, including the healthy development of its workmanship. Most people fall somewhere between these extremes. Most are waiting for research to answer these questions. This research is primarily aimed at finding the solution to the issues agitating their minds pragmatically and in the light of detailed research undertaken.

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Region Filling and Object Removal by Exemplar-Based Image Inpainting[Full-Text[References]
Mrs.Waykule J.M. (ADCET Ashta,Dist-Sangli), Ms. Patil V.A (ADCET Ashta,Dist-Sangli)

A new algorithm is proposed for removing large objects from digital images. The challenge is to fill in the hole that is left behind in a visually plausible way. In the past, this problem has been addressed by two classes of algorithms: (i) "texture synthesis" algorithms for generating large image regions from sample textures, and (ii) "inpainting" techniques for filling in small image gaps. The former has been demonstrated for "textures" – repeating two-dimensional patterns with some stochastic; the latter focus on linear "structures" which can be thought of as one-dimensional patterns, such as lines and object contours. This paper presents a novel and efficient algorithm that combines the advantages of these two approaches.

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Experimental Study on Cooling Rate of Centrifugal Casting Based on Grain Size[Full-Text[References]
Madhusudhan, Narendranath S, G C Mohan Kumar

The rate of solidification affects the microstructure, quality and mechanical properties of the castings. The analysis of heat transfer in centrifugal casting is very complex due to rapid solidification, rotating mould, opaque mould and high temperature. As the grain size is directly depending on the rate of solidification of the casting, based on grain size the rate of solidification of the centrifugal casting can be determined. Grain size has been measured for the gravity castings at different cooling rates and using this result rate of solidification of the centrifugal castings have been determined which are produced at different rotational speeds.

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On the Integration for the Electronic Trend of Tatical Graphics[Full-Text[References]
Ahlam T.Al-Sarraf

Currently, many scientists believe in the fact that electronics as a vast modern discipline needs relevant tools and tactics to develop its already living syst-ems. This technical note contains an everywhere path for the development of computing artificial intelligence techniques, software design and database descriptions mark the human needs for a varity of computing functions:(a) Among which training and testing knowledge of tactical situations (b) Better planning and decision for planning situations interfacing tactical artificial intelligent systems.(c) Providing an experiment for studding tactical decision making. In fact, this studying aims at an-swering some queries found in the above question like what can architects in electronics provide in tactical graphics.This humble research paper is being undertaken to give a workable answer to some or part of these queries found in the area of electronics which is hoped to be reliable source within variety of computing fields. It will provide an acceptable answer to what is being asked about integration between soft and hardware made to develop tactical graphics in electronic. It has become now possible for the designer to connect the personal computer (Buses) with any outside apparatus by means of designing a suitable card (ADAPTER) fixed on the(EXPA-NSION-SLOT).Thus,the primary aim of this study is to develop reprogrammable and prototype boards aiming producing some reliable features suitable for final use graphic cards.

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Business to Consumer Evaluation Practices, Ob-stacles, and Factors: A Pilot Study from Consum-ers Perspectives on Jordanian Firm[Full-Text[References]
Omar Tarawneh, Faudziah Ahmad, Jamaiah Yahaya

Many websites fail to help companies reach their objectives because they neglect consumers need in their websites developments. The consumer of B2C business plays a significant role in sustaining B2C business organizations. Therefore, companies must identify their consumers' behavioral characteristics. This study aims to investigate the B2C quality factors from the consumers' perspective. Specially, investigate the current practice of quality development for B2C ecommerce websites in term of satisfaction, online buying habits, obstacles surrounded B2C ecommerce websites and the factors that effecting and considered in B2C evaluation from consumers perspectives. Data was gathered through questionnaire and interviews methods. Simple descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency calculation, and percentages were used for analysis. Out of thirty three factors, only seventeen factors have been found to be important. These are web site visibility, safety, serviceability, price savings, high responsiveness, online shops credibility, enjoyment and entertainment, websites information, the value of the web, promotive activities, clarity, relevance, diversity of goods, services and information, web documents current and updated, user-friendly web interface, trust or trustworthiness, and accuracy and authority of web documents.

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Technical Audit - "A Thoroughfare To System Perfection"[Full-Text[References]
Prof. S. B. Srivastava

When the design parameter of any equipment is fixed, it indicates the beginning stage of any equipment and at this stage; it is not possible to find out the exact requirement which the equipment has to fulfill. For utility equipments, it can not be anticipated what will be the actual operating requirements. The engineering concept during commissioning of the equipment is well guided by the experts and their guidance is limited for only a short period. With the passage of time and change in environment, the operating condition of the equipment changes. At this stage, the performance of the equipment/industries shows a downward trend. Sometimes, the system, situations and circumstances of working change. It affects the operating condition of Industries or Institutions even incurring huge losses. Every work is followed by certain technicality and if the technicality is deviated, the out come will affect performance. This is the main reason behind the continuous analysis and methodical approach to improve performance and to reach towards system perfection. Technical Audit is a "tool" to create awareness, develop skills, integrate knowledge, upgrade technicality, increase profitability, productivity: improve working conditions and quality of life. Technical Audit delights Owners of industries and also the Customers

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Application of wavelet packet analysis for speech synthesis[Full-Text[References]
Vaishali Jagrit, Subhra Debdas, Chinmay chandrakar

Wavelets are mathematical functions that cut up data into different frequency components, and then study each component with a resolution matched to its scale. They have advantages over traditional Fourier methods in analyzing physical situations where the signal contains Discontinuities. Wavelet packet analysis is analysis the different entropy of voice signal

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Lower and Upper Approximation of Fuzzy Ideals in a Semiring[Full-Text[References]
G. Senthil Kumar, V. Selvan

In this paper, we introduce the rough fuzzy ideals of a semiring. We also introduce and study rough fuzzy prime ideals of a semiring.

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Reconfigurable Embedded Multiprocessor Architecture with ARISE interface using FPGA[Full-Text[References]
M. Abragam Siyon Sing, K. Vidya

Modern Embedded multiprocessor design presents challenges and opportunities that stem from task coarse granularity and the large number of inputs and outputs for each task. They are complex systems that often require years to design and verify. A significant factor is that engineers must allocate a disproportionate share of their effort to ensure that modern FPGA chips architecture behave correctly. Therefore, in order to reduce the complexity in design and verification, a new architecture is proposed which is implemented using FPGA. In this, the Embedded Processors are integrated with the shared memory system, synthesized that this system on an FPGA environment and ARISE interface is used to extent the processor and this interface is used once. Then, an arbitrary number of processors can be attached, via the interface, which can be a reconfigurable unit. Using this interface, more number of processor cores can be attached and bit to bit conversions can also be possible from one processor to another processor, that is, asymmetric processors can be built.

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A Framework for Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Use and Knowledge Management[Full-Text[References]
B. Uppalaiah, Dr. N. Subhash Chandra, R. V. Gandhi, Prof. G. Charles Babu, N. Vamsi Krishna

A framework for knowledge discovery, knowledge use, and knowledge management is presented in this article to provide knowledge-based access of the domain databases using multi-agent systems approach. This framework encompasses five different agents: namely, knowledge management agent, data filter agent, rule induction agent, dynamic analysis agent, and interface agent. This article suggests an enhancement in the typical Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language (KQML) used to interact recurrently and to share information between multiple agents to achieve their goals by including the notion of linguistic variable and, hence, to support fuzzy decision making. The article also includes a sample KQML query block (along with membership function used by the knowledge management agent), result of the query, and structure of database files for a co-operative dairy. The approach provides advantages like effectiveness, explanation, reasoning, multimedia, and user-friendly interface in accessing multiple databases for an application.

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Channel Estimation in Multipath fading Environment using Combined Equalizer and Diversity Techniques[Full-Text[References]
Deepmala Singh Parihar, Prof. Ravi Mohan

The channel estimation has become very vast field due to different types of interference present in wireless channel and in equipments. In this thesis, estimation algorithms for digital communications systems in the presence of Additive White Gaussian noise and Multipath environment are explored and their performance is investigated. In particular, least square Error and Zero forcing equalizers are used to provide the optimum solution and compensate for Inter-Symbol error. As the BER performance of equalizers in variable in multipath fading channel therefore we have combined Equal Gain combining and Maximal Ratio Combing Diversity techniques, and searched that Maximal Ratio combining techniques is able to fight with Co-Channel interference and Inter-symbol interference problem.

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Mechanisms of Tunneling IPv6 in IPv4 networks[Full-Text[References]
Nirjhar Vermani

In IpV4 major requirement is that all the IP networks should have unique network number, even if they are or if they are not connected with the internet, which results in the consumption of more addresses, due to this consumption IP addresses in IPV4, are becoming exhausted. Secondly the structure of IPV4 is of classes which had address spaces with different size and studied independently. To manage this problem internet experts focus on the use of Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) and Dynamic Host Configuration protocol (DHCP) to manage the address space. But due to the growth in usage of internet CIDR and DHCP are not working properly as an alternative. It is becoming challenging to retain the large routing tables, network authentication and security of the network which is the major requirement in the current cyber age.

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A Critical Review on the Development of Urban Traffic Models & Control Systems[Full-Text[References]
Rishi Asthana, Neelu Jyoti Ahuja, Manuj Darbari, Praveen Kumar Shukla

Modeling and development of control systems to deal with the congestion at intersection in urban traffic is a critical research issue. Several approaches have been used to develop the modeling and controlling phenomenon in the said problem. These approaches include, Petri net, Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network, Genetic Algorithms, Activity Theory, Multi Agent Systems and many more. This paper is a survey on the development of Urban Traffic Control Systems using techniques discussed above in the last decade

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Artificial Bee Colony Optimisation for Economc Load Dispatch of a Modern Power system[Full-Text[References]
Ganga Reddy Tankasala

This paper deals with optimization of fuel cost of coal fired generators of a modern power sytem. The conventional method of solving economic load dispatch (ELD) uses Newton Raphson, Gauss and Gauss Siedel techniques whose time of computation increases exponentially with the size. Inorder to overcome the dreawbacks of conventional methods, Artificial Intelligent (AI) techniques likes like Genetic Algorithm (GA), Nueral Networks (NN), Artificial Immune systems (AIS) and Fuzzy Logics etc are used. One such AI technique used is Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC) inspired from the foraging behaviour of bees. The ABC is applied for ELD and compared with the other AI techniques. The results show that ABC promises global minimum of the solution while others may land in local minimum

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A Simplified Pipeline Calculations Program: Isothermal Gas Flow (2)[Full-Text[References]
Tonye K. Jack

The familiarity and user friendliness of the Microsoft Excel TM spreadsheet environment allows the practicing engineer to develop engineering desktop companion tools to carry out routine calculations. A Multitask single screen gas pipeline sizing calculation program is developed in Microsoft Excel TM. Required equations, and data sources for such development is provided.

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An Overview on Decision Techniques for Vertical Handoffs across Wireless Heterogeneous Networks[Full-Text[References]
Akhila S, Jayanthi K Murthy, Arathi R Shankar, Suthikshn Kumar

Wireless communication of the future will comprise of several heterogeneous networks whose access technologies will vary to a large extent on the network capacity, data rates, bandwidth, power consumption, Received Signal Strength and coverage areas. With their complementary characteristics, integration of these networks to offer overlapping coverage to mobile users pose many interesting research challenges to bring about anytime, anywhere connectivity. The best of these networks with their varying characteristics can be brought about through a process called vertical handoff. Vertical handoff is the seamless transfer of an ongoing user session between these networks and requires accurate and precise decisions about the availability of the networks and their resources for connection. A good handoff decision should avoid unwanted handoffs which leads to an increased computational load or should not miss making a handoff leading to an ongoing service being dropped causing packet loss. Many techniques for vertical handoffs have been proposed in literature which are based on several parameters, but there still exists some ambiguity as to which of these parameters give an optimum performance. This paper aims at providing an account on the various policies developed in the decision phase of the vertical handoff.

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The formation of passivation in internally oxidized Ag-based alloys[Full-Text[References]
Jožica Bezjak A. Professor

The aim of this research was to analyse the inhibition of internal passivation by changing the chemical composition of silver alloys and to estimate the concentration boundaries of the selected microalloying element at which the passivation is still inhibited. Since, the ability of inocculation or modification is mostly based on the large free energy of formation of oxides of microalloying elements and their crystallographic similarity, Mg in the quantities of 0.001 to 0.5 mass% was chosen as a microalloying element for Ag-based alloys in addition to the main alloying element (Zn). For the Ag-5.8%Zn alloy, the boundary conditions of the inhibition of passivation were established. For concentrations of MgO below 0.005 vol.% not enough nuclei are formed. For too high concentration of MgO (above 1.2 vol.%) defect microstructures are formed which are characteristic for MgO precipitation. This produces a local or general passivation. By changing the composition of microalloying the internal passivation of Ag-5.8%Zn alloy could not only be inhibited but increased. Thus under some microalloying conditions much bigger depths of internal oxidation were reached.

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Secured Multi Path Routing with Trust Establishment Using Mobile Ad Hoc Networks[Full-Text[References]
T. Nirmal Raj, S. Saranya, S. Arul Murugan, G. Bhuvaneswari

We propose a novel method of message security using trust-based multi-path routing. Simulation results, coupled with theoretical justification, affirm that the proposed solution is much more secured than the traditional multi-path routing algorithms. We propose a method to securely route messages in an ad-hoc network using multi-path routing and trustworthiness of the nodes. Hence, we aim at addressing the issues underlying message confidentiality, message integrity and access control. We combine multi-path routing and trust with soft encryption technology to propose a scheme which is much more secure than traditional multi-path algorithms. By soft encryption, we mean having encryption methods, but are more efficient in terms of performance and require less resource.

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Design and Simulation of Electronic Instru-ments for Solar Energy Measurement Systems. [Full-Text[References]
Shachi Awasthi, Anupam Dubey, Dr. J.M.Kellar, Dr. P.Mor

With expansion of urbanization and population the energy requirement is increasing day by day which leads to extraction of renewable resources of energy, like sun and wind among these sun energy has a vast potential to fulfill the energy needs.

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Association Rule Mining on Distributed Data[Full-Text[References]
Pallavi Dubey

Applications requiring large data processing, have two major problems, one a huge storage and its management and second processing time, as the amount of data increases. Distributed databases solve the first problem to a great extent but second problem increases. Since, current era is of networking and communication and people are interested in keeping large data on networks, therefore, researchers are proposing various algorithms to increase the throughput of output data over distributed databases. In my research, I am proposing a new algorithm to process large amount of data at the various servers and collecting the processed data on client machine as much as he/she is requiring. The data is kept in XML format, which allows processing it further, if needed.

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Digitally Greenhouse Monitoring and Controlling of System based on Embedded System[Full-Text[References]
Kiran Sahu, Mrs. Susmita Ghosh Mazumdar

Monitoring and control of greenhouse environment play an important role in greenhouse production and management. To monitor the greenhouse environment parameters effectively, it is necessary to design a measurement and control system. The objective of this project is to design a simple, easy to install, microcontroller-based circuit to monitor and record the values of temperature, humidity, soil moisture and sunlight of the natural environment that are continuously modified and controlled in order optimize them to achieve maximum plant growth and yield. The controller used is a low power, cost efficient chip manufactured by ATMEL having 8K bytes of on-chip flash memory. It communicates with the various sensor modules in real-time in order to control the light, aeration and drainage process efficiently inside a greenhouse by actuating a cooler, fogger, dripper and lights respectively according to the necessary condition of the crops. An integrated Liquid crystal display (LCD) is also used for real time display of data acquired from the various sensors and the status of the various devices. Also, the use of easily available components reduces the manufacturing and maintenance costs. The design is quite flexible as the software can be changed any time. It can thus be tailor-made to the specific requirements of the user. This makes the proposed system to be an economical, portable and a low maintenance solution for greenhouse applications, especially in rural areas and for small scale agriculturists.

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SAT Implementation in Direct Torque Control For Dynamic Response in Multi Level Inverter Induction Motor DRIVES[Full-Text[References]
Rohithbalaji Jonnala

This paper presents the implementation of Direct Torque Control (DTC) with Sector Advancement Technique (SAT) algorithm for the control of a Hybrid Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Induction motor Drive. It is useful to keep the motor torque and stator flux and the inverter's neutral point potential within given hysteresis bounds while reducing the average switching frequency of the inverter and overall computational time period comparison with the standard direct torque control (CDTC). This method also improving overall efficiency with Torque and Flux ripple reduction. In addition, the multilevel inverter can generate a high and fixed switching frequency output voltage with fewer switching losses, since only the small power cells of the inverter operate at a high switching rate. Therefore, a high performance and also efficient torque and flux controllers are obtained, enabling a DTC solution for multilevel-inverter-powered motor drives.

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Anticipating Emission & Suggestions for Reducing Exhaust Emissions with CNSL as Fuel[Full-Text[References]
Prof.Paresh K. Kasundra, Dr. Ashish V. Gohil

Bio-diesel is produced by mixing vegetable or animal oil with a small quantity of methanol in a process known as esterification. Bio-diesel is a promising nontoxic and biodegradable renewable alternative fuel compared to petroleum diesel in the light of the limited nature of fossil fuel and the environmental concerns.

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Modeling a Homogenate GIS Architecture Based On Service Oriented Architecture for the Tourism Mapping Needs[Full-Text[References]
Abubakar Agil Emhmed, Kalaivani Chellapan

Location information is a set of data describing an individual geographical location. This information can be used in many ways to provide information and entertainment services to the user who has the require devices and resources to operate such services. However, different challenges are reported in terms o availability and homogeneity. These challenges are mainly focused on the integration, standardization, security and privacy of the various GIS resources that helps to show essential but exhaustive information into a simple, clear and possibly user-friendly interface. Therefore, a simple but complete interface should provide all GIS functionalities, identified by graphically clear and easily understandable symbols, icons or texts. This paper intends to apply the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to re-manage the GIS resources and provide a distributed, dynamic, and reliable service system that can meet information and service requirements of many different users over the internet.

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Applied Software Project Management Software project planning [Full-Text[References]
T.Rajani Devi

Most critical activities in the modern software development process is without a realistic and objective software project plan, the software development process cannot be managed in an effective way

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Harnessing of wind power in the present era system[Full-Text[References]
Raghunadha Sastry R, Deepthy N

This paper deals with the harnessing of the wind power in the present era system with the introduction of DFIG. The studied system here is a variable speed wind generation system based on DFIG which uses the rotor side converter and grid side converter which keeps the dc link voltage constant. Both the converters are overloaded temporarily so that the DFIG provides a considerable contribution to grid voltage during short circuit conditions. This report includes DFIG, AC/DC/AC converter control and finally the SIMULINK/MATLAB simulation for isolatedInduction generator as well as for grid connected Doubly Fed Induction Generator andcorresponding results and waveforms are displayed.

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FPGA Based Embedded Multiprocessor Architecture[Full-Text[References]
Mr.Sumedh.S.Jadhav, Prof.C.N.Bhoyar

Embedded multiprocessor design presents challenges and opportunities that stem from task coarse granularity and the large number of inputs and outputs for each task. We have therefore designed a new architecture called embedded concurrent computing (ECC), which is implementing on FPGA chip using VHDL. The design methodology is expected to allow scalable embedded multiprocessors for system expansion. In recent decades, two forces have driven the increase of the processor performance: Advances in very large-scale integration (VLSI) technology and Micro architectural enhancements. Therefore, we aim to design the full architecture of an embedded processor for realistic to perform arithmetic, logical, shifting and branching operations. We will be synthesize and evaluated the embedded system based on Xilinx environment. Processor performance is going to be improving through clock speed increases and the clock speed increases and the exploitation of instruction- level parallelism.We will be designing embedded multiprocessor based on Xilinx environment or Modelsim environment.

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Two Levels TTL for Unstructured P2P Network using Adaptive Probabilistic Search[Full-Text[References]
Yash Pal Singh, Rakesh Rathi, Jyoti Gajrani, Vinesh Jain

P2P networks are playing an important role in current scenario of unstructured networks. P2P network supports various applications and taking the advantage over the centralize search system .Centralize search systems suffer from the problems of single point of failure, low availability, denial of service attacks. Searching of the required data is a vital issue in the P2P network. Many methods have been implemented for searching in P2P network such as Flooding, Random Walk, Expanding Ring or Iterative deepening, K-Walker Random Walk, Two Level K Walker Random Walk, etc. These methods are based on property of randomness in the network. Some of these generate large traffic while others take long searching time. A probabilistic approach with Two Level K Walker Random Walk for searching has been implemented in this paper and comparative study has been done with other algorithms.

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Eight User, 4Gb/s, Spectral Phase-Encoded OCDMA System in time domain for Metropolitan area Network[Full-Text[References]
Savita R.Bhosale Dr. S. L. Nalbalwar and Dr. S.B.Deosarkar

In optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system, many users share the same transmission medium by assigning unique pseudo-random optical code (OC) to each user. OCDMA is attractive for next generation broadband access networks due to its features of allowing fully asynchronous transmission with low latency access, soft capacity on demand, protocol transparency, simplified network management as well as increased flexibility of QoS control and enhanced confidentiality in the network. Hence, in this paper, we proposed a technique using spectral phase encodingin time domain for eight users. This technique is proved to be much effective to handle eight users at 4 Gb/s bit rate for Metropolitan area Network (MAN). Results indicate significant improvement in term Beat Error Rate (BER) and very high quality factor in the form of Quality of Service (QoS). In our analysis, we have used Pseudo Orthogonal (PSO) codes. The simulations are carried out using OptSim (RSOFT).

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FPGA Prototyping of Hardware Implementation of CORDIC Algorithm[Full-Text[References]
Er. Manoj Arora, Er. R S Chauhan, Er.Lalit Bagga

In 1959 J. E. Volder presents a new algorithm for the real time solution of the equations raised in navigation system. This algorithm was the best replacement of analog navigation system by the digital. CORDIC algorithm used for the fast calculation of elementary functions like multiplication, division, trigonometric functions, logarithmic function, and various conversions like conversion of rectangular to polar coordinate, conversion between BCD and binary coded information. In the present time CORDIC algorithm have a number of applications in the field of communication, 3-D graphics, signal processing and a lot more. This review paper presents the prototype of hardware implementation of CORDIC algorithm using Spartan –II series FPGA, with constraint to area efficiency and throughput architecture

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Method Of Speech Signal Compression In Speaker Identification Systems[Full-Text[References]
A.Raimy, K.Konate, NM Bykov

In the article the technique of efficacy improvement of speech signal compression algorithm without individual features speech production loss is offer .The compression in this case means to delete from digital signal those quantization steps which can be predicted. We propose to decrease the number of those quantization steps using modified linear predication algorithm with variable order. That allows to decrease compression time and save computer resource.

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Anomaly Detection through NN Hybrid Learning with Data Transformation Analysis[Full-Text[References]
Saima Munawar, Mariam Nosheen and Dr.Haroon Atique Babri

Intrusion detection system is a vital part of computer security system commonly used for precaution and detection.It is built for classifier or descriptive or predictive model to proficient classification of normal behavior from abnormal behavior of IP packets. This paper presents the solution regarding proper data transformation methods handling and importance of data analysis of complete data set which is apply on hybrid neural network approaches for used to cluster and classify normal and abnormal behavior to improve the accuracy of network based anomaly detection classifier. Because neural network classes only require the numerical form of data but IP connections or packets of network have some symbolic features which are difficult to handle without the proper data transformation analysis. For this reason, it got non redundant new NSL KDD CUP data set. The experimental results show that indicator variable is more effective as compared to the both conditional probabilities and arbitrary assignment method from measurement of accuracy and balance error rate.

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Comparative study of Financial Time Series Prediction By Artificial Neural Network with Gradient Descent Learning[Full-Text[References]
Arka Ghosh

Financial forecasting is an example of a signal processing problem which is challenging due to Small sizes, high noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity,but fast forecasting of stock market price is very important for strategic business planning.Present study is aimed to develop a comparative predictive model with Feedforward Multilayer Artificial Neural Network & Recurrent Time Delay Neural Network for the Financial Timeseries Prediction.This study is developed with the help of historical stockprice dataset made available by GoogleFinance.To develop this prediction model Backpropagation method with Gradient Descent learning has been implemented.Finally the Neural Net ,learned with said algorithm is found to be skillful predictor for non-stationary noisy Financial Timeseries

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Solving Blasius Problem by Adomian Decomposition Method [Full-Text[References]
V. Adanhounme, F.P. Codo

Using the Adomian decomposition method we solved the Blasius problem for boundary-layer flows of pure fluids (non-porous domains) over a flat plate. We obtained the velocity components as sums of convergent series. Furthermore we constructed the interval of admissible values of the shear-stress on the plate surface.

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New features for performance enhancement of experimental Model Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor[Full-Text[References]
Raji T.O, Oyewola O.M, Salau T.A.O

Fuel flexibility and capacity to burn broad spectrum of fuels at high combustion efficiency with minimum emissions of greenhouse gases are few of the key advantages fluidized bed combustion technology has over other existing combustion technology. This report examines the design, development and testing of an experimental model Bubbling fluidized bed combustor. Three unique features to enhance performance of this system were suggested and comprehensively discussed; inert bed's temperature regulating unit, an integrated unit that enable Fluidizing air pre-heating as well as Biomass feeding pipe's cooling and segmentations of the Combustor body into modules /partitioning of these modules into lower and upper section. The results of the test run with Palm kernel shell and Coconut shell show that the system performance is enhanced and that the temperature is well regulated as observed in the thermal distribution. It is therefore proposed that the present Bubbling Fluidized bed combustor could be beneficial to development of commercial sizes for power generation in Nigeria and Africa sub region.

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Designing Solar Three-Wheeler for Disable People[Full-Text[References]
Md. Shahidul Islam, Zaheed Bin Rahman, Nafis Ahmad

Mobility of the physically disabled or crippled people is a great concern of the society. It is really difficult to realize the problems and sorrows of a physically disabled/crippled person who is partially or fully dependent on others or confining himself in a wheel chair with limited mobility. This paper provides idea of currently available three-wheelers for disabled people and proposes a new improved design of a solar powered three-wheeler suitable for countries like Bangladesh which is an under developed country with huge disabled/crippled people from war, accidents and diseases. This three-wheeler is operated by solar power and suitable for outdoor use. Solar power option enables the disabled people to use it at any place, even in remote areas where there is no electricity. A general survey had been conducted on disabled people using wheel chairs and manual three-wheelers and the opinions of the experts working with the disabled people are also taken in to consideration to identify the needs and requirement for designing the solar three-wheeler. The proposed solar three-wheeler is meant to match and exceed the conventional three-wheeler's facilities with a more intelligent and efficient design. A solar panel to produce solar electricity, a battery system for preserving electric power, an efficient motor, cushion seat, all terrain tires are used for this solar three-wheeler. Due consideration and attention is given to better maneuverability, effective use of solar energy, biomechanics and comforts, increased suspensions, all terrain traffic ability, ease of use etc. while designing this solar three-wheeler for physically disabled people of the country.

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Definition, Survey, Monitoring and Efficiency of Directions of Bird-Trapping Nets for Trapping the Bee-eating Birds (Merops: Meropidae) Attacking Honey Bee Colonies[Full-Text[References]
Ali, M. A. M.

Experiment was carried out during 2009 and 2010 in two honey bee apiaries belong to Agricultural Extension Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results showed that there were three species of bee-eaters belonging to family (Meropidae) in the considered location, European bee-eater (Merops apiaster Linnaeus, 1758); Olive bee-eater (Merops superciliosus Linnaeus, 1766) and Green bee-eater (Meropa orientalis Latham, 1802). The three species recorded were migratory and they were found in the apiaries during two seasons (spring and autumn). In spring, they were first appearance in the bird-trapping nets on March 28, 2009, and on April 02, 2010, meanwhile, they were last time in the bird-trapping nets on May 01, 2009 and April 20, 2010. In autumn season, they appeared in the considered apiaries on September 23, 2009 and October 11, 2010, meanwhile, the last time they were appeared in the apiaries on November 04, 2009 and November 01, 2010. Results suggest that the direction of bird-trapping nets significantly affected the number of trapped bee-eaters, the placing of bird-trapping nets in the east side of the apiary and above the apiary led to a significant trapping of more of bee-eaters than when placed in west, north and south directions. In addition, no significant difference was found in trapped bee-eaters during the two inspection periods, in the morning (9 am) and in the evening (5 pm).

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Selection Of Mixed Sampling Plan With CSP-1 (C=2) Plan As Attribute Plan Indexed Through MAPD AND MAAOQ[Full-Text[References]
R. Sampath Kumar, S. Sumithra and R. Radhakrishnan

In this paper a procedure for the construction and selection of the independent mixed sampling plan using MAPD and MAAOQ as quality standards with Continuous Sampling plan of the type CSP-1 (c=2) as attribute plan is presented. Tables are constructed for the selection of parameters of the plan when MAPD and MAAOQ are given. Practical applications of the sampling plan are also discussed with suitable example.

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Design of Shunt Active Power Filter to eliminate the harmonic cur-rents and to compensate the reactive power under distorted and/or imbalanced source voltages in steady state[Full-Text[References]
Sangu Ravindra , Dr.V.C.Veera Reddy, Dr.S.Sivanagaraju, Devineni Gireesh Kumar

The shunt active power filter has proved to be a useful device to eliminate harmonic currents and to compensate reactive power for linear/nonlinear loads. This paper presents a novel approach to determine reference compensation currents of the three-phase shunt active power filter (APF) under distorted and/or imbalanced source voltages in steady state. The proposed approach is compared with three reviewed shunt APF reference compensation strategies. Results obtained by simulations with Matlab and Simulink show that the proposed approach is more effective than the reviewed approaches on compensating reactive power and harmonic/neutral currents of the load, even if the source voltages are severely distorted and imbalanced. In addition, the proposed approach yields a simpler design of the shunt APF controller.

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Comparative Analysis of Time Steps Distribution in Runge-Kutta Algorithms[Full-Text[References]
Salau, T.A.O., Ajide, O.O

This study utilized combination of phase plots,time steps distribution and adaptive time steps Runge-Kutta and fifth order algorithms to investigate a harmonically Duffing oscillator.The object is to visually compare fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta algorithms performance as tools for seeking the chaotic solutions of a harmonically excited Duffing oscillator.Though fifth order algorithms favours higher time steps and as such faster to execute than fourth order for all studied cases.The reliability of results obtained with fourth order worth its higher recorded total computation time steps period.

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Parametric influence on cutting parameters characteristics in precision machining of ceramic coating materials[Full-Text[References]
Prof. Mohammed Yunus, Dr.J. Fazlur Rahman

Ceramic coated components have the advantage features of both metal and ceramics, i.e. good toughness, high hardness and wear resistance. Despite their outstanding characteristics, ceramic materials are not used in many cases due to high cost of machining. A major drawback to engineering applications of ceramic is due to their brittleness and fracture tough-ness, which makes them difficult and costly to machine.

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New Approach for Detecting Intrusions[Full-Text[References]
Mohammed Chennoufi, Fatima Bendella

This paper describes how multi-agent systems can help to solve a complex problem such as security and more precisely intrusion detection. Intrusion Detection System (I.D.S) is a component of the security infrastructure designed to detect violations of security policy. Most of the intrusions can be localized either by considering of models "pattern" of user activities (non-behavioral approach) or by considering the audit log (behavioral approach). False positives and false negatives are considered as the major disadvantages of these approaches. We consider that good I.D.S should respond to the characteristics of intelligent agents such as autonomy, distribution and communication.

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An Automatic Voice-Controlled Audio Amplifier[Full-Text[References]
Jonathan A. Enokela and Jonathan U. Agber

The delivery of the proper quality of audio signals to the audience in the entertainment, public and other environments is of great, and sometimes critical, importance. This always requires that the audio signals be of the correct intensity to the hearing of the audience, especially if the signals come from different sources. This work presents a system which automatically fades out the main stream signal when signals from other sources are received. By arranging the circuit such that the signal from the other sources continuously drives a pair of bipolar junction transistors towards heavier saturation, the mainstream signal was attenuated by as much as 3 dB

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A Simple formula to predict the number of primes[Full-Text[References]
Prithvijit Chakrabarty

This paper describes a formula to predict the number of prime numbers between a known prime 'P' and its square, when all primes up to 'P' are known. The formula is developed by considering a continuous section of the number line between P and P2. The length of this section is repeatedly divided by primes below P to obtain the number of primes in the region. The process is similar to the Sieve of Eratosthenes. However, instead of eliminating the multiples of primes below P, it eliminates the number of multiples of these primes. This reduces it to a simplifiable algebraic expression that can easily be implemented using programs.

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Implementation of Embedded Multiprocessor Architecture Using FPGA[Full-Text[References]
Mr.Sumedh.S.Jadhav, Prof.C.N.Bhoyar

Embedded multiprocessor design presents challenges and opportunities that stem from task coarse granularity and the large number of inputs and outputs for each task. We have therefore designed a new architecture called embedded concurrent computing (ECC), which is implementing on FPGA chip using VHDL. The design methodology is expected to allow scalable embedded multiprocessors for system expansion. In recent decades, two forces have driven the increase of the processor performance: Advances in very large-scale integration (VLSI) technology and Micro architectural enhancements. Therefore, we aim to design the full architecture of an embedded processor for realistic to perform arithmetic, logical, shifting and branching operations. We will be synthesize and evaluated the embedded system based on Xilinx environment. Processor performance is going to be improving through clock speed increases and the clock speed increases and the exploitation of instruction- level parallelism.We will be designing embedded multiprocessor based on Xilinx environment. These data have been gathered by synthesis. Implementation was achieved by the provision of low complexities in terms of FPGA resource usage and frequency. In addition, the design methodology allows scalable embedded multiprocessors for system expansion.

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Utilization of Remote sensing and GIS in Managing Disasters – A Review[Full-Text[References]
C. Vijayaraghavan, Dr. D. Thirumalaivasan, Dr. R. Venkatesan

During the past five decades, natural hazards such as floods, earthquakes, severe storms and tropical cyclones, droughts, wild land fires, and also manmade disasters such as Nuclear disaster, oil spills, and terrorist attacks have caused major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damages. Disaster reduction is both an issue for consideration in sustainable development agenda and a cross cutting issue relating to social, economic, environmental and humanitarian sectors. These important features have to analyze and there is a need to study. Though, in recent years the Open GIS technology standards have been developed by several agencies, which provide the basis for utilization of geographic information services, also gives an opportunity for data interoperability, data integration and data sharing between different emergency management agencies, However finding suitable services and visualization of geospatial information for decision makers is still a crucial task. Objective of this paper is to assess the state of art literature review in different methodologies of utilizing geospatial technology in managing both natural and manmade disasters dedicated by different authors and also to find new direction in this important area.

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Performance Evaluation of LEACH Protocol in Wireless Network[Full-Text[References]
M.Shankar, Dr.M.Sridar, Dr.M.Rajani, Dr.Soma V.Chetty

Wireless micro sensor networks lend themselves to trade-offs in energy and quality. By ensuring that the system operates at a minimum energy for each quality point, the system can achieve both flexibility and energy efficiency, allowing the end-user to maximize system lifetime. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive clustering protocol effectively produces optimal energy consumption for the wireless sensor networks, and resulting in an extension of life time for the network. The preparation phase is performed only once before the set-up phase of the first round. The processes of following set-up and steady-state phases in every round are the same as LEACH. Simulations show that LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reductions in energy dissipation compared with conventional routing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated

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Effect of Nanofluids in a Vacuum Single Basin Solar Still[Full-Text[References]
M. Koilraj Gnanadason, P. Senthil Kumar, G.Jemilda, S.Raja Kumar

Clean water is a basic human necessity and without water life will be impossible. The provision of fresh water is becoming an increasingly important issue in many areas of the world. Among the non-conventional methods to desalinate brackish water or seawater, is solar distillation. The solar still is the most economical way to accomplish this objective. Tamilnadu lies in the high solar radiation band and the vast solar potential can be utilized to convert saline water to potable water. Solar distillation has low yield, but safe and pure supplies of water in remote areas. The attempts are made to increase the productivity of solar still by using different absorbing materials, depths of water, heat storage medium, nanofluids and also by providing low pressure inside the still basin. Heat transfer enhancement in solar still is one of the key issues of energy saving and compact designs. The use of additives is a technique applied to enhance the heat transfer performance of water in the still basin. Recently, as an innovative material, nanosized particles have been used in suspension in conventional solar still water. The fluids with nanosized solid particles suspended in them are called "nanofluids." The suspended metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles change the transport properties, heat transfer characteristics and evaporative properties of the base fluid. Nanofluids are expected to exhibit superior evaporation rate compared with conventional water. The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the enhanced performance in a vacuum single basin solar still using nanofluids with the conventional water. They greatly improve the rate of evaporation and hence the rate of condensation on the cooler surface.

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Remote Sensing Image Restoration Using Various Techniques:A Review[Full-Text[References]
Er.Neha Gulati,Er.Ajay Kaushik

In the imaging process of the remote sensing ,there was degradation phenomenon in the acquired images. In order to reduce the image blur caused by the degradation, the remote sensing images were restored to give prominence to the characteristic objects in the images.the images were restored. IMAGE restoration is an important issue in high-level image processing..The purpose of image restoration is to estimate the original image from the degraded data. It is widely used in various fields of applications, such as medical imaging, astronomical imaging, remote sensing, microscopy imaging, photography deblurring, and forensic science, etc. Restoration is beneficial to interpreting and analyzing the remote sensing images. After restoration, the blur phenomenon of the images is reduced. The characters are highlighted, and the visual effect of the images is clearer. In this paper different image restoration techniques like Richardson-Lucy algorithm, Wiener filter, Neural Network,Blind Deconvolution.

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Future Internet Plan Using IPv6 Protocol[Full-Text[References]
Krishna Kumar Mohbey, Sachin Tiwari

Internet users are increases day by day then they want to access data more fastly and safely, so that higher capability internet services are very important. Today's internet has the most of limitations which is important to remove. In future internet we used IPv6 protocol instead of IPv4 which have the larger address. It is important because the no. of users and system quantity are larger. In this paper we prepare the scope of future internet which will provide higher data transfer rates and high speed accessing to user. By designing new architecture and using new protocol version we can fastly access live TV and Multimedia data streaming on our computer. We can also enjoy the live video conferences because internet speed will be faster and powerful. Here we also describe the term dynamic caching which is important for accessing same data streaming on multiple places on the same time.

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FMECA Analysis (A Heuristic Approach) For Frequency of Maintenance and Type of Maintenance[Full-Text[References]
Prof. Malay Niraj, Praveen Kumar, Dr. A. Mishra

Present study is an approach for finding the suitable maintenance practice and frequency of maintenance with the help of criticality factor of equipment it is based on failure mode evaluation and criticality analysis. Criticality means the failure probability of the equipment is very high. The miner failure of critical equipment may leads to sever impact on the performance of the equipment. So critical equipment needs very high degree of maintenance activity and maintenance frequency to prevent any failure. This model has implemented in process industry and many OEE like factor has been improved

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Dyon Solutions in Non-Temporal SU(3)*SU(3) Gauge[Full-Text[References]
Vinod Singh and D C Joshi

Employing the Cabbibo–Ferrari type non- Abelian field tensor we consider the SU(3)*SU(3) gauge theory under the non-temporal gauge conditions and show that the obtained solutions are dyonic and have finite energy

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