IJSER Volume 3, Issue 2, February 2012 Edition
Cover Page Cover Page      Download Index File/Journal Page No. Detail Download Index File/Journal Page No. Detail       IJSER Research Group http://www.ijser.org/forum/index.php Register for IJSER Research Forum      IJSER Xplore IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database
Spin-coated YSZ Thin Films on Silica Substrate[Full-Text[References]
Shirley Tiong Palisoc, Rose Ann Tegio, Michelle Natividad, Simon Gerard Mendiola, Kevin Kaw, Stephen Tadios, Benjamin Tuason

Different concentrations of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) grown on silia (SiO2) substrate was investiaged in this paper. Suspension containing 10wt%, 30wt%, and 50wt% YSZ were fabricated using the spin coating technique on silica keeping all other parameters constant such as the coating parameters and sintering temperature.The surface morphology and thickness of the films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed porous YSZ films which become less porous as the concentration of YSZ increases. The thickness of the films was also affected by the YSZ concentration. As the concentration increases, the thickness of the films also increases. The crystal structure of the favricated films was also determined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy. Both Techniques revealed a cubic fluorite structure independent of the concentration of YSZ.

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CNS Inflammation and Epileptogenesis[Full-Text[References]
Francis I. Baffour

An association between acute CNS infections and seizures is reported in the literature. The etiology of these seizures is, in some cases, precipitated by epileptogenic pathogenesis of the infectious agent in the brain parenchyma. A different etiology of seizures as a consequence of infections, independent of the infectious agent, relates to the inflammatory reaction. Thirdly, the febrile response to infections may predispose the CNS to seizures due to the metabolic aberrations of fever. Febrile states have also been implicated in some cases of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Current attempts to control seizures with anti-inflammatory treatments have shown contrasting result, therefore specific agents need to be developed and tested.

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Developing Appropriate Techniques To Alleviate The Ogun River Network Annual Flooding Problems[Full-Text[References]
S.O.OYEGOKE and A.O. SOJOBI

The perennial annual flooding problems occurring in Lagos and Ogun States during the rainy season due largely to release of excess water from the multi-purpose Oyan Dam reservoir built across Oyan River, a tributary of Ogun River, located in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, has reached unacceptable level. Annually, the flooding hazard causes severe economic, social, ecological and environmental impacts such as displacement of no less than 1,280 residents, interruption of major roads which inevitably leads to loss of valuable man-hours, infection of surface and ground water leading to increased incidences of water-borne diseases, disruption of commercial and educational activities and recession of shoreline. This paper reviews the genesis and root causes of the flooding problems with a view to proffer the best approach to alleviate and solve this problem on a permanent basis combining hydraulic and hydrological best practices.

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Issues on 3D Property[Full-Text[References]
TAN Liat Choon, Khadijah Binti HUSSIN

A questionnaire survey was carried out on 114 personnel from government authorities and professional companies administering cadastre registration in Penang, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Johore. The aim of the study was to elicit the opinions of the respondents and to appraise their understanding on five study areas, viz. land legislation, land administration, cadastre registration, and cadastral survey and mapping issues. The respondents were from State Lands and Mines Office, State District Land Office, Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia, Department of Director General of Lands and Mines Office, State Local Authority and Licensed Land Surveyors.

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Analysis of the Dynamic Characteristics of an Isolated Self-Excited Induction Generator Driven by a Wind-Turbine[Full-Text[References]
Godswill Ofualagba

This paper focuses on the electrical generation part of a wind energy conversion system. After a brief introduction of the induction machine, the electrical generator used in this paper, a detailed analysis of the induction machine operated in stand-alone mode is presented. As a generator, induction machines have the drawback of requiring reactive power for excitation. This necessitates the use of shunt capacitors in the circuit. The effect of magnetization inductance on self-excitation of the induction generator is discussed. Also, this paper presents the two existing methods to analyze the process of self-excitation in induction machine and the role of excitation-capacitors in its initiation. Simulation results of the self-excited induction generator driven by the variable speed wind turbine are presented in the last section of this paper. The process of voltage build up and the effect of saturation characteristics are also explained in the same section.

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A Framework for Spatial Data Mining[Full-Text[References]
B. Uppalaiah, Dr. N. Subhash Chandra, A. Srinivas, Prof. T. Ajay Kumar and M,Suman

Our framework for spatial data mining heavily depend on the efficient processing of neighborhood relations since the neighbors of many objects have to be investigated in a single run of a typical algorithm. Therefore, providing general concepts for neighborhood relations as well as an efficient implementation of these concepts will allow a tight integration of spatial data mining algorithms with a spatial database management system. This will speed up both, the development and the execution of spatial data mining algorithms. In this paper, we define neighborhood graphs and paths and a small set of database primitives for their manipulation. We show that typical spatial data mining algorithms are well supported by the proposed basic operations. For finding significant spatial patterns, only certain classes of paths "leading away" from a starting object are relevant. We discuss filters allowing only such neighborhood paths which will significantly reduce the search space for spatial data mining algorithms. Furthermore, we introduce neighborhood indices to speed up the processing of our database primitives. We implemented the database primitives on top of a commercial spatial database management system. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach was evaluated by using an analytical cost model and an extensive experimental study on a geographic database.

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The structure of Spacetime[Full-Text[References]
Albanay, Youssef. A

The special theory of relativity postulates that the speed of light is always constant in a vacuum. However, recent experiments [5, 6, 7] indicate that the photon has a very small but nonzero mass, which will affect the speed of light. According to quantum theory, the photon is a massless particle, and it is purely energy. But the photon having mass will contradict the photon's definition in quantum theory, because in the special theory of relativity, there is a relationship between mass and energy. In this paper, I will discuss the meaning of the photon's mass and how we can unify the definitions of the photon in quantum theory (pure energy) and in special relativity (a particle). At first, I will discuss the relativistic mass and then derive new relativistic equations regarding time and length. As we will see, these new equations are useful for the interpretation of the truth, which says: Why can only massless particles spread over an infinite range? However, we have to introduce a new model using these new equations. Finally, we will show that the origin of the elementary particles' masses can be interpreted in this model.

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Detection of IED Using Nanotechnology[Full-Text[References]
Muthukumar K. & Devi Mala E

Security is the key factor of world's peace. Terrorists are using Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) for their attacks. Identification of IED is not simple, the only way to identify IED is by using chemical sensors but using a chemo sensors is quiet complex and more expensive. So we brought nano sensors to identify it. Using nano sensors is much efficient & highly sensitive at the single molecule level. Nano materials provide a strong potential to create sensors for detecting explosives. Electronic noses, nano wire / nano tube and nano material device are nano sensor concepts with strongest potential to form detecting devices & also to detect the conventional bombs, plastic explosives and grenades. Generally IED can be identified by trained dogs but it is quiet difficult to maintain and using in sensational places. Electronic nose is mainly composed of chemical sensor system, sampling system and a pattern recognition system as a neural network. This composited detector can sense the odour difference caused by explosives and converts it to signals. For instance electrical conductivity in a nanotube changes due to interacting with molecules of an explosive analyze, as a result of highly selective adsorption. Nanomechanical effects induced by molecular adsorption offer unprecedented opportunities for trace explosive detection. Though nano is also implied in some screening techonologies, really developed sensors are nanosensors as it have advanced sensitivity and selectivity of explosive detection systems. There are some challenges in detecting explosives such as fabrication of sensors, providing stability, sampling and reliable calibration and identification of pattern in complex changing backgrounds. Overcoming the difficulties nano sensors combined with advances in conventional detection platforms have high efficiency and stability to detect by advanced solution concluded in the paper. All governments of world have now realized the significance of explosive threats.

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Exact solution of a problem of dynamic deformation and nonlinear stability of a problem with a Blatz-Ko material[Full-Text[References]
Edouard DIOUF

The aim of the paper is to study the phenomena of stability of a hollow tube subjected to combined deformations. The model used is that of Blatz-Ko in compressible and dynamic. Before studying the stability, we have solved a boundary value problem with exact solution. The results could be applied in biomechanics.

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Morphology of YSZ Thin Films on Ag Substrate[Full-Text[References]
Shirley Tiong Palisoc, Rose Ann Tegio, Michelle Natividad, Simon Gerard Mendiola Benjamin Tuason, Kevin Kaw and Stephen Tadios

Different concentrations of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) grown on silver (Si) substrate was investigated in this paper. Suspension containing 10wt%, 30wt% and 50wt% YSZ were fabricated using the spin coating technique on silver keeping all other parameters constant such as the coating parameters and sintering temperature. The surface morphology and thickness of the films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed porous YSZ films which become less porous as the concentration of YSZ increases. The thickness of the films was also affected by the YSZ concentration. As the concentration increases, the thickness of the films also increases. The crystal structure of the fabricated films was also determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy. Both techniques revealed a cubic fluorite structure independent of the concentration of YSZ.

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A Novel Miniaturized Log Periodic Antenna[Full-Text[References]
V. Rajya Lakshmi and G.S.N. Raju

Log-Periodic Dipole Antenna (LPDA) is a common and important broadband antenna, due to its non-frequency dependent characteristic. However, in the conventional design, the physical size is restricted to the longest oscillator dipole with the lowest resonant frequency, which is quite large and constrains its application. To realize the antenna miniaturization, many methods, including loading technology, fractal technology, meandering line technology etc. have been used to reduce the size of antenna without reducing the antenna's performance. To achieve the purpose of miniaturization of the LPDA, this paper presents a novel structure of log-periodic antenna loaded with symmetrical meandering dipoles. The modeling and simulation of the above design is carried out using a 3D Electro- magnetic simulator WIPL-D microwave.

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Performance Evaluation of Computer Simulated Extracted Features of Induction Motor with Intermediate State of Degradation Present in Any Two-Phases[Full-Text[References]
Amit J. Modak, H. P. Inamdar

The state of degradation of stator groundwall insulation in induction motor results in the state of unbalance in three-phase stator current at fundamental frequency. In this investigation, the computer simulation model to determine this state of unbalance is developed. On the basis of park's transformation model the unbalanced stator current data in three-phase machine variable ('abc') form is first transformed into equivalent two-phase ('dq') model form. The park's current vector components are then presented in a graphical dq-data pattern form and certain mathematical parameters are deduced. The computer simulation model is designed to extract simulated electrical variables and mathematical parameters of induction motor under test. The practical assumption of stator winding of induction motor being star (?) connected with isolated neutral is considered. The extracted features of induction motor for particular case of variation in the state of degradation of stator groundwall insulation occurring in respective phases is presented. The performance evaluation of extracted features for the variation in the state of degradation of insulation in one particular phase from healthy to worst-case state along with an arbitrary intermediate state of degradation of insulation present in other two-phases is presented. On the basis of performance evaluation, it is possible to determine the appropriate selection of specific input parameter for optimal design of suitable artificial neural network classifier to distinguish the probable states of degradation of insulation.

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A Novel Algorithm of Super-Spatial Structure Prediction for RGB Colourspace[Full-Text[References]
C.S.Rawat, Seema G Bhateja, Dr. Sukadev Meher

In image compression the key challenge is to efficiently encode and represent high frequency image structural components such as patterns, edges and textures. In this work, we develop an efficient image compression scheme based on super-spatial prediction of structural units. This so-called similar structure block prediction is motivated by motion prediction in video coding, attempting to find an optimal prediction of structure components within previously encoded image regions.

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In Vitro Bioactivity and Physical - Mechanical Properties of Fe2O3 substituted 45S5 Bioactive Glasses and Glass - ceramics[Full-Text[References]
Ankesh Kumar Srivastava, Ram Pyare and S. P. Singh

Fe2O3 substituted 45S5 bioactive - glasses were prepared. Glass - derived Bioactive Glass - ceramics were obtained through controlled crystallization of bioactive glasses. Nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by the parameters obtained from differential thermal analysis (DTA) of bioactive - glasses. The formed crystalline phases in bioactive glass - ceramics were identified using X - ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Surfaces of bioactive glasses and glass - ceramics were investigated by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectrometry. The bioactivity of bioactive glasses and glass - ceramics was investigated through immersion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for different time periods by FTIR reflectance spectrometry with monitoring the pH changes and the concentration of silicon, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and iron ions in SBF solution. The density, micro hardness and flexural strength of bioactive glasses and glass - ceramics were measured. Experimental results show that a decrease in glass nucleation and crystallization temperature of 45S5 bioactive - glass by doping Fe2O3 and the formation of crystalline phases of sodium calcium silicate, in bioactive glass - ceramics. The bioactivity nearly remains same by doping 1% of Fe2O3 by weight, but after that it decreases. Crystalliziation of bioactive glasses decreases the bioactivity. The density, micro hardness and flexural strength of bioactive glass - ceramics are higher than their respective bioactive glasses and also it increases with increasing Fe2O3 content.

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Comparision of Steering Geometry Parameters of Front Suspension of Automobile[Full-Text[References]
P. N. Belkhode, A. M. Mahalle, P. P. Holay

Paper details the comparison of steering geometry parameters such as kingpin inclination angle, caster angle, camber angle, toe angle calculated from experimental observations, experimental data based model and artificial neural network theory. New techniques present the prediction of vehicle performance from the point of view of steering performance and comparison of steering performance of other vehicles.

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The Acceptance of Online Booking System (OBS) Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA): A Case of Sana'a University[Full-Text[References]
Omar Abdullah M. Al-Maktari, Rozinah Jamaludin, Al-Samarraie Hosam

This paper mainly was conducted to measure the user acceptance towards the new online booking system (OBS) for the meeting and seminar halls in the Graduate Studies of Sana'a University. TRA and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for indicating the user satisfaction were also used to perceive the user acceptance level towards the developed system. In addition, the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) model was used for designing and developing the proposed online reservation system for the meeting and seminar halls After that, an online questionnaire was administrated among 100 respondents Sana'a University to measure the visual aspects in terms of ease of use, usefulness and satisfaction. The result revealed that OBS to be easy to use, useful, and finally gained their satisfaction.

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A Survey on Trust in Semantic Web Services[Full-Text[References]
V.Mareeswari, E. Sathiyamoorthy

In the past many researchers worked in developing trust management models in various disciplines such as E-Business, Multi-Agent Systems, Web Services, Grid Computing, P2P networks, Adhoc networks etc. These trust models are lacking in accurate computation and evaluation of trustworthiness for the Semantic web services. The trust level is measured with respect to the service, service provider, service consumer, trust evaluator and the agents that are relaying services. This survey discusses the various definitions, categories, sources and relationship of trust identified in the literature. Moreover this paper focuses in depth on various trust management models and its issues for semantic web services. This paper will provide a footstep for future researchers to develop new trust model taking in to account the limitations of the models identified here.

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Wavelet For Ecg Denoising Using Multi-resolution Technique[Full-Text[References]
Alka Yadav, Naveen Dewangan, Subra Debdas

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important tool for the primary diagnosis of heart disease.ECG signal, the electrical interpretation of the cardiac muscle activity is very easy to interfere with different noises while gathering and recording. The ECG signal must be clearly represented and filtered to remove all noise and artifacts from signal. In this paper a new approach to filter the ECG signal from noise using Multi resolution Technique based on Wavelet Transform. This method gives better results than the other technique applied in this field.

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A New Logical Compact LBP Co-Occurrence Matrix for Texture Analysis[Full-Text[References]
B. Sujatha, Dr.V.VijayaKumar, Dr.P. Harini

Texture is an important spatial feature, useful for identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. Statistical and structural approaches have extensively studied in the texture analysis and classification whereas little work has reported to integrate them. One of the most popular statistical methods used to measure the textural information of images is the grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The present paper combines the Logical Compact LBP with OR operator (LCLBP-OR), which is derived on textons, with GLCM approach and LCLBPCM using three stages. The LCLBP-OR reduces the texture unit size from 0 to 255 to 0 to 15 and achieves much better rotation invariant classification than conventional LBP. The LCLBP-OR values are obtained by applying the logical OR operator in between relative positions of LBP window. To evaluate micro texture features in stage one textons are evaluated. To make texture features relatively invariant with respect to changes in illumination and image rotation LCLBP-OR images are applied on LBP images of texton shapes in stage-two. Later in stage three the GLCM is constructed on LCLBP-OR and first and second order statistical features are evaluated for precise and accurate classification. The experimental results indicate the proposed LCLBPCM method classification performance is superior to that LBP, Gabor and other methods.

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Signal Generator with Graphical User Interface Control using Wireless Sensor Technology[Full-Text[References]
Keshavamurthy, Dr.Dharmishtan K Varughese, Dr. N.J.R Muniraj

In the fields of communications, signal processing, and in Electrical Engineering more generally, a signal is any time-varying or spatial-varying quantity. In the physical world, any quantity measurable through time or over space can be taken as a signal. Within a complex society, any set of human information or machine data can also be taken as a signal. Signal processing is an area of Electrical Engineering and applied Mathematics that deals with operations on or analysis of signals, in either discrete or continuous time to perform useful operations on those signals. Signals of interest can include sound, images, time-varying measurement values and sensor data, for example biological data such as Electrocardiograms, control system signals, telecommunication transmission signals such as radio signals, and many others. Signals are analog or digital electrical representations of time-varying or spatial-varying physical quantities. So we can also realize how important is signal processing .It can not only convert data from one form (analog) to another (digital) and facilitate its communication and other needs but as well vary parameters provided to practical circuits and appliances So with the context to signals we do face certain problems that we aim to solve:(1). We do find ways to share data with other related hardware and at a distance with modern transmission protocols such as I2C and SPI. (2). Conversion of data from analog to digital and vice versa. (3). Varying power or voltage signal applied to an appliance so that we can save power consumption. (4). The development of a unit that can intelligently read the PC's request at one end and vary the data and signals as and when required.

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Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units for State Estimation using Artificial Intelligence Techniques [Full-Text[References]
Ganga Reddy Tankasala, Sridhar Sanisetty, Varun Kumar Vala

This paper deals with a study carried out to determine the optimal locations of phasor measurement units (PMUs) for a given power system. Power systems are rapidly becoming populated by PMUs as they provide valuable phasor information of voltages and currents for protection, operation and control of power systems during normal and abnormal operation. This paper focuses on the use of PMU measurements in state estimators. The principle objective was to investigate methods of determining optimal locations for PMUs so that the entire power system is observable. The recently developed AI techniques, like Genetic algorithm and artificial bee colony techniques are applied to find out the optimal placement of PMUs for various systems. It is found that the entire system can be made observable by strategically placing PMUs at one-third of the system buses for a given system.

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A Review on Printed Circuit Boards Waste Recycling Technologies and Reuse of Recovered Nonmetallic Materials [Full-Text[References]
Johan Sohaili, Shantha Kumari Muniyandi, Siti Suhaila Mohamad

From the use of renewable resources and environmental protection viewpoints, recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) receives wide concerns as the amounts of scrap PCBs increases dramatically In recent years there has been increasing concern about the growing volume of end of life electronics and the fact that much of it is consigned to landfill without any attempt being made to recycle the nonmetallic materials it contains. The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is growing rapidly in most developed countries. Waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) is significantly increasing. A large amount of nonmetallic materials in printed circuit board (PCBs) are disposed of by combustion and disposal in landfill as the main method for treating nonmetals in PCBs, but it may cause secondary pollution and resource wasting. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a proper recycling technology for waste PCBs. Several recycling technologies and potential reuses of recovered nonmetallic PCBs were reviewed in this paper. From the review, it can be said that, PCBs recycling process usually includes three process which is pretreatment, physical recycling, and chemical recycling and the recovered nonmetals were used to make models, construction materials and composite boards. The PCB nonmetal products have better mechanical characteristics and durability than traditional materials and fillers. Products derived from PCB waste processing have been brought into industrial production. The study shows that PCB nonmetals can be reused in profitable and environmentally friendly ways.

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Techniques to ensure minimum distortion of an assembly of metal parts induced due to the process of welding used for an assembly[Full-Text[References]
K. D. Hardikar, D.J.Nidgalkar, Dr. K.H. Inamdar

In manufacturing industry there are hundreds of metal parts that are joined together by welding process daily. Even a single typical automotive body has about 4000-5000 weld spots in it which joins about 200 sheet metal parts together. During the joining process many factors affect the final geometrical quality. One of the many geometrical factors affecting the final geometrical outcome of the metal part assemblies is the welding process considering welding sequence used when the parts are welded together. It is of course desirable to choose welding parameters as well as welding sequence that minimizes distortion i.e. both variation and deviation in critical dimensions of the final assembly. Reducing dimensional variation is of critical importance to improve the final product quality. In this paper takes an overview of various techniques used to achieve minimum distortion while the metal parts are being assembled. Form the various techniques discussed, the technique which yields the minimum distortion is the technique for optimization of welding process and leads towards the quality manufacturing.

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Manipulation of Near-wall Structure in a Boundary Layer Subjected to Concentrated Suction and Roughness Strip[Full-Text[References]
O.M. Oyewola

Hot-wire measurements have been made in a turbulent boundary layer subjected to a short roughness strip and concentrated suction with the view to examine their combined effect on the near-wall boundary layer structure. The suction is applied through a porous wall strip for a range of suction rate. The results indicate that, the combination of suction and roughness strip alters the pseudo-equilibrium of the boundary layer through the modification of the length scale of the turbulence structure in a phenomenological manner, suggesting that there is a possibility of them acting independently on the different mechanism of the boundary layer. While the application of suction weakened the structure, it is reactivated in the presence of the roughness element.

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Enhanced Content Based Image Retrieval Using Multiple Feature Fusion Algorithms[Full-Text[References]
R.Priya, Dr.VasanthaKalyaniDavid

Recently the usage of multimedia contents like images and videos has increased. This usage has created the problem of locating from a very large database. This paper presents Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system that uses multiple feature fusion to retrieve images. The features like color, shape and texture are used. The color histogram is used to extract color feature and active contour model is used for shape extraction. K-means and SOM algorithms are used for clustering and dimensional reduction. The experimental results show that the proposed CBIR system is better in terms of precision, recall and speed of image retrieval.

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Synthesis, Structural and Conductivity studies of Vanadium doped Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Solid Electrolytes[Full-Text[References]
K. Vijaya Babu, V. Veeraiah and P. S. V. Subba Ra

The Lithium-ion conducting materials are of much importance for the development of solid state Lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. The Lithium Lanthanum Titanate (LLT) shows the highest Li+ bulk conductivity at room temperature being potentially good electrolyte for solid state ionic devices. In the present study Lithium Lanthanum Titanate with doping of pentavalent vanadium prepared by solid state reaction method at high temperature. Precursors Li0.5-xLa0.5Ti1-xVxO3 (x=0, 0.5, 0.1 and 0.15) have perovskite cubic structure (Z=1). The crystalline phase and lattice parameter of the samples was observed in X-ray diffraction analysis. The surface morphology and microstructure of the samples was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrum. To understand the bonding nature of these materials Raman spectrum was also performed. The ionic conductivity was measured by using Frequency Response analyzer (5Hz to 1MHz). The ionic conductivity increases with the concentration of vanadium increases.

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Simulation of methanol synthesis from synthesis gas in fixed bed catalytic reactor using mathematical modeling and neural networks[Full-Text[References]
Parvaneh Nakhostin Panahi, Seyed Mahdi Mousavi, Aligholi Niaei, Ali Farzi, Dariush Salari

Recently, methanol synthesis with CO2-rich feed has drawn a lot of attention and research is currently aimed at finding a suitable catalyst for such a task. A pseudo-homogeneous model was developed for fixed bed catalytic methanol reactor based on the reaction mechanisms and mass and energy balance equations. The model utilizes the kinetic equation proposed by Vanden Bussche and Froment in 1996. With the proposed mathematical model, the profile of methanol molar flow rate, H2 and CO2 conversion, methanol yield, and temperature were achieved through the length of catalytic bed reactor. Good agreement was found between model results and industrial data. The proposed model used for calculating of reactor output against variation of the inlet molar flow H2/ CO2 in the feed then modeling of the methanol unit by use of artificial neural networks was done with obtained results from mathematical model.

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Application of IT in Biomedical Field: Present Status and Future Prospects [Full-Text[References]
Dr. Leena Jain, Dr. Kawaljeet Singh

In the knowledge economy, information has become the most important resource allowing both firms and nations to grow. For every drug that reaches the market, there are more than 10,000 compounds synthesized, characterized, and tested for biological effects if we go by conventional laboratory procedure. This process takes place in about 12 years. But this task of drug discovery and evaluation is going to carry out at much faster rate and at significantly lower cost with the use of computer based program's. called software. Not only pharmaceutical, biotechnological and biomedical research required software but production, automation of process and its control, clinical diagnosis of disease and clinical trials of anti-AIDS and cancer drug all required some sophisticated software. Overall without use of software there is no simple task is possible in biomedical research. Today, computers are so important in biomedical research and development that it may be hard to imagine a time when there were no computers to assist the researchers. In this article we summarized the use of software in different aspects of biomedical research.

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An Efficient Parallel Approach for Frequent Itemset Mining of Incremental Data [Full-Text[References]
Mrs. Chetashri Bhadane, Dr. Ketan Shah, Mrs. Prajakta Vispute

Frequent itemset mining is the essential step of data mining process. Further frequent itemset is a primary data obligatory for association rule mining. The Apriori and FP tree are conventional algorithms for mining frequent itemset and envisaging association rules based on it for knowledge discovery. The process of updating database continuously is known as incremental data mining. In real life, database updates recurrently where exactly conventional algorithms perform incompetently. If we could use the previous analysis to incrementally mine the frequent itemset from the updated database, the mining process would become more efficient and cost of mining process would be minimized. In this research, we propose a novel incremental mining scheme with a parallel approach for discovering frequent itemset. It uses a data structure called IMBT. It is a Incremental Mining Binary Tree which is used to record the itemset in an efficient way. Furthermore, our approach needs not to predetermine the minimum support threshold and scans the database only once.

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Finite element analysis of electromagnetic bulging of sheet metals[Full-Text[References]
Ali M. Abdelhafeez, M. M. Nemat-Alla, M. G. El-Sebaie

Electromagnetic forming is a high velocity forming technique that uses high pulsed current to produce repulsion electromagnetic pressure between a forming coil and the workpiece. In the FE modelling of such process two physical models are involved; electromagnetic model and mechanical model in addition to a method of coupling these models. Two well-known coupling schemes were previously used; strong coupling and loose coupling which are either takes long simulation time or gives inaccurate results. Therefore some modifications were made to the loose coupling scheme to give accurate simulation results in small duration. Material strain hardening models which describe mechanical behaviour of the used material at such high speed forming process are of primary importance to get accurate simulation results. Two hardening models were used in previous researches on this process. But no comparison between them was made to conclude the most accurate model in describing hardening behaviour of the used material. The current investigations introduce a comparison between two hardening material models that used in previous researches. The comparison was made between results of numerical simulations and experimental results obtained from literature. The used FE model is based on modified loose coupling scheme. Simulation results reveal that rate dependant power law hardening model gives the most accurate results with small average deviation compared with experimental data. It reveals also that modified loose coupling between mechanical and electromagnetic aspects is an efficient tool for getting accurate simulation results within short time.

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Churning Multiple Communication Sources in Cooperative Control of a Mobile Robot[Full-Text[References]
Chimpalthradi R. Ashokkumar

Cooperative control of a mobile robot with multiple communication sources is investigated. In the leader-follower framework, the robot is assumed as a follower and it follows the instructions of the leader. However, the communication sources are not only the leader but also its other associate following the leader. In this setup, the computation at the mobile robot need to churn the data it receives from multiple sources and simultaneously perform the task of its leader. Suppose the leader is assigned to seek a target cooperatively along with its followers. In this paper, a cooperative control algorithm compatible to the robot receiving information from more than one source is developed. The algorithm is executed for a communication pattern in decentralized architecture. Several examples of churning are illustrated and it is shown that churning significantly influences the performance. Further, the initial condition and the direction of the velocity of the follower with respect to its leader are critical to develop a formation.

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Semantic Knowledge Management System[Full-Text[References]
Paripati Lohith Kumar

The scholarly activities query, retrieval, maintenance and management of institution repository data is often difficult, because repositories are loaded with documents in a myriad of formats generated by an Institution. The current data retrieval techniques that are used in institutional repositories make use of indexing and keywords in order to retrieve information which results in reduced accuracy in matching user requests. This paper proposes a system called SEMKNOW , which will enable machine involvement to enhance the efficiency of information seeking process through flexible query option and well conceptually organized structure of documents inside the repository for researchers. Adding semantic technologies to the educational repository of the institution will add support for the functions carried out by the various roles involved in knowledge development and dissemination in academic institutions.

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Analysis of Face Recognition in MATLAB[Full-Text[References]
Mr Sanjay Kr Singh, Mr Ashutosh Tripathi, Mr Ankur Mahajan, Dr S Prabhakaran

This paper mainly focus the recognize a person's identity is important mainly for security reason, but it could also be used to obtain quick access to medical, criminal, or any type of records. Solving this problem is important because it could allow personnel to take preventive action, provide better service - in the case of a doctor's appointment, or allow a person access to a secure area.

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A Peer to Peer Overlay Approach for Topology Maintenance in Wireless Networks[Full-Text[References]
J. Vijitha Ananthi, Jennifer S Raj

Over the Internet today, computing and communications environments are significantly more complex and confusion than classical distributed systems, lacking any centralized organization or hierarchical control. Heuristic algorithm is used to maintaining a topology in wireless peer to peer networks. Here the topology of the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is maintained via peer to peer overlay nodes. During mobility localization and node movement are the major issues. To solve these issues a new approach is proposed named as "TMP - Topology Maintenance in MANET using Peer to peer overlay nodes" based on distributed and localized computing, to predict the node position in a topology tree. The performance of the proposed method is analyzed in stable and mobile conditions by analyzing power consumption, active nodes, active links, hop stretch, packet delivery ratio, network life time and other Qos parameters.

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Morphological Texture Synthesis Algorithm Using Pixel and Patch Based Approach[Full-Text[References]
G. Venkata Rami Reddy, Dr. V.VijayaKumar, Dr. M. Anji Reddy

The present paper involves a new method for synthesizing textures based on morphology. The present paper uses a combina-tion of pixel and patch-based methods using morphological region filling methods to synthesize textures. The present paper initially identifies number of regions and selects the seed points in the regions using Hit-miss-transform (HMT). The present paper initially detects the regions based on morphological contour segmentation approach, which preserves the well connectivity between regions. To make these thin contours more visible morphological thickening is performed, which preserves the original shape. The target regions are filled with patches from the source region possessing similar textures by using the seed point reference. Experimental results on various textures show that the present system can efficiently handle different textures especially with large regions. To test the efficacy of the proposed method PSNR values are calculated and compared with the existing methods. The experimental results clearly indicate the proposed method outperforms the existing method.

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Priority Based Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc[Full-Text[References]
Jiwan Pokharel, Santosh Bhandari, Saroj Sharma,Prof. S. Venkateswarlu

A mobile Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a network without using any existing infrastructure. All mobile nodes function as mobile routers that discover and maintain routes to other mobile nodes of the network and can be connected dynamically in an arbitrary manner [3]. Instead of just communicating based on the availability of power, we would implement the priority calculation algorithm in the eventual steps so as to protect the network breach as well as obtain the communication system of desired feature. Once a network has been constructed, we would not again send data packets through the same sequence of nodes in successive iterations. This would, to some extent eliminate predictability of the path of communication. Hence, we would consider the factors like the power of node, time taken for communication, interference rate for communicating node as well as attack possibility on it.

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Effect of Variation in Build-Up Parameters on Noise Reduction in Automobile Engine Silencers[Full-Text[References]
S.O. Obayopo, M.O. Oyewola, O.O. Mojola, A.A. Asere

The study focused on practical methods of reducing noise levels in automobile engine silencers. A comprehensive step to examine the flow pattern in relation to noise level generation, modify silencer parameters to effect noise level reduction is considered. The experimentation commenced with flow linearization process and this was followed by a design/build/test laboratory procedure to ascertain the minimum noise level achievable by varying the inlet pipe size, resonating chamber length and the orifice size of the geometric build up of the silencers. Results from experimentation shows a reduction in noise level to the tune of 13.2dB (A) when comparison is made with the initial noise level of silencer used as the baseline level at 76.9dB (A). The results was incorporated to generate an optimum model for the IC-engine (Volkswagen Passat Model) of 1921 cm3 engine capacity used as the test engine during the experimentation. Noise level in dB (A) were depicted on noise level-time graph

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Tamoxifen: A Novel Approach for the Treatment of Estrogen Receptor Negative Cancers[Full-Text[References]
Eun Be Kim, Judith Jacobson, Donna Leonardi

Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that is used to treat estrogen receptor positive cancers, specifically breast cancer. Tamoxifen antagonizes the estrogen receptor and thus impedes estrogen induced growth of cancer cells. However, recent studies have shown that tamoxifen also inhibits protein kinase C (PKC), a protein that activates the PKC/ Akt/ PI3k pathway. Disrupting this pathway results in the inhibition of the downstream target of the PKC/ Akt/ PI3k pathway, mTOR, a protein that promotes cell survival and growth. The aim of this project was to determine the inhibitory activity of tamoxifen on an estrogen receptor negative (ER-) cell line, specifically a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, Ramos. Enzyme immunosorbent assays were used to measure activities of PKC and mTOR. The MTS assay was used to measure Ramos cell viability after tamoxifen treatment (1-25µM). Results showed that Ramos cell viability, PKC activity, and mTOR activity each decreased with statistical significance demonstrating a dose-response relationship (p < 0.05) after tamoxifen treatment (1-25µM). Tamoxifen may therefore have potential as a treatment for not just ER positive cancers, but cancers that have a constitutively activated PKC/PI3k/Akt pathway.

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Land Use and Land cover for one Decade in Coimbatore Dist Using Historical and Recent High Resolution Satellite Data[Full-Text[References]
M.Renuka Devi, Lt.Dr.S.Santhosh Baboo

The awareness of landuse / land cover assessment is very important to understanding natural resources, their utilization, conservation and management. In recent years remote sensing and Geographical Information System have gained importance as vital tools in the analysis of temporal data at the district and citylevel. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of high-resolution satellite data and computer aided GIS techniques in assessing landuse / land cover change detection for the period 1990 to 2000 within the study area, Coimbatore District. This paper describes assessment of the land use and land cover changes in the Coimbatore District for one decay. IRS IC images of 1990 and 2000 were analyzed using Erdas Imagine software and ArcGIS. A total of five broad landuse and land cover classes were identified. These were crop land ,Barren land,forest , water bodies and built up land. This study identified population growth, built up land and lack of proper education as causes of the changes in land use and land cover in the Coimbatore area.

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Security Analysis and Testing in Service Oriented Architecture[Full-Text[References]
Noor A. Taani, Ameera S. Jaradat

Nowadays, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) becomes the latest trend for software architectures to combine distributed services in an IT environment. SOA architecture supports an interoperable, cost efficient and reusable approach to develop IT systems for large scaled boundaries. SOA relies on web services technology that are developed independently and with increase in connectivity among these services, the security risk rise exponentially. A lot of security problems related with SOA applications have serious consequences unless it is managed in early phases. This research focus on the architecture of service oriented and the security problem which it faces, therefore soapUI tool will use to test security of the services in this environment and so overcome the security problem

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Artificial Neural Network Based Model for the Prediction of Effluent from Lab-Scale Upward Flow Hybrid Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UHASB) Reactor [Full-Text[References]
Sindhu. J. Nair, Hota H.S., Ghosh P.K. and Agrawal M.L

Anaerobic processes have gained popularity over the past decade, and have already been applied successfully for the treatment of a number of waste streams. One of the most attractive options available for such a treatment is the up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, which acts as a compact system for removal and digestion of organic matter present in sewage. The hybrid reactor UHASB is an improved version of the UASB system and combines the merits of the up flow sludge blanket and the fixed film reactors. The hybrid reactor is an economical solution for the treatment of municipal sewage. This paper presents the predictions of the effluent from a UHSAB reactor using artificial neural network. Two different neural network Error back propagation network (EBPN) and Radial basis function network (RBF) are used here for prediction, the prediction results are compared. When a UHSAB reactor is put into operation, variations of the waste water quantity and quality must be predicted using mathematical models to assist in UHSAB reactor such that the treated effluent will be controlled and meet discharge standards. In this study ANN is used to predict the effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) from the lab-scale upward flow hybrid anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UHASB).The simulation results indicated that the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 11.86, 15.53, 26.67 and 22.26 for BOD, COD, SS and TDS respectively could be achieved in case of testing. Prediction result suggests that EBPA tuned neural network (EBPN) is performing well and could predict the removal efficiencies effectively and accurately.

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An Ergonomic Evaluation and Intervention Model: Macro Ergonomic Approach [Full-Text[References]
N. Sadra Abarghouei, H. Hosseini Nasab

The nature of ergonomics performs a unique role in protecting human health and preventing health risks. It is clear that improvements in productivity indices in the systems can be seen, resulting in better work conditions for people employed in production and services systems. Investigative results reveal that theoretical and applicable discussions about ergonomic science have not been considered seriously. In this research, a theoretical model has been developed and operated in an educational organization (EO) in order to lead and guide the "Ergonomics Interventions Process (EIP)" and to evaluate it. Therefore, EIP begins with macro ergonomic intervention and then the necessary planning is done and applied in the second stage simultaneously for micro ergonomic interventions. In this study, the results of "Total Ergonomics" (Micro and Macro ergonomics) intervention evaluations show that positive effects of applying this knowledge can be seen in increased productivity and reduced musculoskeletal disorder (MSDs). A performance comparison with the base year indicates lower costs, increased revenue and more work accomplished with a smaller work force. Data analysis of "body mapping questionnaire" showed a significant difference in confidence of ninety-nine percent between the sample and control population and a reduction in the number of musculoskeletal disorders. These indices indicate the positive effect of intervention ergonomics.

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The Modeling and Simulation of a Microturbine Generation System[Full-Text[References]
Godswill Ofualagba

In a hybrid energy system consisting of renewable sources of energy, there should be some storage facility or backup generation to maintain continuity of supply to the load when renewable source alone is not sufficient. The objective of this paper is to present one of such generating system that is capable of acting as a backup generator. This paper presents the modeling and simulation of a microturbine generation (MTG) system, the nonrenewable source of energy suitable for isolated as well as grid-connected operation. The system comprises of a permanent magnet synchronous generator driven by a microturbine. A brief description of the overall system is given and mathematical models for the microturbine and permanent magnet synchronous generator are presented. The developed models are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink.

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Analysis of seismic waveforms using full-bridge voltage source inverter[Full-Text[References]
Mehrdad Habibi

The current research talks about a designed accelerometer system which is able to measure every type of mechanical vibration. The applied vibration in this survey is called seismic wave. Then the measured wave by this novel system is transformed to a specific function using spline interpolation. This explicit function can be used as a reference signal in the technique PWM to be made in current form in such a way that it becomes exactly similar to the shape of vibration wave caused by the inverter of two-branch, full-bridge voltage supply. The aim is eventually to use this approach for some technical applications such as designing of an seismic table.

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Carbon CCS Financing in the Developing Countries: Prospects, Problems And Possible Solutions[Full-Text[References]
Nafi'u Tijjani ,Kaisan M. Usman, Yusuf B. Habib

Developing countries comprise of mostly Asian, African, and Latin American countries that make up the overwhelming majority of the world's population, containing more than two-third of the population. These countries constitute the majority of annex2 countries as defined in Kyoto Protocol; they have little or no emission restrictions. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the most recent and important climate mitigation technologies, it allows the capture, transportation and storage of the CO2 (The major green house gas) from the mixture of flue gases emitted from coal fired plants and from oil and gas industries. Most of the Industrialized Countries however, constitute the annex1 countries in Kyoto Protocol and hence, are faced with emission restrictions. Recent reports have shown that the developing countries have more potential to enjoy clean development mechanism (CDM) projects as stipulated by article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, but it is obvious that most of these countries have few or no CCS projects, especially at this time when CCS is given serious consideration under the Protocol. Many CCS and renewable energy financing programs are obtainable from Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) and World Bank Group such as; International Bank for Reconstructions and Development (IBDR), International Finance Corporation (IFC) and Multilateral Insurance Guarantee Agencies (MIGA). Unfortunately, most of the funds are enjoyed by the developed countries. Only a few of the developing countries access the fund and at low percentage compared to the former. Therefore, this article reviews the CCS financing in the Developing Countries, its prospects, problems and possible solutions.

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Effect of magnesium on strength and microstructure of Aluminium Copper Magnesium alloy[Full-Text[References]
Girisha.H.N, Dr.K.V.Sharma

Cast Al - Cu- Mg alloys have widely used in aircraft, aerospace, ships and boat making, industrial and architectural applications for their good mechanical properties, high strength-to-weight ratio. An intensive study of these cast aluminium family has been found in the literature in terms of enhancing the mechanical properties. The objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of magnesium on microstrructural changes and mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness of the Al4Cu alloys. The modifications of Al4Cu by adding Mg of 0.5 to 2 % in the interval of 0.5% mixing with stirrer and casted by gravity die casting, subsequently the specimens were subjected T6 type heat treatment for 5 hr at 175?C. The effect of Mg and ageing on microstructure was studied by using optical microscope with image analysis software for measuring grain size and dendrite arm spacing. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness were studied using universal testing machine and Brinell hardness tester respectively. The micro-structural analysis result shows the 2 % addition of Mg reduces the 20% grain size and 21.52% dendrite structure. The tensile strength and hardness increasing with % of Mg. The addition of 2% Mg increases tensile strength 57.9% and hardness of 25%. Aging specimens showed that 1% of Mg influence more on grain refinement and mechanical properties due to smaller the grain size.

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Elastic Properties of substituted 45S5 Bioactive Glasses and Glass - ceramics[Full-Text[References]
Ankesh Kumar Srivastava, Ram Pyare and S. P. Singh

CuO, Fe2O3, MnO2 and ZnO substituted 45S5 bioactive - glasses were prepared. Glass - derived Bioactive Glass - ceramics were obtained through controlled crystallization of bioactive glasses. The formed crystalline phases in bioactive glass - ceramics were identified using X - ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Density and ultrasonic wave velocities of bioactive glasses and glass - ceramics were measured and used to study elastic properties: Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio, of bioactive glasses and glass - ceramics. The results indicate that the addition of CuO, Fe2O3, MnO2 and ZnO contents in 45S5 bioactive glass enhances its density and elastic properties. The bioactive glass - ceramics exhibits higher density and elastic properties when compared with their corresponding bioactive glasses.

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Impact Analysis : Deciphering the Advantages and Limitations in Improving Processes using Six Sigma, JIT,TQM and SCM- A Thorough Study[Full-Text[References]
NILESH VIJAY FURSULE, Dr. SATISH V. BANSOD ( Ph.D), SWATI N. FURSULE

TQM and SCM have both played and increasing role in strengthening implementing Six Sigma. Six Sigma is both a philosophy and a methodology that improves quality Despite the pervasiveness of Six Sigma program implementations, there is increasing concern about implementation failures. Research on Just-in-Time (JIT), Total Quality Management (TQM), Six Sigma ( SS) and Supply Chain Management (SCM) generally investigate the implementation and impact of these programs in isolation. However, many researchers believe and argue conceptually the value of understanding the joint implementation and effect of manufacturing programs. However , one reason many Six Sigma programs fail is because an implementation model on how to effectively guide the implementation of these programs is lacking. While Six Sigma is increasingly implemented in industry, little academic research has been done on Six Sigma and its influence on quality management theory and application. There is a criticism that Six Sigma simply puts traditional quality management practices in a new package. To investigate this issue and the role of Six Sigma in quality management, this study reviewed both the traditional quality management and Six Sigma literatures. Quality professionals are aware that the six-sigma methodology employs existing, well-known tools developed in quality sciences and are based on the works of Deming, Juran, Ishikawa, Taguchi, and others. Nevertheless six sigma, a Motorola innovation, has been a positive force. This paper addresses benefits and limitations of implementing Six Sigma in combination to TQM through a through study.

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Analysis of RF MEMS Square Spiral Inductor[Full-Text[References]
Pushpinder Sharma ,Manish Mehta

This paper involves analysis of a physical model for square spiral inductor on silicon. The impacts of changes in number of turns of square spiral inductor are studied extensively. The simplicity of the physical model enables a computational procedure for efficiently optimizing the inductance,resistance magnetic flux density. Square spiral inductor from 2.5 to 9.5 turns are studied in frequency range of 1 to 10 GHz.

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Artificial Neural Network[Full-Text[References]
Mr.Paduri Veerabhadram , Mrs.Antoinette Lombard, Dr.Pieter Conradie

Artificial neural nets (ANNs) are massively parallel systems with large numbers of interconnected simple processors. The article discusses the motivations behind the development of ANNs and describes the basic biological neuron and the artificial computational model. It outlines network architectures and learning processes, and presents some of the most commonly used ANN models. It concludes with character recognition, a successful ANN application.

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Conceptual Framework Of Centrifugal Pumps Towards Industrial Revolution[Full-Text[References]
Selvarasu.A,Kanthavel.K,Krishnaraj.R,Karpagarajan.S,Ravi.G,Ramesh.R

In recent years, researchers have put a considerable effort to increase the efficiency in a centrifugal pump .The current scenariointhe impeller design interest has considerably increased in recent years in various publication, statingthe pump efficiency, pump performance, impeller design, modification the vane angle through CFD analysis has consideration to elaborate the conceptual frame work of a centrifugal pumps.

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Analyze of climate variability and change impacts on hydro-climate parameters: case study of Côte d'Ivoire[Full-Text[References]
KOUAKOU Koffi Eugène, GOULA Bi Tiè Albert, KOUASSI Amani Michel, KOUADIO Zilè Alex

The water resources of Côte d'Ivoire are very much used for water drinking supply of populations, breeding and also for the agriculture. But the abundance of this resource knew disturbances as from the years 1968 to 1970. These upheavals resulted in a fall of precipitations of 12.4% to 31.4% and flows which varied from 31.40% to 55.4%. The projections carried out on the hydro-climate parameters under scenario A1B with the climate model RegCM3 give an increase in the annual average temperatures of 3°C to 4.2°C and a downward trend of annual precipitations from 4.9% from 2100.

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DSS Framework for IT Infrastructure Technical Support[Full-Text[References]
Desabandhu.P, Dr. E.Sathiyamoorthy

Decision support system is a vital process which eradicates the distance between an actor (human) and a system while making decisions in any kind of area. Each and every DSS is made by handling interactions between human intelligence and computational intelligence. The basic idea behind the implementation of DSS for any field is to improve the business process effectively using the exact decisions. We have focused on the DSS for IT technical support. Aim of this paper is to build a DSS framework for IT technical support. We describe a DSS using the basic components integrated along with the technical DSS components. We use a technical support tool as initial component for the process. Finally, the paper proposed a DSS frame work to develop a DSS to make decisions in the area of IT Technical support.

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Study of Inoculum size, Incubation temperature and Nucleic Acid Concentration on the Single Cell Protein produced by using Soymilk residue (Okara)[Full-Text[References]
Mahmood Khan Yousufi

Okara, a soymilk residue is produced in huge quantities in soymilk industries. In the present investigation three combinations of Okara and wheat grits where prepared in the ratio of 3:1 (60% moisture content), 1:1 (40% moisture content), 1:3 ( 25 % moisture content) respectively. The combinations were inoculated with two fungal species viz. Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus oryzae, with an inoculum size of 1.0 x 10 3 , 1.0 x 10 4 and 1.0 x 10 5 cfu per g substrate. The combinations were incubated at different temperatures i.e. 200 c, 250 c and 300 c. The combinations were finally analyzed for the effective inoculum size, incubation temperature and nucleic acid concentration. The results obtained depict that the best inoculum size for maximum SCP yield was 1.0 x 10 3 cfu per g substrate. The best incubation temperature was found to be 250 c. The maximum nucleic acid concentration was found to be 249 mg for R. oligosporus and 260 mg for A. oryzae.

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A Detailed Computer Analysis Of SiC And GaN Based IMPATT Diodes Operating at Ka, V And W Band[Full-Text[References]
D. Ghosh, B. Chakrabarti, M. Mitra

From 1965 onwards lot of developments and simulation works have been done in the field of IMPATT diode to improve its power output, efficiency and frequency range of operation using low band gap material like Si, GaAs, InP etc. In this paper a comprehensive study has been made on IMPATT diodes based on high band gap materials, GaN (Wz) and SiC (4H) operating at Ka, V and W-band respectively relative to fabrication and it has been found that SiC based IMPATT gives improved performance at low frequency bands whereas GaN based IMPATT's show better response at higher frequency bands. Efficiency around 23% is obtained from SiC IMPATT and about 17% for GaN IMPATT diode. In general the power frequency relation for any device is inverse, but power decreases at a faster rate in case of SiC IMPATT than a GaN IMPATT with the increase of frequency

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Off-line Signature Verification Using Neural Network [Full-Text[References]
Ashwini Pansare, Shalini Bhatia

A number of biometric techniques have been proposed for personal identification in the past. Among the vision-based ones are face rec-ognition, fingerprint recognition, iris scanning and retina scanning. Voice recognition or signature verification are the most widely known among the non-vision based ones.As signatures continue ti play an important role in financial, commercial and legal transactions, truly secured authentication becomes more and more crucial. A signature by an authorized person is considered to be the "seal of approval" and remains the most preferred means of authentication.The method presented in this paper consists of image prepossessing, geometric feature extraction, neural network training with extracted features and verifcation. A verification stage includes applying the extracted features of test signature to a trained neural network which will classify it as a genuine or forged.

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Improvement in the V-Model[Full-Text[References]
Ravi Shanker Yadav

The V-model represents a software development process (also applicable to hardware development) which may be considered an extension of the waterfall model. Instead of moving down in a linear way, the process steps are bent upwards after the coding phase, to form the typical V shape. The V-Model demonstrates the relationship between each phase of the development life cycle and its associated phase of testing. The horizontal and vertical axes represents time or project completeness (left-to-right) and level of abstraction (coarsest-grain abstraction uppermost), respectively. This model depends on verification and validation phase Software Testing is the most important phase of the Software Development Life Cycle. On most software projects testing activities consume at least 30 percent of the project effort. On safety critical applications, software testing can consume between 50 to 80percent of project effort. Software testing is essential to ensure software quality. Schedule is always running tight during the software system development, thereafter reducing efforts of performing software testing management. In such a situation, improving software quality becomes an impossible mission It is our belief that software industry needs new approaches to promote software testing management. The article discussed the model that already existed, further excavates the parallelism between test stages and maintenance test stages and tries to propose a improved V model. This model makes the software testing pass through the each stage of software development cycle

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An Overview of Rural Electrification in Bangladesh[Full-Text[References]
Tausif Ali, Iftekhar Zaman Arnab, Muhammad Omar Faruk

Bangladesh is an energy hunger country. After the liberation war to meet up power crisis was one of the most important challenges for government. Day by day the challenge becomes really harder to harder to meet up power crisis, especially to meet up power crisis in rural area. So government formed Rural Electrification Board (REB) from Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) to fulfill the power demand for village people. This organization is playing a vital role for the village people. After the establishment of REB now all most 50% of the villages are being electrified. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of REB and at the same time emphasis is given socio economic impact of REB.

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A Low Cost Surface Electromyogram (sEMG) Signal Guided Automated Wheel Chair for the Disabled[Full-Text[References]
Taslim Reza, S.M.Ferdous, Md. Nayeemul Hasan, Md. Rokonuzzaman, Kazi Firoz Ahmed, A.Z.M.Shahriar Muttalib

This paper discusses the exploratory research of a simple, effective and low cost design of a microcontroller based wheelchair using the sEMG signal collected from the neck muscles which will allow a disabled person to control the wheelchair only by using the movement of his neck. Among the different neck muscles, upper trapezius muscle has been chosen for collection of the sEMG signals which are used to move, control and navigate the wheel chair. The main purpose of the work is to design a cost-effective, easily affordable and accessible wheel chair for the disabled general masses where advanced attachments like on board computer, digital cameras, sophisticated sensors etc. are not being used, rather concentration has been paid on designing a more practical and simple but effective system using an electrically controlled differential drive with only two wheels

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Decolourisation of Synthetic Dyes by Agricultural Waste- A Review[Full-Text[References]
Neetu Sharma, D.P. Tiwari, S. K. Singh

Decolourisation of waste water has now become a major problem for the treatment plants in various industries. Many industries use synthetic dyes to colour their products such as textiles, rubber, paper, plastics, leather, cosmetic, food etc. Nearly 10-15% of synthetic textile dyes, used yearly are lost to waste streams and about 20% of these losses enter the environment through effluent from waste water treatment plant. Numerous techniques were used in the recent past for decolourisation of dyes. Among them adsorption technique has got maximum potential for the removal of dyes. Adsorption being a physical process, in-expensive and less time consuming, is widely accepted. It is evident from last 20-25 years that many researchers have studied the feasibility of low cost adsorbents derived from natural material, industrial material, agricultural waste and bio-adsorbents and resulted in innovative approach in this area. The current research is focussed on the need to develop an efficient adsorbent with cost effectiveness and high potentiality. From the survey of about 80-85 research papers, it was concluded that low cost adsorbents obtained from agricultural waste products were found to be having outstanding removal capabilities. This paper reviews the suitability of both raw and chemically modified agricultural products in the decolourisation of synthetic dyes

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Survey of Compressive Sensing[Full-Text[References]
Usham Dias, Milind Rane, S. R. Bandewar

In the conventional sampling process, for perfect reconstruction of signal according to Nyquist-Shannnon sampling theorem, a band-limited analog signal has to be sampled at atleast twice its highest frequency. The Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem provides a sufficient condition, but not a necessary one, for perfect reconstruction. The field of compressive sensing provides a stricter sampling condition when the signal is known to be sparse or compressible. Compressive sensing specifically yields a sub-Nyquist sampling criterion. Compressive sensing contains three main problems: sparse representation, measurement matrix and reconstruction algorithm. By now, some available measurement matrices have been discovered, such as Gaussian or Bernoulli independent and identically distributed (i.i.d) random matrices, scrambled Fourier matrix and some structurally random matrices etc. For nonlinear reconstruction, besides the Basis Pursuit (BP) method, several fast greedy algorithms have been proposed, such as the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), Regularized OMP, Compressive Sampling OMP. When reconstructing 2D images, besides BP, another popular method is through the minimization of total variation (min-TV) [2].

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Survey of Palmprint Recognition[Full-Text[References]
Priyanka Somvanshi, Milind Rane

A biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system which makes a personal identification by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristic possessed by the user. Biometric has gained much attention in the security world recently. Many types of personal identification systems have been developed and palmprint verification is one of the emerging technologies because of its stable, unique characteristics, low-price capture device, fast execution speed also it provides a large area for feature extraction. Palmprint recognizes a person based on the principal lines, wrinkles and ridges on the surface of the palm. The recognition process consists of image acquisition, preprocessing, feature extraction, matching and result. The different techniques are used for the preprocessing, feature extraction, classifiers. The methods discussed are for the online palmprint recognition

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Analysis & Design of Congestion Avoidance Scheme for Active Queue Management Problem for Linear Systems[Full-Text[References]
Asst. Prof Rakesh Mandal and Asst. Prof. Anirudh Mudaliar

The Kalman Filter (KF) is used to optimally estimate system states from the sequential noisy measurements of the outputs. On the other hand, real-time systems are often modeled with uncertainties and time-delays. Developing KF algorithms for such systems is an important problem to obtain optimal state estimates by utilizing the information on uncertainties and time-delays. First, designing of KF for nominal discrete-time systems is studied. Considering the covariance of the error in the estimation the KF algorithm is derived which is further tested on a numerical example. A designed KF is tested on a real-time problem i.e. Active Queue Management (AQM) problem. In Internet routers, Active Queue Management (AQM) is a technique that consists in dropping or Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) marking packets before a router's queue is full

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Design of Data Acquisition System Implemented with a Free Cooling Unit (FCU) Controller For a BTS Room[Full-Text[References]
Sadeque Reza Khan, Ahmed Al Mansur, Alvir Kabir, Md. Modasshir, Ahmed Al Marouf

The scarcity of electricity causing serious dislocation in all spheres of life, including production in agricultue and industries as well as in the section of cellular communication. To reduce the wastage of electricity in BTS room now-a-days celluler operators are using different ventilation systems instead of Air Conditioner (AC). Recently many operators like Banglalink, a leading telecom operator in Bangladesh are interested to interface a data acquisition system with these ventilation systems in BTS rooms.So in this paper a modern ventilation system FCU is designed interfacing with a Micro SD card for data acquisition especially for Banglalink BTS. FCU is an electronic instrument that records the temperature data and takes decision according to that data. This research work deals with the PIC18F4520 which includes 10 bit ADC for data conditioning and 32K bytes of program memory which provides the advantage of interfacing a FAT-16 system with microprocessor. In display section 4X20 LCD display is used for user interaction.

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Analytical Investigations on Carrier Recovery For A 16-qam Receiver Used In Software Defined Radio[Full-Text[References]
Mansi Kapahi, Amandeep Singh Sappal

In this paper analytical investigation has been done on the closed-loop carrier recovery scheme for a 16-QAM receiver. Additional filter called random walk filter has also been used to reduce symbol clock jitter, particularly when the signal constellation contains many points

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VLSI Design of Low Power Booth Multiplier[Full-Text[References]
Nishat Bano

This paper proposes the design and implementation of Booth multiplier using VHDL. This compares the power consumption and delay of radix 2 and modified radix 4 Booth multipliers. Experimental results demonstrate that the modified radix 4 Booth multiplier has 22.9% power reduction than the conventional radix 2 Booth Multiplier

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Efficient Agent Based Testing Framework for Web Applications[Full-Text[References]
Ms.Neha Saluja Prof.Amit Kanskar

Now days, making use of web based applications becomes crucial for the success of businesses worldwide. But as they are open and built on Internet, this kind of applications is imposing the new challenges to the developers and researchers such as such as dynamic behaviors, heterogeneous representations, novel control flow and data flow mechanisms, etc. In the previous studies, the agent based approach provided for web application testing in order to reduce the complexity of such applications. A four-level data flow test approach can be employed to perform structure testing on them. In this approach, data flow analysis will be performed as Function Level Testing, Function Cluster Level Testing, Object Level Testing, and Web Application Level Testing, from low abstract level to high abstract level. But that approach was limited because only the basic features of such framework are implemented. Therefore, in this research thesis we are further extending that framework with more specific features implement like specific test agents for each particular type of Web document or object. Moreover, integrating more testing approaches, such as navigation testing, object state testing, statistical testing, etc., is still necessary for a systematic testing approach for Web applications.

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Switching Median Filter For Image Enhancement[Full-Text[References]
R. Pushpavalli and Shivaradje

In this paper, a new nonlinear filtering technique is introduced for enhancement of images that are highly contaminated by impulse noise. The proposed filtering technique is more effective in eliminating impulse noise and preserving the image features. The filter replaces a corrupted pixel by the median value or by its processed neighboring pixel value. The uncorrupted pixels are left undisturbed. Simulation studies show that the proposed filter can eliminate impulse noise of densities up to 70% while preserving the edges and fine details satisfactorily. The performance of the filter is evaluated by applying it on different test images and the results obtained are presented

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A Solution for the misery of people in Tanzania[Full-Text[References]
Mr. A.Rajkumar, Dr. A.Victor devadoss, Dr.A.praveen prakash,Mrs.Jose Parveena

The Imperative reasons for misery of people in Tanzania using combined overlap block fuzzy cognitive maps(COBFCMS) defined by W.B Vasantha kandaswamy is analyzed in this paper. The combined overlap block FCM's defined in this method become effective when the number of concepts can be grouped and are large in numbers. In this paper we analyzed the problem and are large in number. In this paper we analyzed the problem and find out the major reasons for misery of people in Tanzania. This paper has six sections, first section gives the information about development of fuzzy cognitive maps, second section gives preliminaries of fuzzy cognitive maps, and combinied overlap block fuzzy cognitive maps, in section three we explain about the reasons why the people in Tanzania having life misery, in section four we explain the method of determining their hidden pattern, in section five, we give the concept of the problem, final section gives the conclusion based on our studies

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Photolithographic Techniques for LSI & VLSI[Full-Text[References]
M.G.WANI

Writing the patterns of the Electronics of a digital computer on a minute silicon crystal of 0.2 square inch area.. This thin minute crystal slice (chip) contains 512,000 transistors other resistor capacitor components. Writing the pattern is just the start subsequent processing involves several other steps.

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Mechanism for Enhancing the Overall Performance of Multicore Processors[Full-Text[References]
Pankaj Rakheja, Charu Rana, Mandeep Singh Narula

Multicore architectures are focused on improving the performance of the processor however their performance depends on the thread level parallelism of the application program which is difficult to extract and the design and production of multicore architectures is through a unreliable fabrication technology which imposes significant barriers to lifelong reliable operation of chip as they are vulnerable to defects and disturbances. In this paper we are proposing a mechanism to enhance overall performance of the multicore processors by adopting multiple cache cores and check cores with improvement in software managed L1 cache of computation core and algorithm implemented there to access right cache core to reduce cache miss and memory access frequency and to isolate it at right instant to prevent degradation in performance in case of L2 cache miss in cache core. We have designed a mechanism which will try to eliminate the defects in redundant as well as non redundant logic structures in the core for enhancing its performance and efficiency. We are stressing on thread scheduling, thread swapping and core salvaging at micro architectural level that is at the basic gate levels in the core which enhance overall performance and efficiency of the processor which can be aided by Intel quickpath interconnect technology and frequency scheduling that can reduce power consumption, speed up as well as optimize the core to core communication.

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The Role of Packaging in Brand Communication[Full-Text[References]
Arun Kumar Agariya, Ankur Johari, Hitesh K Sharma, Udit N S Chandraul, Deepali Singh

Packaging is considered as an integral part of the 'Product' of marketing mix. Along with basic objectives (protection and preservation, containment, convenience and communication) packaging serves as a promotional tool. Packaging is an important part of the branding process as it plays a vital role in communicating the image and identity of an organization. The objective of this study is to find out role of packaging in brand communication and determining the elements/attributes of packaging for communicating the brand value to customers. To pursue these objectives the authors have developed a research framework for packaging which furcates the main objective into four sub-objectives namely dependence of packaging design upon the buyer attraction, communication to buyer, convenience in handling and using, saleability of product and green aspect; relationships between liking for package and brand, country of origin, colour connotation, symbol connotation and size; relationships between communication through the package and independent variables like information, shape, brand image and symbols/logos; relationship between usability of package and ease of handling, disposability and protection. Data is collected through questionnaire along with the measurement of pulse rate of respondents with the help of pulse oxy-meter. Reliability test is carried out for questionnaire's consistency and then multiple regression analysis is done to formulate relationship between dependent variable and independent variables. This research reveals the importance of buyer attraction in package design and unimportance of environmental considerations. Similarly customers are more likely to give weightage to branded product than to the package and shape of package is the significant attribute of communication through product packaging

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Wireless Monitoring Of the Green House System Using Embedded Controllers[Full-Text[References]
Miss.Vrushali R. Deore , Prof. V.M. Umale.

Plant growth is affected by various factors. The most important factors for the quality and productivity of plant growth are temperature, humidity, light. Continuous monitoring of these environmental variables gives information to the grower to better understand, how each factor affects growth and how to manage maximal crop productiveness. The optimal greenhouse climate adjustment can enable us to improve productivity and to achieve remarkable energy savings - especially during the winter in northern countries. The main purpose of a greenhouse is to provide and maintain the environment that will result in optimum crop production or maximum profit. This includes an environment for work efficiency as well as for crop growth. There has been much research and design about environment control using sophisticated technology

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Synthesis and Characterization of In2O3 Nanomaterials[Full-Text[References]
Gwen B. Castillon, Gil Nonato C. Santos

Indium (III) Oxide (In2O3) nanomaterials were grown on glass and Si (100) substrates using the horizontal vapor phase crystal growth technique. A greater yield of nanomaterials was retrieved on the glass substrate than on the Si (100) substrate. Nanopyramids, nanooctahedrons, nanotriangles, and faceted nanoparticles were found at temperatures of 1200°C, 1000°C, and 800°C. EDX results of representative structures revealed an atomic composition of ~40% indium and ~60% oxygen. XRD results revealed that the nanomaterials produced were indeed indium oxide and that the sample grown on Si (100) has better crystallinity than those formed on glass. Transmission measurements confirm that the samples grown on the glass substrate were transparent to visible light with wavelengths of 528, 586, and 673 nm.

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Magnetic Susceptibility of Superconducting MgB2 Nanomaterials[Full-Text[References]
Reynante C. Embalzado, Gil Nonato C. Santos

Superconducting MgB2 nanomaterials were synthesized using the Horizontal Vapor Phase Crystal Growth (HVPCG) technique with growth temperatures of 900?, 1000?, 1100? and 1200? with heating time of 2 to 12 hours with a two- hour increment. The grown structures were characterized by its surface morphology, crystal structure and critical temperature. Results revealed that the critical temperature of MgB2 nanomaterials fabricated at 1000°C was at 33K. SEM images revealed nanomaterials of different structures such as nanowires, nanobelts, nanorods and nanoparticles. Crystal structure of the synthesized materials revealed that the nanomaterials have growth orientation of (100), (101), and (110), which indicated that the synthesized structures are polycrystalline.

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Synthesis and Characterization of C-Ag Nanomaterials for Battery Electrode Application[Full-Text[References]
Ruby Michelle N. Buot, Gil Nonato C. Santos

Carbon-Silver composite nanomaterials were grown on the surface of a carbon rod using the Horizontal Vapor Phase Crystal Growth technique. The effect of flame annealing to the source materials before HVPC treatment and the varying ratio of the C-Ag materials were studied and was investigated using the SEM and EDX analysis. Results showed that after subjecting the annealed materials with flame, it produced a high yield of deposited nanomaterials compared to the unannealed ones. The improvement of the battery's characteristic was evident with the integration of the C-Ag nanomaterial composite and was confirmed through a comparative study of a 24 hour-voltage discharge profile against the other existing batteries and measurement of its internal resistance using dataStudio and PASCO V-I sensor.

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Bangladesh Power Sector Reform and Multi-dimensional Reflections[Full-Text[References]
Sabuj Das Gupta, S.M. Ferdous, Ahmed Mortuza Saleque

Bangladesh has practiced some reform since 1970s, more intensely in the 1990s and 2000s and is still works in progress. Electricity industry has been functionally unbundled to encourage competition. The industry is driving away from public domain to private domain. There is a lack of analysis and debate on the social, environmental, political and other agendas of reform. A condense scrutiny on these issues are essential for the development of policy prescriptions. While the review focuses on Bangladesh power sector, the messages are relevant for other developing countries undertaking reform, as they begin to dismantle and privatize their electricity infrastructures

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A Study on Hubbert Peak of Australia's Coal: A System Dynamics Approach[Full-Text[References]
Sabuj Das Gupta, Md. Fakhrul Islam, Md. Rifat Rayhan, Md. Masoom Chowdhury

American geophysicist M. King Hubbert in 1956 first introduced a logistic equation to estimate the peak and lifetime production for oil of USA. Since then, a fierce debate ensued on the so-called Hubbert Peak, including also its methodology. This paper proposes to use the VENSIM model to simulate Hubbert Peak, particularly for the Australia's coal production. At first the peak determined with intrinsic growth rate 0.054 and ultimate reserve 84 billion tons. The Hubbert Peak for Australia's coal production appears to be in 2044 with a value of 778.14 million tons. Later, sensitivity analysis has been made with different ultimate reserves and intrinsic growth rates

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A Reconciling Website System To Enhance Efficiency With Web Mining Techniques[Full-Text[References]
Joy Shalom Sona, Prof. Asha Ambhaikar

Existing website systems are not easier for user to extract information and having some shortcomings. To enhance these shortcomings we propose a new reconciling website system. It is new way to increase the efficiency of web site system using web mining techniques. It will help to reorganize the website structure to increase browsing efficiency and also to make it easier for user browsing. This paper concentrates on the browsing efficiency of website. For achieving optimize efficiency the paper introduces an algorithms to calculate efficiency accurately and to suggest how to enhance user browsing efficiency. This can be achieved by web mining techniques

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Web Mining Using Topic Sensitive Weighted PageRank[Full-Text[References]
Shesh Narayan Mishra, Alka Jaiswal, Asha Ambhaikar

The World Wide Web contains the large amount of information sources. While searching the web for particular topics, users usually fetch irrelevant and redundant information causing a waste in user time and accessing time of the search engine. So narrowing down this problem, user's interests and needs from their behavior have become increasingly important. Web structure mining plays an effective role in this approach. Some page ranking algorithms PageRank, Weighted PageRank are commonly used in web structure mining. The original PageRank algorithm search-query results independent of any particular search query. To yield more specific and accurate search results against a particular topic, we proposed a new algorithm Topic Sensitive Weighted PageRank based on web structure mining that will show the relevancy of the pages of a given topic is better determined, as compared to the existing PageRank, Topic sensitive PageRank and Weighted PageRank algorithms. For ordinary keyword search queries, Topic Sensitive Weigted PageRank scores will satisfy the topic of the query.

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Throughput Analysis of IEEE 802.16j Network[Full-Text[References]
Naresh Singh, Vikas Solomon Abel, Rodney Rambally

Relay Stations are responsible for relaying and regulating the data transmission between the Base Station and Subscriber Stations. The system performance is sensitive to the number of relays deployed and their location. An important issue is to determine the relay placement and the number of relays to be deployed in the system in order to maximise the overall system capacity and throughput. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the performance of Relay Station placement in WiMAX 802.16j in transparent mode.

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Web Application Testing: A Review on Techniques, Tools and State of Art[Full-Text[References]
Arora A., Sinha M

Web applications are meant to be viewed by human user. While this implies that quality of web application has importance in our daily life. Web application quality is our prime concern. To ensure the quality of web application, web testing is having a dandy role in Software Testing as well as Web Community. Web Applications are erring because of features provided for rising of web application. In the last years, various web testing problems have been addressed by research work. Several tools, techniques and methods have been determined to test web application efficaciously. This paper will present the contribution of researchers in the field of web application in previous years and state of art of web testing and challenges primarily because of distributed and heterogeneous nature of web application.

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ASTER DEM Based Studies for Geological and Geomorphological Investigation in and around Gola block, Ramgarh District, Jharkhand, India[Full-Text[References]
M.P. Sharma, Anukaran Kujur

Digital elevation models (DEMs) are increasingly used for visual analysis of topography, landforms, as well as modeling of surface processes. DEM of study area is generated form ASTER GDEM data of 30m resolution with the using software ARC GIS. The interpretation of the remote sensing data with conventional data and sufficient ground truth information makes possible to identify and delineate the various ground features such as geological structures, geomorphological features and their characters. The present aim of study is an attempt to delineate the geology and geomorphology in and around Gola block of Ramgargh district, Jharkhand, India, using integrated approach of Remote Sensing and GIS techniques especially ASTER DEM by observing the elevation, aspect, slope, lineament, and shaded relief of images. DEM has been an excellent supplementary information database for interpretations in the present study area along with other data.

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A Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithm for Classification using Micro array Data[Full-Text[References]
Mrs.Aruchamy Rajini, Dr. (Mrs.) Vasantha kalayani David

A metaheuristic algorithms provide effective methods to solve complex problems using finite sequence of instructions. It can be defined as an iterative search process that efficiently performs the exploration and exploitation in the solution space aiming to efficiently find near optimal solutions. This iterative process has adopted various natural intelligences and aspirations. In this work, to find optimal solutions for microarray data, nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms were adapted. A Flexible Neural Tree (FNT) model for microarray data is created using nature-inspired algorithms. The structure of FNT is created using the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and the parameters encoded in the neural tree are optimized by Firefly Algorithm (FA). FA is used to produce near optimal solutions and hence it is superior to the existing metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results were analyzed in terms of accuracy and error rate to converge to the optimum. The proposed model is compared with other models for evaluating its performance to find the appropriate model.

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Studying the relation between control source with hypochondria and life satisfaction of parents having mental retarded children[Full-Text[References]
Faramarz Sabeghi, Hossein Jenaabadi

The study was done to investigate the relation between controlling with hypochondria and life satisfaction of parents having children with mental retardation. It is a correlative study. 200 sample parents (100 mothers and 100 fathers) were chosen using simple random sampling. This study includes three questionnaires: Ratter control scale (83% kranbakh alpha), Hypochondria (79% kranbakh alpha) and Taft's life satisfaction scale (83% kranbakh alpha). Independent T test, correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used to analyze data in this research. According to regression test, there is a significant negative correlation between control source and life satisfaction. But there is no significant relation between control source and hypochondria. Results also showed that there is no significant difference between parents with internal control source and those with external control source of hypochondria. Parents with internal control source are more satisfied in life than those with external control source. Results also showed that life satisfaction has a direct relation with hypochondria and fathers are more satisfied in life than mothers.

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A Study of the Translation of Neologisms in Technical texts: a Case of Computer Texts[Full-Text[References]
Masoumeh Yazdani Moghadam , Ahmad Sedighi

In order to understand the style of the original author, the translation of the text should be the true reproduction of it. One aspect which helps translators to achieve the author style is accomplished by the translation of neologisms. Newmark [7] defined neologisms as newly coined lexical units or existing lexical units that acquire a new sense. The present study was an attempt to consider the most frequent type of neologisms in computer texts and also to identify the most common translational norm and procedure applied in their translation from English into Persian in 2000s. To achieve the aims, a parallel corpus of computer texts was selected; the instances of neologisms were identified in them and compared with their Persian counterparts. The findings of the research suggested that collocations were the most frequent type of neologisms in computer texts in 2000s, transference and lexical synonymy were the major translational norms and transference was also the most frequent translation procedure in the translation of neologisms in this specific period.

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E Governance in Education:Reasons for introduction and Impact [Full-Text[References]
Dr Sami M. Alhomod, Mohd Mudasir Shafi

Information Technology (IT) is said to be the technology of 21st century. There has been a huge growth in the field of information technology. Traditionally IT was used only to provide the back office support to organizations. Nowadays it plays a strategic role in organizations supporting many business functions and also shapes new strategies in organizations. The IT field has also been introduced in the field of governance called "E Governance". This IT based E governance has also been introduced in the field of education. The implementation of e governance in education has led to new broader innovations. E governance has enabled universities to expand their current geographical reach, to interact to prospective students all around the world and to establish themselves as global education providers. This paper examines the need for implementation of e governance in education sector and its possible advantages. The aim of this paper is to examine the nature of change in Education with respect to the introduction and growth of IT based e governance.

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Royalty on Iron ore - An overview with a special reference to India [Full-Text[References]
Dr. P.K.Jain

Levy of royalty on minerals is a universal concept. Royalty in law means a payment made to the owner of certain types of rights by those who are permitted by the owner to exercise such rights. The royalty on minerals is always a focal point for concern for government as well for industry. Any change in the royalty rate effects the fiscal performance of the mining industry. This paper provides an overview of royalty on iron ore with a special reference to India.

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Trace Elemental Analysis of Nigerian Petroleum Products Using AAS Method[Full-Text[References]
Nafi'u Tijjani, P.O Ike, B.B Usman, D. I. Malami and Alaere Matholo

Some physico-chemical analysis of samples of Gasoline, Kerosene, Diesel Oil, Low Pour Point Oil and Residual fuel have been studied. The samples were also analyzed for trace elements. The results confirmed that Heavy distillates fractions(Residual fuel and LPFO) contains trace metals higher than the distillates fraction(Automobile Gas Oil or Diesel) followed by intermediates (Dual Purpose Kerosene) and lights ends fractions(Premium Motor Sprit / Gasoline). The samples were analyzed by gravimetric and micro-kjeldahl methods for sulphur and nitrogen content respectively. The experiment data indicated that, the total sulphur and nitrogen contents increased from light ends, intermediates, distillates to heavy distillates fractions and also the concentrations of the trace metals in the petroleum products follows the same trend i.e. from less viscous petroleum products (Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel Fuel) to high viscous petroleum products sample (residual fuel and LPFO) . The results were discussed in terms of effects of this impurities on the refinery process.

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Throughput Maximization In Wireless Mesh Networks And Its Applications[Full-Text[References]
T.Nirmal Raj, G.Bhuvaneswari, S.Saranya

Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) consist of mesh routers and mesh clients, where mesh routers have minimal mobility and form the backbone of WMNs. They provide network access for both mesh and conventional clients. This paper considers the interaction between channel assignment and distributed scheduling in multi-channel, multi radio Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). Recently, a number of distributed scheduling algorithms for wireless networks have emerged. Due to their distributed operation, these algorithms can achieve only a fraction of the maximum possible throughput. As an alternative to increasing the throughput fraction by designing new algorithms, we present a novel approach that takes advantage of the inherent multi-radio capability of WMNs. We show that this capability can enable partitioning of the network into subnetworks in which simple distributed scheduling algorithms can achieve 100% throughput. The partitioning is based on the notion of Local Pooling. Using this notion, we characterize topologies in which 100% throughput can be achieved distributedly with algorithms, which characterized in Dijkstra and KBR (Key based routing) and also in this paper, we will discuss the applications of WMNs. Emerson process management comes under the industrial automation applications of WMNs using WirelessHart and Emerson's smart wireless extreme applications. It is a secure and TDMA-based wireless mesh networking technology operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM radio band. Wireless HART is a newly developed industrial standard network by the Hart Communication Foundation (HCF), which is being currently replacing the existing HART network in the industries. The HART communication protocol is an open standard, master-slave token passing network protocol, where devices are connected over 4-20 mA analog loop. Process monitoring improving the overall efficiency of our plant, we can reduce costs and improve throughput.

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The Challenges of Water Supply For A Megacity: A Case Study Of Lagos Metropolis[Full-Text[References]
S.O. Oyegoke, A.O. Adeyemi and A.O. Sojobi

Lagos State has grown from 300,000 and 500,000 in 1950 and 1991 to an unprecedented population of 15.7 million (Mabogunje, 2002). Already, it is projected to have a population of 25 million by 2015 which will make Lagos the third largest megacity after Tokyo and Bombay and a population of 29 million by 2020, with an annual growth rate of 8 %( UNCHS, 1996; George, 2010; LWC, 2011). This scenario presents enormous emerging challenges as well as opportunities that are numerous, diverse and inevitable. This geometric population growth, coupled with accelerated industrialization and urbanization, has contributed immensely to the hydra-headed problems of water scarcity, uneven and inadequate pipe-borne water distribution and transmission, increased exposure to incidence of water-borne diseases such as typhoid and cholera leading to loss of lives and valuable man-hours. There is increased reliability on unwholesome water sources such as "pure" water sachets, polluted surface and underground waters, and increased urban poverty owing to a combination of the above problems, the increased cost of production for industries and increased distribution losses (Akunyili, 2003).

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Accident Analysis of Narora Fire Accident[Full-Text[References]
G DivyaDeepak

A major accident took place in a nuclear power plant located at Narora in Northern India. A huge fire with bright yellow - red flame was seen at both the ends of generator. Extensive damage to the power & control cables and bus ducts took place during this accident. The vertical aluminum ducting above the neutral transformer has completely melted The ducts ending near the excitation panels had been shattered. All the panels of AVR, Field Breaker & thyristor cubicles were completely damaged in the fire. Mechanical failures include fatigue fracture of Blades of the turbine. [1]In this project work, we have analyzed the narora fire accident and performed a root cause analysis and suggest the various alterations which can help prevent such accidents in future.

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Preprocessing in Web Usage mining[Full-Text[References]
Marathe Dagadu Mitharam

Web usage mining to discover history for login user to web based application. Web usage mining is the process of data mining techniques. Web usage mining to extract useful information form server log files. It is an automatic discovery of patterns in clickstreams and associated data collected or generated as a result of user interactions with one or more Web sites.

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Analysis of Execution Plans in Query Optimization[Full-Text[References]
Dr. Sunita M. Mahajan, Mrs. Vaishali P. Jadhav

The sequence in which the source tables are accessed during query execution is called a query execution plan. The process of selecting one execution plan from potentially many possible plans is referred to as query optimization. The query optimizer is one of the most important components of a query processor. The input to the optimizer consists of the query, the database schema (table and index definitions), and the database statistics. The output of the optimizer is a query execution plan, sometimes referred to as a query plan or just a plan. The goal is to eliminate as many unneeded tuples, or rows as possible. The paper describes the design of query optimizer with four basic phases such as Query Analysis, Index Selection Join Selection and Plan Selection.

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Reliability Analysis of a Cold Stand By System with Repair-Equipment Failure and Appearance and Disappearance of Repairman with Correlated Life Time[Full-Text[References]
Mohit Kakkar , Ashok Chitkara ,Sanjeev Kumar

The aim of this paper is to present a reliability analysis of a two unit cold standby system with the assumption that the repair-equipment may also fail during the repair of a failed unit. There is only one repair facility which may be appeared and disappeared randomly. Failure and Repair times of each unit are assumed to be correlated. Using regenerative point technique various reliability characteristics are obtained which are useful to system designers and industrial managers. Graphical behaviors of MTSF and profit function have also been studied.

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Conceptual Framework Of Centrifugal Pumps Towards Industrial Revolution[Full-Text[References]
SELVARASU.A,KANTHAVEL.K,KRISHNARAJ.R,KARPAGARAJAN.S,RAVI.G,RAMESH.R

In recent years, researchers have put a considerable effort to increase the efficiency in a centrifugal pump .The current scenariointhe impeller design interest has considerably increased in recent years in various publication, statingthe pump efficiency, pump performance, impeller design, modification the vane angle through CFD analysis has consideration to elaborate the conceptual frame work of a centrifugal pumps.

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Effective testing: An Investigative Approach for Improving Test Efficiency[Full-Text[References]
Abdul Rauf EM

Software testing efficiency is very important factor for all test organizations. By conducting a case study in data base environment. this paper is talking about how we can improve the test execution process by considering the factors like automation using standard framework, introducing risk based testing, parallel execution , modularization , avoiding code redundancy and through proper test management. The recommendation given at the end of the document can easily implement for any domains of testing for getting an improvement in test execution.

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Mixed Convective Mhd Flow of Visco-elastic Fluid Past A Vertical Infinite Plate With Mass Transfer[Full-Text[References]
Madhumita Mahanta and Rita Choudhury

A theoretical analysis of mixed convective unsteady flow of a visco-elastic incompressible fluid past an accelerated infinite vertical porous plate subjected to a uniform suction has been investigated under the influence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. Approximate solutions for fluid velocity, temperature, concentration field and skin friction have been obtained by using perturbation technique. The effects of the various parameters involved in the solution have been studied. The profiles of fluid velocity and the skin friction are presented graphically to observe effects of the visco-elastic parameter.

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Examining the Children's Influence in Family Decision making in Delhi (India)[Full-Text[References]
Akhter Ali, Zuhaib Mustafa, D.K Batra, N. Ravichandran and Shoiab Ur Rehman

The existing literature has confessed that children have a tremendous influence in family purchase decisions which varies with respect to different factors. This study is based on survey approach and aims to examine the impact of demographic factors/variables like gender and age of children and parental profession on children in Delhi (India). A sample of 60 parents and 60 children between the age group 6-16 years were studied by two different close ended questionnaires. Analysis of the data showed that children especially boys in the age group of 14-16 years have more influence than the girls in the same age group. Moreover this influence increases when parents are professionally more involved than otherwise. This study will help in understanding the purchase behavior of children in Delhi and it can also serve a guideline for marketers in targeting a particular children segment.

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Literature Survey On NFC, applications and controller [Full-Text[References]
Shyamal Pampattiwar

In 2004. The Near Field Communication forum was formed to promote and supervise the use of the NFC technology. Consequently many pilots have been launched worldwide in order to test and improve it.Near Field Communication (NFC), as an emerging and promising technology, is an integration of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology with mobile devices.NFC-enabled mobile devices can act as contactless smart cards and are also capable to read and write data from/to those cards.I analyzed different NFC applications by classifying them into NFC operating modes to surface the nature of underlying value-added services and benefits that they provide.

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Brightness Preserving Image Enhancementusing Modifieddualistic Sub Image Histogram Equalization[Full-Text[References]
Mrs.Ashwini Sachin Zadbuke

Histogram equalization (HE) is one of the common methods used for improving contrast in digital images. However, this technique is not very well suited to be implemented in consumer electronics, such as televisionbecause the method tends to introduce unnecessary visual deterioration such as the saturation effect. One of the solutions to overcome this weakness is by preserving the mean brightness of the input image inside the output image. This paper provides the modifieddualistic sub image HE method which preserves the brightness of the image.

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Pico-hydro-electric Toothbrush[Full-Text[References]
Amey G. Patil

A pico-hydro-electric toothbrush has an elongated housing shaped to be grasped by the human hand. The housing encloses a pico-hydro-electric plant which generates the electricity and drives a brush shaft that has a stub projecting through a nose of the housing and upon which in use a brush is mounted. A variety of electric toothbrushes has been disclosed, and has appeared on market. These automatic toothbrushes commonly use a DC motor drive to move the brush holder through a spring mechanism or transmission mechanism. The transmission mechanism can be of any type that oscillates, rotates or vibrates the brushhead. The brushhead, that hold a respective bunch of bristles and are driven to make a circular motion and reciprocating motion respectively for cleaning the teeth in the most efficient way.

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