Volume 13, Issue 9, September 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 9, September 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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This study focuses on the understanding of the role of clay minerals in hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation. Clay minerals are involved in the formation of kerogen, catalytic cracking of kerogen into petroleum, migration of crude oil, and the continued change to hydrocarbon composition in petroleum reservoirs. In kerogen formation, clay minerals act as catalysts and sorbents to immobilize organic matter through ligand exchange, hydrophobic interactions and cation bridges by the mechanisms of Maillard reactions, polyphenol theory, selective preservation and adsorptive protection. Clay minerals also serve as catalysts in acid-catalyzed cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon through Lewis and Bronsted acid sites on the clay surfaces. The amount and type of clay mineral affect the composition of the petroleum. Bronsted acidity of clay minerals is affected by the presence and state of interlayer water, and displacement of this water is a probable driver in crude oil migration from source rocks. During crude oil migration and accumulation in reservoirs, the composition of petroleum is continually modified by interaction with clay minerals. Clay minerals remain the most difficult of all earth materials to study and characterize. Their sheet structure results in features that can only be resolved at the sub-micron scale. They are also subtly variable in chemical composition (Fe, Mg, K, Al, et cetera) and can be confused with each other and other silicates. The recent innovative analytical tools and modern analysis techniques, example., micro- and nano-X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT), QEMSCAN (Automated Mineralogy and Petrography), FIB/SEM (Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscope), EDS (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), etc., have the capability of quantitative and qualitative characterizing nano-pore features and mineralogy of fine grained shale rocks, which create new era of studying clay minerals for facilitating unconventional (shale) reservoir exploration. Even though there have been reports about the application of clay minerals in the oil and gas exploration, surprisingly little work has been documented. Keyword: clay mineral, organic matter, generation, vitrinite, kerogen, montmorillonite.

Microcontroller Based Remote Control Home Automation System for the Elderly and Physically Challenged using (HC-12) Module []

Home automation has proved over the years to be of incredible benefit for the elderly and physically challenge. Some of these elderly and physically challenged require assistance to meet important personal needs. The cost of living at home with monitoring devices and intelligent appliances is less expensive and more beneficial than attending medical centers or being supervised by nurses and employed care givers. This Project offers introduction and reviews on various Home automation systems, remote control, wireless data transceiver module, gas/smoke sensor, temperature sensor and the relevance of a microcontroller with an efficient software algorithm. A comprehensive set of detailed design and implementation of a home automation system for the elderly and physically challenge using a new generation multichannel embedded wireless transceiver module to remotely control the house lightings, power sockets and to monitor change in temperature and gas/smoke leakages and the buzzer to sound when the threshold is exceeded. The project employs a constructed remote control and an apartment with indoor/outdoor lighting points, power socket for electronic devices coupled with MQ2 gas/smoke sensor with a threshold of 1000PPM (Parts per Million) for the buzzer to sound, LM35 temperature sensor with a threshold of 50oC for the buzzer to sound and interface with ATmega8 Microcontroller and HC-12 new generation multi-channel embedded wireless data transceiver module. The system can be expanded to implement renewable energy sources like home based solar system to enhance efficiency

E-commerce application for agricultural marketing []

Internet has become increasingly strong and widely used. Various industries are facing a new situation in market development expecially in the agricultural sectors on how they can effectively use the internet on strengthening their agricultural enterprises so that they can seize the opportunity to get the highest return in value of their agricultural products At present, many agricultural E-Commerce applications are operative but are still in its inception. Various features of E-Commerce are not yet implemented and many strategies are not considered in agricultural products. my research application will provide better and effective ways of dealing with e commerce websites. Many E-Commerce portals are operational and varieties of products are being traded, but vegetables are yet to get success. Stakeholders are reluctant to utilize this online system for selling and purchasing of agri-products. Very few people are using this new marketing system for which the achievement of success is taking time. This E-Commerce website provides business to farmer service, aimed to link the businessman with the farmer. It simplifies the purchase of a farming product of the farmer as well as ease the marketing of their yields.

Internal audit as a managerial innovation in the context of Moroccan local authorities: exposure of the explanatory determinants of its adoption []

he academic literature on innovation has grown into a substantial body of literature and has drawn attention to sources of knowledge. However, little is known about the determinants of audit innovation. This paper seeks to identify, outline and categorize the explanatory determinants of the adoption of internal audit as a managerial innovation with an adaptation to the context of Moroccan local authorities. The research initiated in this context agrees on a set of determinants that explain the adoption of managerial innovations within organizations. We use the theories of diffusion of innovation, neo-institutional and contingency to identify the determinants that may influence the decision to adopt internal auditing by Moroccan local authorities. Based on these theories, we highlight the influence of the organizational context of local authorities, in this case the size and personal characteristics of decision-makers, the institutional pressures of a coercive, normative and mimetic nature to which they are exposed, and finally the perceived characteristics of internal auditing as a managerial innovation in relation to the benefit it provides, its complexity of implementation and compatibility with the needs of the organization. Our article contributes to the dynamics of the introduction of internal control tools in Moroccan local authorities by highlighting the determinants of its adoption as a managerial innovation. Keywords: internal audit ; managerial innovation ; local authorities.

A Slotted Substrate Integrated Waveguide Antenna for Millimeter Wave Applications []

In this paper, a slotted substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) antenna is proposed and simulated. The simulation is done using High Frequency Structural Simulation (HFSS), which is based on the finite element method. The square-shaped slots array is formed in the upper ground plane of the SIW. The various parameters such as return loss, gain, and efficiency of the proposed SW antenna are investigated. The antenna is resonating at a frequency of 32.5, 35 GHz, and 38 GHz with a return loss of 12 dB, 25 dB, and 19 dB, respectively. The proposed antenna is designed on a dielectric of RT duroid of a thickness of 0.254 mm.

Ensemble Classifier for Brain Tumor MRI Segmentation and Classification []

A brain tumor is a group of tissue that is prearranged by the slow addition of irregular cells. It occurs when cells get abnormal formation within the brain. Recently it is becoming a major cause of death for many people. The seriousness of brain tumors is very big among a variety of cancers, so to save a life immediate detection and proper treatment to be done. Detection of these cells is a difficult problem, because of the formation of the tumor cells. It is very essential to compare brain tumors from the MRI treatment. It is very difficult to have a vision of the abnormal structures of the human brain using simple imaging techniques. Ensemble methods have been called the most influential development in Data Mining and Machine Learning in the past decade. They combine multiple models into one usually more accurate than the best of its components. Ensemble methods combine the procedure of neural network, extreme learning machine (ELM), and support vector machine classifiers. The proposed system consists of manifold phases. Preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. Initially preprocessing is performed by using a filtering algorithm. Secondly, segmentation is performed by using a clustering algorithm. Thirdly feature extraction is performed by Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM). The automatic brain tumor stage is performed by using ensemble classification. This phase classifies brain images into tumor and non-tumors using Feed Forwarded Artificial neural network-based classifier. Experiments have exposed that the method was more robust to initialization, faster, and more accurate. Keywords-- Ensemble classifiers, GLCM, ELM, SVM, Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network, and Fuzzy C-means Clustering

Becoming the Animal: Political Discourse in Animation through Anthropomorphic Characters []

This study takes an extensive look at the characterization of animals in animated movies. Although this subject has been researched immensely before, there is limited research that explores the role of anthropomorphic animals in political discourse through the formal aspects of children animation. This research conducts a comparative case-study method by taking two animated movies, each from local and western contexts, in an attempt to explore the relationship between the political dialog, conveyed through the use of symbols relating to the animal and its reception by the audience. Existing literature has discussed the tactics used by the animated industry to grow its spectatorship by incorporating adult audiences through the application of humor and satire. The purpose of this research will assess relevant literature to investigate the kind of animal iconography to convey socio-political messages and its effect on the general audience. Keywords: Animation, Anthropomorphism, Political discourse, Children and Adult audience.

Optimizing Boiler Efficiency by Using APH and Economizer Combo []

Air pre-heater and economizer are heat transfer surfaces in which air temperature and water temperature are raised by transferring heat from other media such as flue gas. Hot air is necessary for rapid combustion in the furnace and also for drying coal in milling plants. So an essential boiler accessory which serves this purpose is air pre-heater. The air pre-heater is not essential for operation of steam generator, but they are used where a study of cost indicates that money can be saved or efficient combustion can be obtained by their use. The decision for its adoption can be made when the financial advantages is weighed against the capital cost of heater. The efficiency of the boiler increases with the increase in the temperature of the combustion air used in the furnace. This is achieved by the increased temperature of the flue gas in the air preheater and economizer zone. This paper deals with the different ways to obtain the maximum heat from the flue gas travelling through the air preheater and the economizer zone to improve the boiler efficiency.

Internet of Things Security System Using ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module and Dual-Tech Sensors []

The deployment of internet of things on smart systems is based on ease of every user in accessing and controlling the system remotely with the help of internet. By using internet of things technology in case of smart home, users can access and control all devices in the home anytime and anywhere through mobile devices as long as the mobile devices are connected to the internet. An efficient, low power consumption and low cost embedded control system for smart security and remote monitoring based on motion detection is very important for wide range of commercial and security application. This Project offers introduction and reviews on various internet of things based security systems, Global System for Mobile module, motion detection and the relevance of an ESP8266 Wi-Fi module microcontroller with an efficient software algorithm. A comprehensive set of detailed design and implementation of internet of things security system to send SMS and E-mail to the user. The project employs an ESP8266 wireless module microcontroller coupled with SIM900A Global System for Mobile module in which HC-SR501 passive infrared sensor and RCWL-0516 Microwave radar sensor (the dual-tech sensors) are connected to detect an un-authorize entry of a person to a restricted area and alert the user via SMS and Email. The system can be further expanded to take pictures and view the video of an intruder.

The importance of hydrothermal alteration in Agbaou gold mineralization (Southern of West African Craton) []

Located in the southern part of the Fettêkro furrow, the Agbahou gold deposit is formed by a large band of NE-SW-oriented green rocks and framed by recent granitoids. The region of Agbahou (northern part of Divo) shows Birimiennes formations globally metamorphosed in the green shale facies. Metabasalts, Amphibolite, Métadolérites and Metagabbros (not far from the village of Iroporia), Épidiorites (around the town of Hiré), Métarhyolites and Metadacites, tuffs, breccia, shale and sediment are distinguished Related. Mineralization is collected in mafic metavolcanic (metabasalts), pyroclastic and in metasediments. Petrographic and chemical studies have shown that this mineralization is affected by hydrothermal alteration phenomena such as Silicification, Carbonation, Chloritization, Sericitisation, Sulfudation and Albitization. However, the most important are silicification, carbonation and Sulfudation, and to a lesser extent, chloritization, sericitization, and Albitization. In Agbahou, the mineralization is carried by a quartz vein and folia system which is of the vein type. But next to this type, there is another type of mineralization that is disseminated type mineralization. However, vein-type mineralization is the most dominant. The minerals of alteration quartz, carbonates (calcite, ankerite ± dolomite), Sericite, chlorite, albite and sulphides are frequently encountered in the walls of veins or associated with the corridors of mineralization constitute the minerals Accompanying the mineralization and whose presence is very marked as a guide for prospecting. Metal paragenesis contains pyrite, pyrrhotite, Arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and gold. The identification and the characterization of the hydrothermal alteration were carried out through the following diagrams.

Adsorption Mechanism of Hexavalent Chromium on Biochar []

The adsorption mechanism of Cr6+ on biochar made from wood (raw carbon) was investigated by using spectrophotometer. Biochar is a low-cost sorbent that can be used to remove trace metals from water. We investigated the ability of biochar made from wood to remove aqueous hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The adsorption of Cr6+ by biochar was in accordance with a chemisorption process. An investigation on the adsorption characteristics of biochar for removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions was studied varying various parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration. The study was conducted varying contact time, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, from 0 to 120 min, for 10ppm 20ppm 30ppm 40ppm and 50ppm and 1gm respectively. The results of this study showed that adsorption of chromium by biochar reached to equilibrium after 60 min and after that a little change of chromium removal efficiency was observed. The percentage degradation were studied.The obtained results showed that the adsorption of chromium (VI) follows Langmuir isotherm equation with a correlation coefficient equal to 0.981. In addition, the kinetics of the adsorption process follows the zero order kinetics and pseudo first-order kinetics model with a rate constant value of 0.821 min -1 .The results indicate that this industrial waste can be employed as a low cost alternative to commercial adsorbents for removal of chromium (VI) from water and wastewater.

A Comparison of the Homotopy Analysis Method and the Homotopy Perturbation Method for the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) Equation []

In this study, the performance of the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) and the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) has been compared for the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation. The solutions of the K-dV equation by HAM and HPM for three cases have been computed using our MATLAB routine. For a suitable exact solution l_2 -errors has been computed for both the methods. The results show that HPM performs better than HAM for small values of time t and both the results agree well with the exact solution for all the three cases.


India through its traditional concept considers marriage and family as a recognized personal norm within the diversified society. Abortion not permitted in ancient times, and society was strongly opposed to it as fetus murder. Premarital-sex is cause of about the incidents of unmarried young women in India who seek to abort an unintended pregnancy is due to the lack of awareness of sexual education programs. The conservative setting is extremely stigmatized and unintended pregnancies are leading to always termination. In ancient Hindu concepts of Gandharvavivaha means of varying degrees of acceptability of acquiring a bride and living together. Sensual infatuation drives the consummation of their relationship, which doesn’t require parental or societal consent. It allowed premarital sexual courtship in Gandharvavivaha. The eminent scholars pointed out no indications of sexual relations to unregulated stigmas in Hindu society. The moral and values associated with the tradition states dharma and results of happiness and beatitude. Islam and Christianity religions resist premarital-sex relates to misogyny and an irrational fear of feminine sexual oppressions. This article examines whether the right to obtain an abortion is rooted in the history and tradition of India. Woman who consents to premarital sex on false assurances of marriage is repulsive. Legal fiction towards such diminishing moral values leading unregulated pregnancies need an amendment of law and protection for unmarried women.

The concept of Drift in Analytics and Machine Learning and how to control it in QA? []

There is little doubt that Big Data’s emergence has ushered in tremendous potential and opportunity for businesses to make better-informed decisions and gain real time insights. It was almost evident that such disruptive technology will also introduce technical risks – the primary among which is commonly called Drift. Drift issues are no more limited to just the Data Analytics landscape. A second type of “Drifting” was identified when Machine Learning came into the picture for predictive modelling after being integrated with Analytics systems for data. The industry was worried that this “drift” related risk, was not getting covered in traditional QA practices, nor was there a tool which can outright remove the “drift” issues from data. This was primarily because these issues are not due to any piece of code, or deployment or part of any feature change – which can be “tested” via test cases. In this white paper, we will discuss on the two types of Drifting – Data Drift and Concept Drift, and will try to explore practices which the QA teams can also adopt to reduce the risk.


-Plantar pressure distribution is one of the most important parameters in understanding the biomechanics of limbs and gait analysis. According to WHO Globally, an estimated 462 million individuals are affected by type 2 diabetes, corresponding to 6.28% of the world's population. More than 95% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. This device focuses on the measurement of the pressure on the foot due to body weight. Foot pressure distribution is not just subjected to age, but pathological and other disorders play a vital role in affecting the normal pressure distribution. Many techniques have been developed for quantitative gait analysis but, comparatively these systematic process fails because it only measures static or dynamic pressure for a very short duration of time and space. In this proposed electronic device, an electronic insole system is designed in a shoe using a force sensing resistor (FSR) sensor that can monitor pressure wirelessly and then transfer data into the CPU. This device provides Vocational rehabilitation, to people with physical hindrances in this case diabetes

Foot Step Power Generation Using Piezoelectric Sensor And Distribution Using RFID Cards []

To develop a power generation system using piezoelectric sensors which generates power with the help of human footsteps and this power is then used to charge a battery. The power which is stored in the battery is then used to charge a mobile phone using RFID card.

Conditions of a variable []

Any variable has mainly four conditions, 1) constant condition ( when the variable is not moving or changing with respect to other variable), 2) variable condition ( when variable is moving with respect to other fixed values), 3) relative condition ( when two variables are in motion with respect to another fixed value) , 4) condition without any comparison ( when there is no relationship between two variables, in our thinking when we think then we can not relate the thinking with time here we see no relationship between time and thinkings) .The main thing is that the variable takes the value zero in all the conditions. My view is that in all these four conditions the rate of change of the first variable is zero with respect to the second

Early detection of Myocardial Infarction: Biomarkers and Devices []

Increased mortality from myocardial infarction in India are majorly caused by delayed or inadequate early diagnosis. Widely used biomarkers like cardiac troponin, cardiac natriuretic peptides, and their combinations are good early indicators of acute myocardial infarction(AMI). Utilizing colometric techniques, quantum dot-based biosensors, CMOS-compatible sensors, nanowire arrays, etc., it has become possible to detect these biomarkers. ECG, heart sounds, heart rate, and skeletal postures are the main metrics used by sensing devices to identify abnormalities in heart function. For the early identification of AMI, a variety of devices have been conceived and developed, including wearable devices, microfluidic paper-based devices (PAD), IOT devices, Kinect-based systems, smart steering wheels, and smart phones. In this review paper, we will first analyze the biomarkers and relevant parameters which are widely used in the detection and diagnosis of myocardial infarction along with biosensors which aid in the process. We then provide a literature review on the exisitng devices.


Study about concrete and its strength parameters has become a wide area of research in the present construction industry. Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) is a polymer that can be used as an internal curing agent which reduces cracks in concrete, thus avoiding the need for external curing. This paper studies the effect of SAP on the strength properties of concrete. Specimens are cast with varying percentages of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5% SAP are tested for various strength parameters. Durability tests like water permeability and rapid chloride penetration test are also conducted. SAP is a polymer that can be used as an internal curing agent which reduces cracks in concrete, thus avoiding the need for external curing. This paper studies the effect of SAP on the strength properties of concrete along with various parameters considered for the evaluation of durability performance.

The study of factors in heart diseases, the case of Albania []

This article presents the study of factors in heart disease. The data were obtained in a private institution in Albania and the causes from which patients suffer were studied. Statistical study was done using the SPSS program. The obtained results are of interest to medical researchers and data analysts.

Leaf Disease Classification using Triangular Thresholding Method and Machine Learning []

Leaf malady recognition and estimation are one of the most troublesome undertakings in rural picture handling. This investigation plate in subtleties the techniques and methods for distinguishing and estimating the seriousness of growths caused by sickness on plant leaves utilizing the triangular thresholding strategy. Four speculated pictures products were gathered from various plant species and analyses were led on each to identify and gauge the degree of harm brought about by the organisms causing sickness on the leaf. The investigation was made and the outcomes end up being about 97% exact. Keywords: Division, Thresholding, Picture Securing, leaf Sickness, AI

Genotoxicity studies on gynecological illnesses among occupational beedi rollers of Northern Telangana []

A cross sectional study was made on 126 occupational female beedi rollers from Nizamabad and Adilabad dis-tricts of Northern Telangana and many health problems have been identified by interviewing them using ques-tionnaire. The study revealed that 17.4% suffered from respiratory problems, 24.6% from Head ache, 49% re-ported back pain, 38.8% from shoulder pain, 44.4% suffered from joint pain, 82.5% reported neck pain, 26.1% suffered from eye problems. 7.1% reported numbness of the fingers, 69% were anemic, few of them reported that they had liver problems (2%), 35.7% reported kidney problems, 5.5% reported symptoms of cervical cancer and 22.2% of the female beedi rollers have reported that they have undergone hysterectomy, which was alarming and further study was carried out on these female beedi rollers to find genotoxicity. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay method. Single cell gel electrophoresis resulted 5.8% limited damage of DNA and 2.2% extensive damaged DNA in female beedi rollers who have under gone hysterectomy.

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