IJSER Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2012 Edition
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Phishing Detection based on Visual-Similarity[Full-Text[References]
A.V.R.Mayuri., M.Tech, (Ph.D )

Phishing is a form of online fraud that aims to steal a user's sensitive information, such as online banking passwords or credit card numbers. The victim is tricked into entering such information on a web page that is crafted by the attacker so that it mimics a legitimate page. Recent statistics about the increasing number of phishing attacks suggest that this security problem still deserves significant attention. In this paper, we present a novel technique to visually compare a suspected phishing page with the legitimate one. The goal is to determine whether the two pages are suspiciously similar. We identify and consider three page features that play a key role in making a phishing page look similar to a legitimate one. These features are text pieces and their style, images embedded in the page, and the overall visual appearance of the page as rendered by the browser. To verify the feasibility of our approach, we performed an experimental evaluation using a dataset composed of 41 real world phishing pages, along with their corresponding legitimate targets. Our experimental results are satisfactory in terms of false positives and false negatives.

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Mitigating Online Fraud by Ant phishing Model With URL & Image based Webpage Matching[Full-Text[References]
T.Balamuralikrishna, N.Raghavendrasai, M.Satya Sukumar

Phishing is a malicious form of Internet fraud with the aim to steal valuable information such as credit cards, social security numbers, and account information. This is accomplished primarily by crafting a faux online presence to masquerade as a legitimate institution and soliciting information from unsuspecting customers. Phishing is a form of online fraud that aims to steal a user's sensitive information, such as online banking passwords or credit card numbers. The victim is tricked into entering such information on a web page that is crafted by the attacker so that it mimics a legitimate page.

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High Security for Manet Using Authentication and Intrusion Detection with Data Fusion[Full-Text[References]
K.K.Lakshmi Narayanan, A.Fidal Castro

In Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET), Multimodal Biometric technology plays a vital role in giving security between user-to-device authentications. This paper concentrates on the Intrusion Detection and authentication with data fusion in MANET. To overcome the fault in unimodal biometric systems, Multimodal biometrics is set out to work with Intrusion Detection Systems. Each and every device has dimensions and estimation limitations, many devices to be selected and with the help of Dempster-Shafter theory for data fusion observation precision gets increased. Based on the security posture, system concludes which biosensor (IDS) to select and whether user authentication (or IDS input) is essential. By every authentication device and Intrusion Detection System (IDS), the decisions are made in a fully distributed manner. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

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Digital Signature on-line, One Time Private Key [OTPK][Full-Text[References]
Vinod Moreshwar Vaze

Downsizing of computers & requirement of higher security has shifted the demand for enhanced security solutions. Need of the hour is to have a security system which is doubly safe, and yet suitable for "hand held devices". One Time Private Key (OTPK) allows the users to generate their signing keys and use their strong authentication to certify the signing keys and sign the transaction/document, hereafter the signing keys will be erased

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Security Using Quantum Key Distribution Protocols (QKDPs)[Full-Text[References]
D N Kartheek, M Abhilash Kumar, M R Pavan Kumar

Most cryptographic mechanisms such as symmetric and asymmetric cryptography, often involve the use of cryptographic keys. However, all cryptographic techniques will be ineffective if the key distribution mechanism is weak. Quantum Key Distribution or Quantum Cryptography is attracting much attention as a solution of the problem of Key Distribution; QKD offers unconditionally secure communication based on quantum mechanics. This work presents quantum key distribution protocols (QKDP) to safeguard security in large networks, ushering in new directions in classical cryptography and quantum cryptography

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An Effective Approach for Protecting Web from SQL Injection Attacks[Full-Text[References]
Veera Venkateswaramma P

The databases that underlie web applications were facing issues like, unauthorized access, so many security threats in recent years. Many software systems have evolved to include a Web-based component that makes them available to the public via the Internet and can expose them to a variety of Web-based attacks. One of these attacks is SQL injection, which can give attackers unrestricted access to the databases and has become frequent and serious threat to them. Successful injection attack can give attackers access to and even control of the databases that underlay Web applications, which may contain sensitive or confidential information. This paper presents a new highly automated approach for protecting Web applications against SQL injection that has both conceptual and practical advantages over most existing techniques. From a practical standpoint, our technique is precise and efficient, has minimal deployment requirements, and incurs a very low performance overhead in most cases. We have implemented this technique (Injection preventer), which we used to perform an empirical evaluation on a wide range of Web applications that we subjected to a large and varied set of attacks and legitimate accesses.

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Techniques for resilience of Denial of service Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks[Full-Text[References]
Syed Atiya Begum

A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring infrastructureless network of mobile devices connected by wireless links. Ad hoc is Latin and means "for this purpose". Each device in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) is an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users. A Denial-of-service attack is a type of security breach that prohibits a user from accessing normally provided services. The denial of service (DOS) does not result in information theft or any kind of information loss but can nonetheless be very dangerous, as it can cost the target person a large amount of time and money. Denial-of-service attacks affect the destination rather than a data packet or router.

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Cloud Security using Honeypot Systems[Full-Text[References]
Nithin Chandra S.R, Madhuri T.M

Cloud computing systems fundamentally provide access to large pools of data and computational resources through a variety of interfaces similar in spirit to existing grid and HPC resource management and programming systems. These types of systems offer a new programming target for scalable application developers and have gained popularity over the past few years. However, most cloud computing systems in operation today are proprietary, rely upon infrastructure that is invisible to the research community, or are not explicitly designed to be instrumented and modified by systems researchers. Customers are both excited and nervous at the prospects of Cloud Computing. They are excited by the opportunities to reduce capital costs, for a chance to divest themselves, of infrastructure management and focus on core competencies, they are excited by the agility offered by the on-demand provisioning of computing and the ability to align information technology with business strategies and needs more readily. However, customers are also very concerned about the risks of Cloud Computing, if not properly secured there is loss of direct control over systems for which they are nonetheless accountable

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AirPTWFrag: A New Wireless Attack[Full-Text[References]
Raghuveer Singh Dhaka, Arvind Dhaka, Priyank Singh Hada

One of the issues with corporate wireless networks in general, and WLANs in particular, involves the need for security. Several protocols have been proposed and used for providing security to wireless networks. The Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), used to secure 802.11 based networks, suffers from many weaknesses making a way for several types of attacks. In this paper a new attack on wireless security has been proposed. We will give a review of the attack that is capable of decrypting messages in WEP enabled wireless networks without requiring the knowledge of the encryption key

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Detection and Prevention of Wormhole Attack In Stateless Multicasting[Full-Text[References]
L. Sudha Rani , R.Raja Sekhar (Ph.D)

Multicast is an efficient method to implement the group communication. In recent years, a number of different multicast protocols have been proposed for ad hoc networks.Robust and Scalable Geographic Multicast Protocol (RSGM) is one among them. RSGM is a geographic routing protocol which routes the data using the location of the nodes. Geographic routing protocols are known tobe particularly vulnerable to attacks. One of the most powerful and serious attacks in adhoc networks is wormhole attack, preventing this attack has proven to be very difficult. In this paper, an efficient method namely Multicast Authentication Node Scheme is devised to detect and avoid wormhole attack in theRSGM protocol. This technique uses cryptographic concept to detect and prevent wormhole attack. The proposed system is simulated in network simulator (NS-2).

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Implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm[Full-Text[References]
M.Pitchaiah, Philemon Daniel, Praveen

Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques related to aspects of information security such as confidentiality, data integrity, entity authentication and data origin authentication. In data and telecommunications, cryptography is necessary when communicating over any unreliable medium, which includes any network particularly the internet. In this paper, a 128 bit AES encryption and Decryption by using Rijndael algorithm (Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm) is been made into a synthesizable using Verilog code which can be easily implemented on to FPGA. The algorithm is composed of three main parts: cipher, inverse cipher and Key Expansion. Cipher converts data to an unintelligible form called plaintext. Key Expansion generates a Key schedule that is used in cipher and inverse cipher procedure. Cipher and inverse cipher are composed of special number of rounds. For the AES algorithm, the number of rounds to be performed during the execution of the algorithm uses a round function that is composed of four different byte-oriented transformations: Sub Bytes, Shift Rows, Mix columns and Add Round Key

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Windows API based Malware Detection and Framework Analysis[Full-Text[References]
Veeramani R, Nitin Rai

Detection of zero day malware has been the great challenge for researchers from long time. Traditional signature based anti-malware scanners detect malware based on their unique signatures. The major drawback of such traditional signatures based scanners is that it has no protection against zero-day or unseen malware. Further usage of packers and obfuscation techniques empowered the malware writers to recreate malware variants quickly with slight or no change in malcode. These new variants are undetectable by traditional signature based scanner until their signatures are not present in database. Therefore researchers are working towards finding patterns or features which have unchangeable characteristics of malware even though the malware mutates or obfuscates itself. To address the limitation of traditional signature based scanner, we propose the malware detection method based on extracting relevant application programming interface (API) calls from sub categories of malware. These malware are categorized based on their infection mechanism and actions performed. And because of their fundamental difference in infection mechanism, they do not share similar type of API calls in all malware categories. In this paper, we elucidate an automated framework for analyzing and classifying executables based on their relevant API calls. We explain all the software components used to make the framework fully automatic for extracting API calls. We further explain the Document Class wise Frequency feature selection measure (DCFS) to get the relevant API calls from the extracted API calls to increase the detection rate. We conclude the paper with our experimental result and discussion

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Optimized near Duplicate Matching scheme for E-mail Spam Detection[Full-Text[References]
Ch.Vijaya Kumar, G.Santhi

To day the major problem that the people are facing is spam mails or e-mail spam. In recent years there are so many schemes are developed to detect the spam emails. Here the primary idea of the similarity matching scheme for spam detection is to maintain a known spam database, formed by users feedback, to block the subsequent near-duplicate spam's. We propose a novel e-mail abstraction scheme, which considers e-mail layout structure to represent e-mails. We present a procedure to generate the e-mail abstraction using HTML content in e-mail, and this newly devised abstraction can more effectively capture the near-duplicate phenomenon of spams. Moreover, we design a complete spam detection system Cosdes (standing for Collaborative Spam Detection System), which possesses an efficient near-duplicate matching scheme and a progressive update scheme. To detect fastly near duplicates and duplicate spam mails in Cosdes , we propose a new approach SimHash

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Axisymmetric Excited Integral Equation Using Moment Method for Plane Circular disk[Full-Text[References]
Praveen Kumar Malik Member IEEE, Harish Parthasarthy Member IEEE, M P Tripathi

Calculating current distribution is a common problem in antenna. It significantly affects the operation of almost all type of antenna. There have been many different methods suggested to derive the equation for impedance and current distribution so far. In this paper, integral equation using numerical technique for plane circular surface is investigated. An expression for the current distribution (Moment method is employed), is derived. This is the first review in this topic and we believe that it help to give new direction of calculating impedance and current distribution methods especially for parabolic reflector, which have been so far proposed.

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Neural adaptive control by state space system UPFC (SSNN) for compensation of active And reactive power [Full-Text[References]
Bouanane Abdelkrim, Chaker Abdelkader, Addadi Zoubida, Amara Mohamed

In our present paper, we present the effectiveness of the controller's electrical power flow Universal (unified power flow controller UPFC) with the choice of a control strategy. To evaluate the performance and robustness of the system, we proposed a hybrid control combining the concept of neural networks with conventional regulators vis-à-vis the changes in characteristics of the transmission line in order to improve the stability of the electrical power network

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The effect of neutron irradiation on doped bismuth-based superconductors with different weight percentages of argent[Full-Text[References]
Alireza Heidari, Niloofar Heidari, Roozbeh Amiri, Foad Khademi Jahromi, Mohammadali Ghorbani

In this investigation, we irradiated argent-doped bismuth-based superconductors by neutron. The empirical results indicated that the intensity of X-ray diffraction pattern of these irradiated superconductors declined and their transition temperature decreased by 7-10 K. Also, the neutron irradiation reduced these samples' normal resistance by about half. Therefore, through neutron irradiation, one can improve the superconductivity properties of bismuth-based superconductors.

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A Review and Analysis of Image Misalignment Problem in Remote Sensing[Full-Text[References]
Bukenya Faiza, Siti Sophiayati Yuhaniz, Siti Zaiton Mohd Hashim, Kiweewa Abdu Kalema

In change detection analysis, the accuracy of matching techniques depend solely on the accuracy of correction methods (such as geometric correction method, intensity variation methods) used before the actual alignment is performed. When the poor correction methods are used during image processing, errors such as matching errors, localisation error and alignment error, may arise during the detection and matching of image features (such as points,contour) hence causing image misalignment which may in turn affect the change detection accuracy. This paper reviews some of the challenges faced during image registration together with the current image registration techniques. It also reviews the errors associated with most of the image registration techniques due to use of poor or inappropriate image processing techniques.

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Design of Router Architecture Based on Wormhole Switching Mode for NoC[Full-Text[References]
L.Rooban, S.Dhananjeyan

Network on Chip (NoC) is an approach to designing communication subsystem between intelligent property (IP) cores in a system on chip (SoC). Packet switched networks are being proposed as a global communication architecture for future system-on-chip (SoC) designs. In this project, we propose a design and implement a wormhole router supporting multicast for Network-on-chip. Wormhole routing is a network flow control mechanism which decomposes a packet into smaller flits and delivers the flits in a pipelined fashion. It has good performance and small buffering requirements. The implementations are at the RT level using VHDL and they are synthesizable. First, based on virtual cut through router model, a unicast router is implemented and validated and based on the wormhole switching mode the multicast router architecture is designed and implemented. A Wormhole input queued 2-D mesh router is created to verify the capability of our router

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Multi-band Ladder-shape Microstrip Patch Antenna[Full-Text[References]
Dr.K.S.N Murthy, Venkata Raviteja.K, I.Govardhani, M.Venkata Narayana

Now a day's broad-band antennas gaining importance because of their usage at high frequencies and ability to achieve high speed data communication. Microstrip patch antennas are of such type and are increasing in popularity for use in wireless applications. They are widely used because of their several advantages such as light weight, low volume, low fabrication cost and compatability with integrated circuit technology operating in multiple bands with multiple polarizations. Here we are using ladder shaped microstrip patch antenna with which it achieves dual band of frequencies. Significant reduction of antenna size can be realized when the H-shaped patch is used instead of the conventional rectangular microstrip patch antenna. By using the proposed antenna we can simulate return loss, gain, axial ratio and radiation patterns at these dual band of frequencies achieving circular polarization

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A Distributed Transaction Model for a Multi- database Management System[Full-Text[References]
Omar Baakeel, Abdulaziz Alrashidi

This paper examines the distributed transaction issues that are present in multi-database management systems (DBMSs) and how the distributed transaction in database technology differs from other distributed processing systems. Some common issues that arise with the distribution of transactions over a multi-DBMS while dealing with concurrency control and recovery are highlighted, such as site failure, network failure, and time failure. This study proposes an exceptional distributed transaction model for processing transaction queries in multi-DBMS based on the idea that a complete database can be constructed at any stage

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Investigation on Fly Ash as A Partial Cement Replacement in Concrete[Full-Text[References]
Faseyemi V.A

The use of high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete fits in very well with sustainable development. High performance concrete is being widely used all over the world. High volume fly ash concrete mixtures contain lower quantities of cement and higher volume of fly ash (up to 60%). The use of fly ash in concrete at proportions ranging from 35 to 60% of total cementitious binder has been studied extensively over the last twenty years and the properties of blended concrete are well documented. The replacement of fly ash as a cementitious component in concrete depends upon the design strength, water demand and relative cost of ash compared to cement. This study investigated the strength properties of fly ash concrete. The specific gravity and chemical properties of fly ash, cement, coarse and fine aggregate were determined. The density of coarse aggregate was 2.8, fine aggregate was 2.6, water absorption of coarse aggregate 0.6%, water absorption of fine aggregate was 2%, fineness modulus of fine aggregate was 2.90 and fineness modulus of coarse aggregate was 6.90. Ordinary Portland cement was replaced with fly ash from 30 to 60% in steps of 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% by weight, mix proportioning was based on 1:2:4 mix ratio. Cubes (150 x 150 x150mm) were produced, cylinder (150 x 300mm) were used for determination of rapid chloride determination. All the cubes and the cylinder cubes were cured for 7 and 28 days respectively. The cubes and cylinder cubes were subjected to compressive strength tests after density determination at 7 and 28 days respectively. The specific gravity of fly ash was 2.20. The main constituents of fly ash as shown are silicon (as SiO2), aluminium (as Al2O3) and iron oxide (as Fe2O3). The total amount of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 was 80.38% for fly ash. These values are more than the minimum requirement (50% minimum) specified by ASTM C618 for type C ash. Calcium oxide (CaO) content was 3.50% fly ash. The chemical properties of fly ash are in compliance with the standard and due to high overall content, it was used as cement replacement. This study has shown that increase in the level of fly ash from 15% to 60% lead to an increase in the compressive strength of hardened concrete, while intake of fly ash up to 75% lead to reduction in the compressive strength of hardened concrete and it was observed that 75% replacement of fly ash did not meet up with the require compressive strength at 28 days. This study also shown that the ion chloride penetration satisfied the required standard of ASTM C1202 - 97.

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Towards E-Government's 3D Property[Full-Text[References]
TAN Liat Choon, Khadijah Binti HUSSIN

This paper provides an introduction into the 3D property type in Malaysia. It provides a brief introduction on Malaysia as a country then be followed by an explanation on the land administration and cadastral system. This paper discusses literature on good governance and e-government. It continues with the discussion on e-government in Malaysia, which consists of e-Land, e-Cadastre which is part of Coordinated Cadastral System, Virtual Survey System and Cadastral Data Integrity System as well as the Electronic Strata Module that consists of Strata Lodgement Module, Electronic Strata Survey Module and Strata Verification Module before end with the conclusion. Through this paper, we understand the government activities on cadastre system in Malaysia

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Profit Analysis of a Two Unit Standby Oil Delivering System with off line Repair Facility when Priority is given to Partially Failed Unit over the Completely Failed Unit for Repair and System having a Provision of Switching over to Another System [Full-Text[References]
Rekha Narang, Upasana Sharma

Profit analysis of two unit standby oil delivering system with three types of failure complete failure, normal to partial failure and partial to complete failure is analysed. Initially one unit is operative and the other is standby. In case of partial failure, repair of unit is done by switching off the unit. When both the units fail then for repairing, priority is given to partially failed unit over completely failed unit. The system is in down state if one unit is completely failed and other is partially failed On the complete failure of both the units there is a provision of switching over to the other similar system. This practical situation may be observed in an oil refinery plant. The system is analyzed by making use of semi-Markov processes and regenerative point technique

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A Group Awareness and collaboration in Distributed Software Development[Full-Text[References]
Imran Ali Siddiqui, Manuj Darbari

Open-source software development projects manage to produce large, robust, complex, and successful systems. OSS are always collabora-tive and distributed in nature as well as difficulties are being occurred due to distance. However, there is a little spite of knowledge about management of collaboration by open-source team. In this paper we look how distributed developers maintain group awareness. We interviewed developers, read project communication, and looked at project artifacts from three successful open source projects. We found that distributed developers need to maintain awareness of one another, and that they maintain both a general awareness of the entire team and more detailed knowledge of people with whom they plan to work.

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Detecting Telecommunication Fraud using Neural Networks through Data Mining[Full-Text[References]
Mohammad Iquebal Akhter, Dr. Mohammad Gulam Ahamad

Neural computing refers to a pattern recognition methodology for machine learning. The resulting model from neural computing is often called an artificial neural network (ANN) or a neural network. Neural networks have been used in many business applications for pattern recognition, forecasting, prediction and classification. Neural network computing is a key component for any data mining tool kit. Applications of neural network based data mining tools are abound in finance, marketing, manufacturing, information systems and so on. This essay discusses in detail the role of artificial neural networks in prevention of telecommunication fraud.

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Mosquito And Oxygen- Hypothesis (Mosquitoes, World's Most Oxygen Dependents)[Full-Text[References]
Ezeigbo Ivan Chizurum

This research exposes us to the incredible survival of mosquitoes in an environment lacking oxygen. The mosquito depends a lot on oxygen for it's survival but if it is unable to obtain this, it develops other means of obtaining it. This paper tells us the potential of an individual to obtain diseases caused by the mosquito

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Modeling and Simulation of Styrene Monomer Reactor: Mathematical and Artificial Neural Network Model[Full-Text[References]
Seyed Mahdi Mousavi, Parvaneh Nakhostin Panahi, Aligholi Niaei, Ali Farzi, Dariush Salari

A pseudo-homogeneous model was developed for fixed bed catalytic styrene monomer reactor based on the reaction mechanisms and mass and energy balance equations. With the proposed mathematical model, the profiles of ethyl benzene conversion, styrene yield and selectivity were achieved through the length of catalytic bed reactor. Good agreement was found between model results and industrial data. The effects of some input parameters such as the molar ratio of the steam to ethyl benzene in the feed (S/E) and inlet temprature were investigated on final conversion of ethyl benzene and styrene selectivity using proposed mathematical model. USING THE RESULTS OF mathematical model, a three-layer perceptron neural network was developed for simulation of the effects of feed composition and operation condition on conversion and selectivity. The optimum structure of neural network was determined by a trial-and-error method and different structures were tried.

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Nanokaolin Clay as Reinforcing Filler in Nitrile Rubber[Full-Text[References]
Preetha Nair K, Dr. Rani Joseph

Nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating varying amounts of nanokaolin clay and vinyl silane grafted nanokaolin clay in NBR, on a two roll mill. Improvement in mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus and tear strength were observed for the composites. Cure characteristics showed an increase in the cure rate of the composites.Clay rubber nanocomposites were characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The increase in d spacing suggested an intercalated /exfoliated structure of clay and SEM studies showed uniform dispersion of clay in the matrix. Swelling index decreased with the increase in filler loading, as observed from the swelling studies conducted in toluene. Rubber filler interactions were also studied by strain sweep analysis. It was found that the complex modulus values increased with the clay content indicating better rubber filler interaction.Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed that glass trasition temperature (Tg) remained unchanged. Thermal studies showed that addition of clay marginally improved the thermal stability

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An Improved Data Compression Method for General Data[Full-Text[References]
Salauddin Mahmud

Data compression is useful many fields, particularly useful in communications because it enables devices to transmit or store the same amount of data in fewer bits. There are a variety of data compression techniques, but only a few have been standardized. This paper has proposed a new data compression method for general data which based on a logical truth table. Here, two bits data can be represented by one bit in both wire and wireless network. This proposed technique will be efficient for wired and wireless network. The algorithms have evaluated in terms of the amount of compression data, algorithm efficiency, and weakness to error. While algorithm efficiency and susceptibility to error are relatively independent of the characteristics of the source ensemble, the amount of compression achieved depends upon the characteristics of the source to a great extent.

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Evaluation of the Performance of Digital Video Analysis of Human Motion: Dartfish Tracking System[Full-Text[References]
Moataz Eltoukhy, Shihab Asfour, Craig Thompson, Loren Latta

Motion capture has been used to analyze various aspects of human motion. There are two basic approaches to analyze motion, two dimensional and three dimensional. These approaches are often supplemented with the use of computer packages in order to handle complex calculations. The research performed attempted to determine whether a modest, portable motion analysis tool can provide results comparable to those obtained using 3D motion capturing system (Vicon) during a simple motion. The 2D software under investigation is called Dartfish which uses digital video as input and is able to generate values for the location of markers in two dimensions. It was found that the magnitudes of the differences in the markers' trajectories between Dartfish and Vicon were about ±5 mm. Based on the statistical analysis, it was concluded that this 2D method has serious potential for future studies that involves more complex movements.

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A Fuzzy Logic Solution for Feed Drive Control[Full-Text[References]
Ferit Idrizi, Jorgaq Kacani

Because of high speed conditions of work and nonlinearities during machining the feed drive mechanism of vertical milling machine it becomes a very difficult model to be designed and controlled. This study is an attempt of finding alternative easiest ways of successful fuzzy logic control implementation. In this paper we try to find a fast solution to overcome these problems and it is an attempt of finding alternative easiest ways of successful fuzzy logic control implementation. We propose an approach that offers some stability characteristics and very good computational performances efficiency. The controller gives fast loop response stability, reducing the steady state error, increasing the rising time and decreasing the settling time.

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Dynamic Adaptive Topology Control In Highly Mobile Environment[Full-Text[References]
Diya Ann Kuruvila, Jennifer S Raj

One of the important factors that affect the connectivity of a network is transmission power. As the node moves connectivity gets affected. Hence network lifetime and capacity gets affected. Network portioning can occur if a loss in connectivity occurs. Planar structures helps to overcome the connectivity problems to certain extend but they do not take into account network dynamics. Hence in order to improve the network performance an adaptive dynamic topology control is presented in which network is divided into various zones and the nodes adjust their topology independently in accordance with the network dynamics. Based on the transmission power of nodes links are selected and topology is constructed in order to ensure network performance with best quality of service. Performance of the algorithm is witnessed by setting the node mobility at different speeds. Simulation results shows that the proposed work out performs existing work in terms of 1)improved connectivity 2)less packet drop 3) greater throughput

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Design and Implementation of Low Cost Home Security System using GSM Network[Full-Text[References]
Sadeque Reza Khan, Ahmed Al Mansur, Alvir Kabir, Shahid Jaman, Nahian Chowdhury

Home security has been a major issue where crime is increasing and everybody wants to take proper measures to prevent in-trusion. In addition there is a need to automate home so that user can take advantage of the technological advancement in such a way that a person getting off his home does not need to think of his home security again and again. It is therefore the purpose of this invention to provide a security device, which gives immediate notification to the owner and security services like police station or fire brigade at the moment the unauthorized event occurs. This purpose is accomplished via use of some modules and a controller which activates a GSM (Global System for Mobile) module to send one or more SMS (Short Message Service) to the owner and corresponding security services at the time of break in. This system is low cost as it does not contain expensive sensors to detect emergencies and it is also easy to implement as the security modules will take very low space for installation

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Performance of Base Isolated Building[Full-Text[References]
Vivek G.Jamodkar, Prof N. P. Kataria

During last century various devastating earthquake has been happened results into loss of life & economy, one can reduce it by adopting earthquake resistant design & new technologies. In present paper work one of such method i.e. use of base isolation is studied. In this paper compare the result of same building one is fixed base building and other is base isolated building Performance of building have done using pushover analysis method & it is found that the performance point of building and that building story drift is calculated from EQ-X & EQ-Y direction by using IS : 1893 code and Different hinges are form to the structure after pushover analysis method. designed the isolator properties. Both building is design in SAP-2000 software.

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Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Field Data Based Model For Civil Activity[Full-Text[References]
O. S. BIHADE, J. P. MODAK, K. S. ZAKIUDDIN

This paper discuss the approach to formulate Field Data Based Model (FDBM) for any Man Machine System. The presently observed civil construction activities are Man Machine Systems . 'Man-Machine System' means an activity occurring with the involvement of a human operator either a male and/or a female with the help of some tools used to interact with the material. The common building materials used in various activities are bricks, cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water, mild steel bars, timber, marble, granite, glass etc. The construction methods are being practiced over several decades. No investigation has been made as regards appropriate use of the posture , parameters of tools and construction materials for every construction activity. It is therefore felt necessary to ascertain the scope of improvement in the method of performing a construction activity.

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The Intensity of Fault Slip Through in Software Process[Full-Text[References]
Vamsi Mohan V

The improvement of software development process is gradually refining. Software companies are trying to deliver bug-free, efficient product in a less time. Now a days, the competition between the IT companies are increased and the companies need improvements that can decrease the lead-time and improve the delivery precision. It is not enough, if companies develop the products on time but also need to be considering the quality of the product. Efficient and effective testing methods find bugs in early stages rather than finding in later stages or in production time. Early catching of bugs will reduce the rework time and also cheaper to find and remove. Rework commonly accounts more than half of the development time. The main reason for high rework cost is because of fault slippage from earlier phases. As an input to this improvement, this article explains the intensity of fault-slippage, which determines the faults that could have been more cost efficient to find in earlier phases of software development and life-cycle

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Parametric Analysis of Cooled Gas Turbine Cycle with Evaporative Inlet Air Cooling [Full-Text[References]
Alok Kumar Mohapatra, Sanjay, Laljee Prasad

The article investigates the effect of compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature and ambient temperature on the performance parameters of an air-cooled gas turbine cycle with evaporative cooling of inlet air. Air film cooling has been adopted as the cooling technique for gas turbine blades. The mass of coolant required for turbine blade cooling is calculated for a selected range of ambient conditions and found to vary with temperature drop achieved in the evaporator. The effect of ambient temperature on plant efficiency and plant specific work is computed at different TIT and rp,c and it was found that the rate of increase in these performance parameters are more pronounced at higher TIT and rp,c. The results indicate that a maximum temperature drop of 21 oC is achieved in the evaporator. The inlet cooling is found to increase the efficiency by 4.1% and specific work by 9.44%. The optimum plant performance is obtained at a TIT of 1500K and rp,c of 20 for all values of ambient temperature

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A Survey on Applications of Mobile Agents in E-Business [Full-Text[References]
P Karthikeyan, Dr. E. Sathiyamoorthy

A mobile agent is a software program that can transport its state from one environment to another, with its data intact, and be capable of performing operations appropriately in the new environment. The use of mobile agent is a rising research field which has got a broad application in future. In this paper we examine the characteristics and types of the mobile agents. We also examine applications of mobile agents in the field of E-Business.

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Face Recognition Using Combined Global Local Preserving Projections And Compared With Various Methods[Full-Text[References]
Nisar Hundewale

In appearance-based methods, we usually represent an image of size n x m pixels by a vector in an n x m - dimensional space. However, these n x m-dimensional spaces are too large to allow robust and fast face recognition. A common way to attempt to resolve this problem is to use dimensionality reduction techniques. The most prominent existing techniques for this purpose are Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Locality Preserving Projections (LPP). We Propose a new combined approach for face recognition which aims to integrates the advantages of the global feature extraction technique like PCA and the local feature extraction technique LPP .It has been introduced here (CGLPP- Combined Global Local Preserving Projections. Finally, Comparison is done with various recognition methods. Experimental evaluations are performed on the ORL and UMIST data sets with 400 images and 40 subjects

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A Comparative Study of the Deaf and Blind Exceptional Children on Satisfaction with Life[Full-Text[References]
Zabihollah Allahi, Reza Mirabdi, Mehrdad Mazaheri

The current study aims to compare the satisfaction with life in two groups of exceptional deaf and blind students. The main research questions were: is there a significant relationship between satisfaction with life in exceptional blind students and that of deaf ones? Method: The concerned sample in this study consists of all blind students (N=14) and deaf ones (N=44) in guidance and high school in Zahedan city in the academic year 2009-2010 registered and studied in exceptional education centers. Data related to satisfaction with life were collected using Diener's Satisfaction with Life Questionnaire used for analysis along with descriptive indices such as frequency and Chi-Square consistency test percentage to study the probable relationship between type of disorder (blindness and deafness) and satisfaction with life. Findings: the obtained results indicated that satisfaction with life is not the same in the two groups of exceptional blind and deaf students. The results of conducted Chi-Square consistency test showed that there is a significant relationship between satisfaction with life and the type of disorder (blind-deaf).Conclusion: the findings obtained in the current study indicated that exceptional deaf students are reported to have more satisfaction with life than blind students and this difference is statistically significant in satisfaction with life

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Design of Low power, Low Jitter Ring Oscillator Using 50nm CMOS Technology[Full-Text[References]
Nidhi Thakur

A modified ring oscillator presented in this paper. The voltage control oscillator is designed and simulated in 50nm CMOS technology. The frequency of oscillation of the VCO is 2.6GHz with 0.064 mW power dissipation and the center drain current of 64uA is used. Tuning range is of 72% and the jitter is of 39.8pS.

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Efficient regeneration of Psidium spp. For in vitro screening of wilt resistant rootstock [Full-Text[References]
Pallavi srivastava, Pravesh Chandra srivastava

Guava wilt is a serious problem in its cultivation. Wilting of young and adult trees has caused enormous damage to the standing crop and orchards. The source of resistance to the particular disease is not reported within the commercial varieties. However, some of its wild relatives like P. molle, P. chinensis, P. friedrichshthalianum, P. cattlianum and P. guineense have been recorded escaping the disease. Thus, an easy strategy was evolved to screen and develop wilt resistant plants, which can be used as efficient rootstocks. The possibility to perform such a selection strategy under in vitro conditions depends largely upon availability of efficient regeneration and clonal propagation system. No earlier reports are available on the micropropagation technique for these Psidium spp. Our study has indicated the importance of seasonal influence and media constituents on in vitro proliferation of the nodal buds. Rooting of the micro shoots was attempted and good success was achieved.

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Cost Reduction of Rotor Blade by Alloy Optimization[Full-Text[References]
Anil Kumar

The material design Engineer is always sandwiched between functional behavior of a component and the cost it entails. The fluctuation in cost imported resources (alloying nutrient), enhances the complexity of material engineer. This work will be a product of the similar challenge of increased landed cost of molybdenum used in rotor blade casting. Wear rates under abrasive conditions are very sensitive to the ratio of the hardness of the surface to that of the abrasive particles. This problem of reducing the cost of rotor blade in which cost factor is the main factor. We continue to design different composition of Mo & Cr and measure the wear resistance and presently we want to improve the wear resistance. The optimization of wear resistance is a challenge given and I am interested in finding a viable mechanism to reduce cost. We will design various compositions then perform the following operations on them- casting, machining hardening & wear testing. We have also founded a composition which clearly reduces cost.

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Construction of Plastic Water Filter[Full-Text[References]
A.A. Adekunle, MSc. and S. B. Adejuyigbe, Ph.D

Water is described as a universal solvent which is the most abundant and useful compound that nature has provided. Two main sources of water are: surface and underground water. Among the many essential elements for the existence of human beings, animal and plants, water is rated to be one of the most important elements for human living. Man can survive for days without food but not long enough without water

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Performance and Emissions of LPG Fueled Internal Combustion Engine: A Review[Full-Text[References]
Albela H.Pundkar, S.M. Lawankar, Dr. Sameer Deshmukh

Alternative fuels for both spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines have become very important owing to increased environmental protection concern, the need to reduce dependency on petroleum and even socioeconomic aspects. The investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. Realizing the gravity of the problem, steps are being taken to introduce better technologies, better fuel quality, shift to environment friendly fuels. Alternative fuels like LPG, CNG, hydrogen etc has emerged as a solution to depleting crude oil resources as well as to the deteriorating urban air quality problem. As a gaseous fuel, gains from LPG have already been established in terms of low emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon. Air-fuel ratio, operating cylinder pressure ignition timing and compression ratio are some of the parameters that need to be analyzed and optimally exploited for better engine performance and reduced emissions. In the present paper a comprehensive review of various operating parameters and concerns have been prepared for better understanding of operating conditions and constrains for a LPG fueled internal combustion engine.

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Determination of Control Pairing for Higher Order Multivariable Systems by the use of Multi-Ratios[Full-Text[References]
AJAYI and I.S.O

The relative gain array (RGA) and the Niederlinski index (NI) are normally used in tandem to determine the control configuration for multivariable systems. For two-input, two-output systems, the RGA and the NI can be characterized by a single ratio, zeta (?) which is the ratio of the product of the off- diagonal terms to that of the diagonal terms of the steady state gain matrix. This paper extends the concept of the zeta ratio, developed for 2x2 systems to higher order systems, and subsequently uses it in place of the RGA to determine suitable control configurations for higher order multivariable systems. Several examples used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for higher order systems show that it is computationally simpler and easier to understand and apply by control practitioners.

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Assignment of Personnels when Job Completion time follows Gamma distribution using Stochastic Programming Technique[Full-Text[References]
Mohammed Faisal Khan, Zaki Anwar, Qazi Shoeb Ahmad

Recruitment of persons to various jobs according to required talents in an organization plays an important role in the growth of the organization. The formation of a number of groups of the persons from the population based on their efficiency in completion of jobs is being done by using the theory of cluster analysis. In this paper we formulate the problem of assignment of persons from various groups to different jobs who may complete them in minimum time as stochastic programming problem. The job completion times are assumed to follows Gamma distribution. By using the chance constrained programming technique we transform the stochastic programming problem to an equivalent deterministic problem with linear objective function and some non-linear (convex) constraints. First we assume that the completion time variables are identically distributed Gamma variables. The model is then extended to the case of non-identically distributed time variables. The illustrative examples are also given for both the models.

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Data Broadcasting Model for Mobile Video-on- Demand Systems[Full-Text[References]
Abdulaziz Alrashidi, Omar Baakeel

The future development of data broadcasting is expected to involve the efficient dissemination of data items in a mobile com-puting environment that relies on the data dissemination method to improve the scalability of systems and to indicate reliable patterns for dynamic user access. The rapid growth of time-critical information in emerging applications presents a number of challenges. There is an increasing need for the system to assist convenient data dissemination for multiple parties. This paper discusses the main challenges and techniques of mobile video broadcasting and proposes a model for mobile video systems involving time-critical on-demand data broadcasting.

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The Smart Home: Renewable Energy Management System For Smart Grid Based On ISM Band Communications[Full-Text[References]
S. Mathavi, Mrs. D. Vanitha, Mrs.S. Jeyanthi, P.Senthil Kumaran

Increasing complexity of power grids, growing demand, and requirement for greater reliability, security and efficiency as well as environmental and energy sustainability concern continue to high light then need for a quantum leap in harnessing communication and information technologies. This leap toward a "smarter" grid is widely referred to as "smart grid". A smart grid can help us reach the goal of clean air and energy independence by utilizing renewable power such as wind and solar energy. In earlier a real time, massive, online, multi-time frame simulation is proposed as a means for building a common vision of smart grid functions. A massive simulation will include hundreds of participants that play roles of reliability coordinators, transmission operators, distribution operators, power plant operators, and substation operators. In this paper critically reviews the reliability impacts of major smart grid resources such as renewable, demand response and storage. A Smart Meter is designed via ISM band communication to develop a smart grid. These highly visible drills can demonstrate how the new smart grid systems, people, and processes can all work together economically and reliably. We can get low cost, safe, and easily configurable simulations instead of waiting for expensive and hard wired deployments

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Dynamic Web Service Discovery Model Based on Artificial Neural Network with QoS Support[Full-Text[References]
Shamim Ahmed, Momotaz Begum, Fazlul Hasan Siddiqui, and Mohammod Abul Kashem

The Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) registries do not have the ability to publish the QoS information, and the authenticity of the advertised QoS information available elsewhere may be questionable. We aim to refine the discovery process through designing a new framework that enhances retrieval algorithms by combining syntactic and semantic matching of services with QoS. We propose a model of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with Quality of Services (QoS) based Web services discovery that combines an ANN based intelligent search and an augmented UDDI registry to publish the QoS information and a reputation manager to assign reputation scores to the services based on customer feedback of their performance. We develop a service matching, ranking and selection algorithm that finds a set of services that match the consumer's requirements, ranks these services using their QoS information and reputation scores, and finally returns the web service consumer based on the consumer's preferences in the service discovery request. Finally the web service discovery with QoS gives the most cost effective and suitable services as an output. The effectiveness of the system is improved by means of Artificial Neural Network with QoS.

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Netflow method used for internet worm detetion[Full-Text[References]
Ms. Vidya mhaske-Dhamdhere, Prof. G.A. Patil

Due to easy access and requirement of the Internet make it more popular for research and information sharing. Because of this feature a malicious codes are also easily exchange. A worm (malicious codes) can disturb network and normal network operation. Internet worms are causes significant worldwide disruption, a huge number of infected hosts generate traffic, which will impact the performance of the internet. Therefore this is one of the areas where researchers are concentrating to find effective detection system, which will presence the worms and reduce the worm's spread. This paper deals with a classified study of most important and commonly used methods for detecting internet worms using Netflow, which can help network managers to monitor suspect Internet worm's activities by analyzing the source data from the router

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Prospect of Renewable Energy as the Solution of the Existing Energy Crisis of Bangladesh[Full-Text[References]
Md. Alim Iftekhar Rasel, Saiham Siraj, Kazi Moshiur Rahman

Energy has always been a major necessity for the day-to-day human life. For the socio-economic development, continuous supply of sufficient energy is very important. As a developing country, Bangladesh is finding it difficult in recent times to produce and transmit enough energy to fulfill the ever-growing demand. The natural resources are limited and are being exhausted at such an alarming rate, it is feared that natural gas, which is the main energy source of Bangladesh will be depleted by the year 2020. So it is now the best time to find alternative energy sources if the inevitable energy crisis is to be avoided. Renewable energy can be the solution to this problem as the climate and infrastructure of the country is very much favorable for harnessing renewable energy. In this paper we have tried to analyze the prospect of using renewable energy as a solution for the current energy crisis in Bangladesh. We have talked about different forms of renewable energy, their prospect in Bangladesh and how far it can contribute to solve the problem

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The Proposal of a framework for implementation of present Government's "Digital Bangladesh-2021" involving & integrating of Rural Women[Full-Text[References]
Mohammod Abul Kashem, Momotaz Begum, Sumaya Kazary, and Shamim Ahmed

The term "Rural women" is very significant for its successful implementation of "Digital Bangladesh-2021". Almost 50% of the total populations are women in our country. This is very important and significant that three-fourth of the total women is from rural settings, among three-fourth most of the women spent a life not only rural setting but also as aborigines. The present study of rural women made an effort to determine the present status of access to ICT by the rural women. For this purpose few selected villages were taken with representative sample through interview and question answer session. Majority of rural women have no concept and vision of digital Bangladesh and ICT network. But it is very interesting and unbelievable that each rural woman is interested about ICT use, not only use but also 95% rural women are fully interested to take ICT as a profession. This paper explores the role of ICTs in empowering Bangladesh rural women, through the implementation of Digital Bangladesh-2021

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ECG signal analysis used as confirmative tool in quick diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction[Full-Text[References]
Manjusha Joshi, Dr. K.D.Desai

Apart from accidents, myocardial infarction is the most common reason of sudden deaths. As the time from the onset of myocardial infarc-tion to the start of treatment is very crucial, quick diagnosis is essential. The paper proposes a novel, easily deployable, cheap and non-invasive technique for the quick confirmative diagnostic tool. The changes in the ECG signal of the patient suffering from myocardial infarction are different to that compared with the ECG of the normal patient. The degree of variation can be used as a diagnostic tool. With the advent of computer and signal processing technology, a confirmative diagnostic tool is developed and can be made deployable in the ambulatory services. This will help to reduce the time gap between the onset of symptoms and actual treatment for the disease. If the confirmatory test is positive, the paramedical personnel can begin with the preparatory treatment before the physician is available

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Superplastic Tensile Behavior Of A Ti-al-mn Alloy[Full-Text[References]
Mahesh D.C, H.V.Divya, Laxmana Naik. L, B.Yogesha and S.S.Bhattacharya

Titanium (Ti-Al-Mn (OT4-1)) alloy is currently being used for aero engine components as well as other aerospace applications by forming through a conventional route which is typically cost, labour and equipment intensive. Titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V is expensive because of the alloying additions like Vanadium are extremely expensive, still this alloy is widely used in aerospace applications by manufacturing the components through superplastic route. The alloy Ti-Al-Mn (made as per the Russian specification, OT4-1) could be a candidate material for replacing the costly Ti-6Al-4V alloys. In the present investigation, tensile tests were carried out on this alloy in the temperature range of 1073 K to 1173 K (800 to 900?C) in the strain rate range of 1x10-5 to 1x10-2 s-1 in order to characterize the high temperature superplastic deformation behavior. A maximum elongation of 450% was observed at 1123 K at an initial strain rate of 5.52x10-4 s-1 indicating superplastic behavior of this alloy. From the obtained tensile test results, the optimum superplastic temperature range was identified as 1098 to 1148 K at a strain rate range of 1.38x10-4 to 1.38x10-3 s-1

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Thermal Performance Evolution of 2-D CFD Model of Natural Draft Wet Cooling Tower[Full-Text[References]
Alok singh, S P S Rajput

A 2-D computational fluid dynamics simulation of heat and mass transfer inside a natural draft wet cooling has been conducted to investigate the thermal performance of tower under the range of design parameter. The simulation of multi phase steady state flow inside a natural draft cooling tower has been found in various positions inside cooling tower along the diameter. Air temperature varies fluently above and below the fill because maximum heat transfer take place in fill zone as compare to spray zone and rain zone. At outlet air temperature changes around 5% where at its change is only 3%. Random change of pressure occurs below the fill, near wall its value almost zero. Enthalpy and entropy having descending values towards wall from axis.

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A new approach to studying and investigating hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures[Full-Text[References]
Alireza Heidari, Niloofar Heidari, Roozbeh Amiri, Foad Khademi Jahromi, Mehrnoosh Zeinalkhani, Fatemeh Ghorbani, Azadeh Piri, Sunil Kumar, Mohammadali Ghorbani

Nowadays, the hydrogen storage as a clean and renewable source of energy has great significance. The adsorption on adsorbents is one of the effective hydrogen storage methods. For this purpose, the use of different carbon nanostructured materials is investigated in this paper. Generally, due to carbon nanotubes' relatively low specific surface, they do not have high hydrogen adsorption ability. However, through undergoing modifications, their adsorption can be improved. These modifications include the impregnation by metals such as lithium, chemical modification by KOH, and heating at 400-500°C. Nanohorns possess higher specific surface than nanotubes; after thermal and chemical modifications which lead to opening them, nanohorns' specific surface can reach to about 1900 m2/g; in these conditions, they can absorb hydrogen up to 4 wt%. Fullerenes can obtain a high adsorption capacity through absorbing hydrogen molecules into their molecular structure, or by forming fullerene hydride and changing its nanostructure.

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Effect of Injection Pressure on CI Engine Performance Fuelled with Biodiesel and its blends[Full-Text[References]
Sanjay Patil, Dr. M.M.Akarte

Use of biodiesel as an alternative to diesel could reduce the dependency on petroleum products and the pollution problem. The physical properties of the fuel such as viscosity, volatility and flash point also affect the combustion process, thereby engine performance. Specifically atomization of the fuel during the injection is attributed to higher viscosity of biodiesel. Injected fuel droplets get smaller as the injection pressure increases which contributes to better atomization of the fuel. Hence the effect of injection pressure (IP) on the performance of compression ignition (CI) engine fuelled with biodiesel and its blends with diesel is evaluated. Tests are conducted on CI engine fuelled with diesel at IP of 200 bar to get base line data for comparing engine performance with various blends of palm oil methyl ester (POME) and diesel as test fuels at different injection pressures. The results indicate that the performance of engine is improved with B60 (60% POME and 40% diesel) at IP of 220 bar compared to other test fuels at different injection pressures. In this paper comparison of test fuel B60 at different injection pressures with diesel at 200 bar is made.It is observed that brake thermal efficiency is improved and brake specific energy consumption is lowered with B60 at 220 bar due to improved atomization. It is also observed that carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons are reduced and Nox emissions increased compared to other test fuels at different injection pressures

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Investigation of K doping in YBa2-xKxCu3O6+y superconductors using X-ray diffraction patterns[Full-Text[References]
Alireza Heidari, Niloofar Heidari, Foad Khademi Jahromi, Roozbeh Amiri, Mohammadali Ghorbani

We fitted and refined the X-ray diffraction profiles of YBa2-xKxCu3O6+y (0<y,x<1) superconductor powder samples through Rietveld analysis using the general structure analysis software (GSAS) package. During the substitution of potassium for barium, increase in potassium content led to new peaks in the diffracted patterns (due to the increasing amount of impurities), changed the samples' oxygen content, and also lowered the relative position of Ba(K) planes along the direction perpendicular to the basic planes (the direction of c). These changes demonstrated that the structural phase slowly transfers from the orthorhombic phase (ordered phase) to the tetragonal phase (disordered phase). We observed superconductivity even in the samples in w hich the disordered phase was dominant.

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A new and numerical approach to corrosion resistance of electrodeposited nanostructured Ni-Co coatings using a Watts bath under pulsed current[Full-Text[References]
Alireza Heidari, Niloofar Heidari, Foad Khademi Jahromi, Roozbeh Amiri, Mehrnoosh Zeinalkhani, Fatemeh Ghorbani, Azadeh Piri, Mohammadali Ghorbani

In this study, we electrodeposited nanostructured nickel-cobalt coatings using a Watts bath under pulsed current. The plating was performed in the baths containing 0.5, 1, and 3 g/lit of saccharin at the current densities of 2, 4, and 6 A/dm2, different frequencies, and on-time spans. We investigated these coatings' morphology, chemical analysis, and crystallography using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The results of the Tafel polarization tests conducted in 3.5% sodium chloride solution indicated that increasing the coating's cobalt content (constant grain size) raises the corrosion rate, although the corrosion potential slightly declines. The reason is that cobalt is more active than nickel. Increasing the grain size decreases the corrosion rate and corrosion potential

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Fpga Implementations of High Speed Elliptic Curve Cryptography: A Survey[Full-Text[References]
Shylashree N, Nagarjun Bhat, V Sridhar

An explosive acceptance of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has been attained in the industry and academics. Elliptic Curve cryptography is an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. The ECC is advantageous due to the provision of high level of security and the usage of small keys. In the field of Mobile, Wireless and Network servers, to sustain the high throughput the implementations of high speed crypto-systems are needed. ECC has been extensively used for hardware implementation of FPGA and DedicatedASIC. This paper attempts to conduct a detailed survey on different techniques for implementing FPGA using ECC to achieve high speed and flexibility.

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The General Theory of Oscillation of All Celestial Objects And Universe[Full-Text[References]
Anil Kumar Thanvi

There are many geological and astronomical properties in all celestial objects and universe that are very similar and they are common among all. We are here presenting a general theory for all celestial objects and finally also for universe. So we can put their all geological and astronomical properties in a common model. On the base of these similarities we reach on this conclusion that no celestial objects and universe rotate on its axis. All celestial objects and universe oscillate from confocal oblate spheroids (E) to concentric spheres (S) and concentric spheres (S) to confocal oblate spheroids (E). We say this type of changing geometry as ESE oscillation theory. We are also here developing an IDEAL GEOGRAPHICAL MODEL that we call IGM. In this developing of ESE oscillation theory and IGM at the same time we are also developing model of dark matter and dark energy. It is very essential to put such ESE oscillation theory, IGM and model of dark matter and dark energy at large scale. How these three models ESE oscillatory model, IGM model and the model of dark matter and dark energy explain the nature of all celestial objects and universe that we are trying to explain.

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Focusing to Infinitesimal[Full-Text[References]
Berker Hüsam

Fousing incoming coherent light to infinitesimally small spot with hologram and micro-sized aperture configuration reported. The design uses the optical Fourier transform in far field with Frauhoffer approximation.

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Electronic Line Shafting-Control for Paper Machine Drives[Full-Text[References]
AvinashWankhede, J. P. Modak, K.S. Zakiuddin, G. D. Mehta, M.K Sonpimple

This paper deals with the performance analysis of the paper manufacturing process through synchronized motion control system. The current synchronized motion control method used in paper machine drives are not designed to posses the inter-shaft stiffness properties which were responsible for the coordinating force inherent in classical, mechanically coupled paper machines. Consequently, these controllers cannot easily maintain coordination for all operating condition. This paper presents the application of an "Electronic line-shafting" control technique which serves to replicate and even improve on the mechanical line-shafted properties

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"Eagles Don't Flock" [Full-Text[References]
Shubhra Johri, Omika Bhalla, Neha Awasthi

Customer is no wonder the king, but to assume that he is the only king in the world is stupid. To depend on customers to achieve growth is not a very good idea, the aim should rather be to grab non - customers by creating new, uncontested opportunities and demand for the product.A small frog in the well knows nothing about the ocean. Similarly the organizations with myopic vision don't know about the opportunities beyond horizon. They are too busy fighting the competition to realize the power of infinite. Their concern is just to exploit the existing demand.When the various supply side means/factors to capture the market fail, then the demand side factors become crucial. To create new demand for the product by penetrating the same market through various tools like pricing, promotion etc. increases demand but to a certain extent. Similarly developing our product for the same market increases the demand again to a certain extent. Like everything else there are limitations of the market. Limitations of the finite. So the key is to explore a new market. This new market becomes even more crucial when our competitors are not aware about its existence. Considering this the aim must be to go beyond the finite into the unexplored, unfamiliar, uncultivated world beyond.

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Multiple Gene Dysfunctions Lead To High Cancer-susceptibility: Evidences From A Whole-exome Sequencing Study[Full-Text[References]
Soniya Priyadharishni.A.K

A total of $275 million has been launched to The Cancer Genome Atlas Project for genomic mapping of more than 20 types of cancers. The major challenge is to develop high throughput and cost-effective techniques for human genome sequencing. We developed a targeted exome sequencing technology to routinely determine human exome sequence. As a proof-of-concept, we chose a unique patient, who underwent three high mortalities cancers, i.e., breast, gallbladder and lung cancers, to reveal the genetic cause of high-cancer-susceptibility. Total 24,545 SNPs were detected. 10,868 (44.27%) SNPs were within coding regions, and 1,077 (4.38%) located in the UTRs. 3367 genes were hit by 4480 non-synonymous mutations in CDS with truncation of 30 proteins; and 10 mutations occurred at the splice sites that would generate different protein isoforms.

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The Role of Indian Agricultural Farmers in Creating Ecological Balance in the Nature[Full-Text[References]
Ms. Bheemabai S. Mulage

Agriculture may be defined as an integrated system of techniques to control the growth and harvesting of animal and vegetables. It is an uncomplicated endeavor comprising of technical and practical processes that helps in the maintenance of the ecological balance and protects human resources; and most importantly it is a viable food production system. This paper provides a brief overview about how the agricultural farmers' rights are intrinsically based on the link between innovation and rights over knowledge, biodiversity conservation, and the sustainable use of agro-biodiversity. However, India has framed a unique legislation called Indian Biodiversity, Act 2002, but still faces the problems in implementation and safeguarding the rights of the farmers and communities for their invaluable contribution and efforts in bringing ecological balance. It also argues that their different contributions should be recognized and respected by the International Undertaking, particularly in terms of Farmers' Rights. It is concluded that an international mechanism is urgently required to promote some level of consensus on defining and implementing these vital rights for their priceless contribution in maintaining balanced ecology.

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Financial Market Integration: Empirical Evidence from India and Select South Asian Countries[Full-Text[References]
Amalendu Bhunia, Amit Das

This study examines the relation of the stock markets in India with some leading South Asian countries and also en-deavours to communicate the impression whether Indian equity market is more proficient than the other south Asian markets as is popularly believed.Integrated financial market is assumed to be of immense significance as it constitutes an important vehicle for promoting domestic savings, investment and economic growth and fostering the necessary condition for a country's financial sector to emerge as an international financial center. Globalization, technological advancements and financial market integration have aggravated the challenges to emerging economies to grow at an extraordinary pace for promoting domestic savings, foreign capital inflows and economic growth. The study is based exclusively on secondary data obtained from various websites of Asian stock markets including yahoo finance and Bloomberg database. To explore these relationships we have used the daily stock indices from August, 2002 to August, 2011 by applying bivariate and multivariate co-integration tests and the Granger causality tests.The result shows both long-run and short-run association among the selected markets. The investors can reap benefit during short-run rather than in the long-run. It indicates that there are ample opportunities for the investors to broaden the horizons of their investments not only in Indian equity markets and also to the selected South Asian markets to reap the benefits of such diversification with risk reduction

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Participatory watershed management in south asia: a comparative evaluation with special references to india[Full-Text[References]
Mrs. Vidula Arun Swami, Dr.Mrs.Sushma Shekhar Kulkarni , Mr. Santosh Kumbhar , Mr . Vishal Kumbhar

The paper discusses different approaches of watershed management programs implemented in South Asia, with special reference to India, based on existing literature and field experiences. Watershed degradation, particularly in hilly areas as well as water deficiency in draught prone areas due to lack of proper watershed development programmes, is critical Problem in India. A participatory approach has been adopted in watershed management during the last decade in many developing countries. Participatory Watershed management is meant for growing biomass, the pipeline for prosperity of the people for bridging the gap between poverty line and per capita income. In achieving this objective, the people's part is awareness, participation and response. The state should revise the methods and methodologies as frequently as possible as long as they are appropriate and economical. Whatever may be the value of a plan, the impact of participatory watershed management depends on effectiveness of the technology in the background of needs, priorities, cultural practices and community participation.

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The Influence of Steel Die Parameter and Microstructural Investigation on AA6063 Aluminum Alloy[Full-Text[References]
Gbenebor,O.P.,Adeosun, S.O., Fayomi,O.S.,Joseph,O.O

The study investigated the influence of steel die parameter and the microstructural evaluation of AA 6063 aluminum alloy extruded at room temperature using different die entry angles. Mild and tool steel dies of entry angles of 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o and 90o were used to extrude the work sample. Microstructural analysis, coupled with ram velocity, elongation, hardness, and maximum extrusion pressure of the extruded samples were determined. It was observed that the maximum extrusion pressure required for extrusion and hardness of extruded samples increased with increasing die entry angle.Experimental results show that aluminum alloy deforms better when the die material is made of mild steel with die entry angles of 45o, 75o and 90o as compared to tool steel

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Design and Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Algorithm for a Standalone PV System[Full-Text[References]
S.Gomathy, S.Saravanan, Dr. S. Thangavel

Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play a vital role in photovoltaic (PV) systems because they increase the efficiency of the solar photovoltaic system by increasing the power output. MPPT algorithms are necessary because PV arrays have a non linear voltage-current characteristic with a unique point where the power produced is maximum. The output power from the solar panel varies with solar irradiance, temperature and so on. To increase the power extracted from the solar panel, it is necessary to operate the photovoltaic (PV) system at the maximum power point (MPP). This paper presents the Matlab/simulink arrangement of perturb & observe (P&O) and incremental conductance (INC) MPPT algorithm which is responsible for driving the dc-dc boost converter to track maximum power point (MPP). This paper also presents the theoretical analysis of variable step size (VSS) of INC MPPT which can effectively improve the tracking speed and accuracy of maximum power

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A Solution for Effective Teaching using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (COBFCMS)[Full-Text[References]
Mr. A.Rajkumar, Mrs.Jose Parveena, Dr. C. Jayalatha, Dr.A.praveen prakash

The necessity to use various tools - instructional media and technology for effective teaching using combined overlap block fuzzy cognitive maps (COBFCMS) defined by W.B. Vasantha Kandaswamy is analyzed in this paper. The combined overlap block FCM's defined in this method become effective when the number of concepts can be grouped and are large in numbrs. In this paper we have analyzed the various tools needed for effective knowledge transfer. In this paper, we analyzed the effective teaching methods and pedagogical practices and to develop new insights to serve their needs by fuzzy cognitive maps. This paper has five sections: First section gives the information about development of fuzzy cognitive maps, second section gives preliminaries of fuzzy cognitive maps, and combined overlap block fuzzy cognitive maps, in section three we describe the problem, in section four we explain the method of determining their hidden pattern and the final section gives the conclusion based on our studies

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Effective Genetic Algorithms & Implementation on Economic Load Dispatch[Full-Text[References]
Varun Kumar Vala, Srikanth Reddy Yanala, Maheswarapu Sydulu

This paper deals with some proposals to Conventional Genetic Algorithms to improve the performance (number of iterations needed to achieve convergence, time of execution). The advantages and disadvantages of each proposal have been noted. The disadvantage of a proposal is eliminated in the next proposal to the maximum extent. Thus, we finally landed up in a proposal with least time of execution and also less number of iterations for convergence. All the proposals made are tested by implementing on test function sine(x) and basic hand calculations. Later it has been implemented on Economic Load Dispatch with Pmin and Pmax constraints. The results of all the above have been highly satisfactory and a few are reported

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Coconut leaves as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Nickel from Electroplating effluents[Full-Text[References]
Rudre Gowda, A.G.Nataraj and N.Manamohan Rao

This study was focused on coconut leaves as an alternative adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) from wastewater. Batch experiments were conducted at room temperature 270C to determine the factors affecting adsorption of Ni(II). The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as contact time, solution pH, adsorbent dose and initial concentration. The maximum removal efficiency of Ni(II) was 93.18% for 2.0g/50ml of coconut leaves at pH 8.0 in optimum time of 4 hours. The experimental data was tested using Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The data fitted well to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption kinetics were best described by the pseudo second order model. The cost of removal is expected to be quite low, as the adsorbent is cheap and easily available in large quantities. The present study showed that coconut leaves was capable of removing Ni(II) from aqueous solution.

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Towards 3D Property Formation[Full-Text[References]
TAN Liat Choon, Khadijah Binti HUSSIN

This paper presents a solution to reformulate, further improve and enhance usefulness of the existing cadastral system and title registration of multi-layer properties in order to facilitate a modern Malaysian Cadastral and Land Administration Systems. In this paper, field 3D property and its rights as well as the categorisation of 3D property issues relating to rights are looked into. Later, 3D property types in Malaysia are presented with an explanation on land legislation framework, cadastral survey and registration. Furthermore, discussions on ways towards 3D property formation and the criteria associated with the establishment of Malaysian 3D cadastre for 3D property rights are included with some approaches to achieve its implementation

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The Segmentation of FMI Image Layers Based on FCM Clustering and Otsu thresholding[Full-Text[References]
J. Gholampour, A.A. Pouyan

A key aspect in extracting quantitative information from FMI logs is to segment the FMI image to get image of layers. In this paper, an automatic method based on FCM clustering and Otsu thresholding is introduced in order to extract quantitative information from FMI images. All pixels are clustered using FCM clustering algorithm at the first step. The second step uses KNN for other clustering. Then, uncovered columns of FMI image and image inequality are removed. Finally, the Otsu thresholding method is investigated for improving pixel-clustering step. Filed data processing examples show that sub image of layers can be accurately seprated from original FMI images

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Recognition of mischievous data packets In the networking[Full-Text[References]
G.Bala Venkata Kishore, B.Purnaiah, B.kishore Babu

The TCP has provided the primary means to transfer data reliably across the Internet however TCP has imposed limitations on several applications. Measurement Modern networks routinely drop packets when the load temporarily exceeds their buffering capacities. Early detection protocols have tried to address this problem with a user-defined threshold the finding of detecting and removing compromised routers can be thought of as an instance of anomalous behavior-based intrusion detection. That can be the compromised router can that identified by correct routers when it deviates from exhibiting expected behavior. This protocol can be evaluated in a small experimental network and demonstrate that it is capable of accurately resolving extremely

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Proposed structure of fault current limiter with power quality improvement[Full-Text[References]
L.Karunakar, D.seshi Reddy

This paper presents controlling the magnitude of fault current by using non super conducting fault current limiter with the help of controlled rectifier. Non superconducting fault current limiter consists of a rectifier and D. C reactor. The diode rectifiers are uncontrollable, to make it as a controllable by replacing the thyristor in place of diode. By providing the suitable gate triggering to the thyristor circuit we can control the magnitude of current in DC reactor. By reduce the magnitude of fault current in a power system, which improve the voltage profile at faulted phase. The proposed NSFCL was simulated and studied with the help of MAT-LAB.

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JACKY Operating System[Full-Text[References]
Suvankar Barai

JACKY is a new operating system kernel for IBM-PC compatible computers. This kernel is small, fast, and open source. It operates exclusively in 32-bit mode and features real preemptive multitasking and virtual memory. An operating system kernel is a big enough challenge to be discouraging at times. As an example, the command Interpreter I wrote over an one year period is trivial by comparison. On the other hand, since I do everything by myself I am able to keep the development on a unified path. The architecture that develops is I hope consistent (for better or worse) and thus the end product reflects the vision of a single programmer. It can be argued that this is the good, old- fashioned way of producing software.

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Performance Analysis for Optimization of CDMA 20001X Cellular Mobile Radio Network[Full-Text[References]
Ifeagwu E.N.,Onoh G.N.,Alor M., Okechukwu N

Cellular network operators must periodically optimize their networks to accommodate traffic growth and performance degradation. Optimization action after service rollout is to correct the expected errors in network planning and to achieve improved network capacity, enhanced coverage and quality of service. This paper presents the performance analysis for optimizing mobile cellular radio network with respect to the CDMA 20001X. The various ways of ensuring that the radio parameters are maintained at their standard thresholds after the optimization of the network to enhance the network performance are equally presented. The results obtained before and after optimization were simulated . The results obtained during the various models and techniques clearly showed an improvement in the optimized network performance parameters from the non-optimized network

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Squamous Cell Carcinoma of The Vulva In A Virgin Patient With Turner Syndrome [Full-Text[References]
Soniya priyadharishni.A.K, Dr.M.Sridhar, Dr.M.Rajani

Two types of gynecologic tumors are commonly described in the Turner syndrome, the first one is gonadoblastoma, which occurs in patients with Y chromosome abnormalities, and the second one is endometrial carcinoma which is mostly related with exogenous estrogen usage. Here, we describe an extremely rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva in a virgin woman with Turner syndrome. A 35-years old single, virgin woman referred to our Oncology Department with warty, necrotized, exophytic 6-7 cm vulvar mass. She had a history of primary amenorrhea and mosaic Turner syndrome was determined in her karyotype analysis. Biopsy specimen of the vulvar mass revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, and total vulvectomy with inguinal femoral lymphadenectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and there has been no recurrence of the disease up to date. Women with Turner syndrome have streak ovaries that produce very low estrogen and the squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva may have developed at an early age with Turner syndrome because of this low estrogen value similar to postmenopausal women. The current case is a special case due to its age of occurrence, virgin and Turner syndrome status.

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Multiple gene dysfunctions lead to high cancer-susceptibility: evidences from a whole-exome sequencing study [Full-Text[References]
Soniya priyadharishni.A.K, Dr.M.Sridhar, Dr.M.Rajani

A total of $275 million has been launched to The Cancer Genome Atlas Project for genomic mapping of more than 20 types of cancers. The major challenge is to develop high throughput and cost-effective techniques for human genome sequencing. We developed a targeted exome sequencing technology to routinely determine human exome sequence. As a proof-of-concept, we chose a unique patient, who underwent three high mortalities cancers, i.e., breast, gallbladder and lung cancers, to reveal the genetic cause of high-cancer-susceptibility. Total 24,545 SNPs were detected. 10,868 (44.27%) SNPs were within coding regions, and 1,077 (4.38%) located in the UTRs. 3367 genes were hit by 4480 non-synonymous mutations in CDS with truncation of 30 proteins; and 10 mutations occurred at the splice sites that would generate different protein isoforms. Substitutions or premature terminations occurred in 132 proteins encoded by cancer-associated genes. CARD8 was completely loss; ANAPC1 was pre-translationally terminated from the transcripts of one allele. On the Ras-MAPK pathway, 18 genes were homozygously mutated. 15 growth factors/cytokines and their receptors, 9 transcription factors, 6 proteins on WNT signaling pathway, and 16 cell surface and extracellular proteins may be dysfunctioned. Exome sequencing made it possible for individualized cancer therapy.

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Removal of Cr (VI) from Water by Using Activated Carbon prepared from Crotalaria burhia[Full-Text[References]
Suresh Chandra, Kailash Daga, Vinod Vaishnav, Madan Lal, Bhanupriya Mordhiya

The awareness of increasing water pollution implies studies concerning water treatment. Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater is of primary importance1. With a rapid increase in global industrial activities, pollution derived from the uncontrolled escape of heavy metals such as copper, nickel, chromium and zinc has become serious. The awareness of increasing water pollution implies studies concerning water treatment. The presence of toxic heavy metals such as chromium (VI) contaminants in aqueous streams, arising from the discharge of untreated metal containing effluents into water bodies, is one of the most important environmental problems. Adsorption is one of the effective techniques for chromium (VI) removal from wastewater. Industrial effluent containing Cr (VI) plays an important role in polluting water bodies. The major objective of this paper was to investigate the removal of Cr (VI) from synthetic wastewater using poly vinyl alcohol coated activated carbon prepared from stem of Crotalaria burhia 2. The effect of various parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial chromium (VI) concentration and pH has been studied. The chromium (VI) adsorption followed both the Langmuir3and Freundlich's equation isotherms

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Development of Polyester / Polyethylene Post Consumer Scrap Alloy[Full-Text[References]
Atul Prakash Joharia, Devendra Jainb, Rakesh Kumar Singh

The increasing awareness of environment, government has promoted great interest in selected waste collection and has attracted the interest of research groups to challenge of converting recycled plastic into useful products. Converting PET containing film laminate waste is studied to obtain a new material with enhanced properties. In present study different percentage of film laminate used using Twin screw extruder and were subjected to the evaluation of materials efficiency. The success of the project depends mainly on the possibility of obtaining a compatibilized blend between two polymers. Ternary blends of PET/(PET/PE)Laminates/compatibilizer in weight composition of 29/71/0, 26/64/10, 68/21/10, 44/46/10 is prepared and studied to obtain post consumer scrap injection moldable thermoplastic materials. Before blending the basic material and compatibilizer is preblended at different ratios. This material is injection moldable and is suitable for the manufacturing of outdoor furniture, Garden pavers, Crate handles, Shipping pallets, Electrical products etc. This waste is available in huge quantities with film converting units in the form of trims and other rejects. At present, its disposal is a problem for industry. Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis and a series of mechanical tests- Tensile strength, Flexural strength, and Impact strength are carried out according to ASTM D 638, ASTM D 790, and ASTM D 256 to investigate the phase behavior, the efficiency of compatibilization and the mechanical properties of the blends.

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A USB Based ECG Portable System and Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases[Full-Text[References]
Om Prakash Singh, Dr. Hemraj Saini, S. Kalaivani

Heart diseases is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. To help cardiologists in treating these conditions, medical technology has been researching ways to improve Electro - Cardiogram (ECG), the main tool to find out the health of patient's health. These large machines that are once exclusively found at hospitals can now be at a patient's disposal. The goal of this is: i) developed a USB Based ECG Portable system and displayed the acquired ECG signal and stored it in Laptop format .doc using print screen. It gives a larger degree of freedom to the patient, using a Microcontroller (PIC), an Analog circuit, Universal serial bus technology; ii ) Found the arrhythmia condition with good accuracy and sensitive in an automated way. It is a simple portable and thereby it records the ECG Signal of the patient, in and around the places. Further, a patient himself can carry out the device and subsequently, he/she can record his own heart activity over a period of time in a day. An automated ECG Signal analysis will give a report of an individual.

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A Modified Stage-Stacking Method for Multi-Stage Axial Flow Compressor Calculations[Full-Text[References]
Tonye K. Jack and Robin L. Elder

In this paper an attempt was made at studying multi-sage axial flow compressor off-design performance based on two existing stage stacking correlations - the STEINKE (the United States NASA model - referred to as the NASA model), and the HOWELL-CALVERT (the United Kingdom NGTE model - refered to as the H-C model). Variable stator stagger setting is incorporated in an existing Cranfield optimisation model; and the primary objective is to see if improvements in overall compressor performance can be achieved by combining these models. An exhaustive study in multistage axial compressor performance has not been conducted. The authors however believe the relationships provide a basis at estimating axial compressor performance. A computer program based on the model will be developed

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Decoding the NGTE/Calvert Axial Flow Compressor Computer Program[Full-Text[References]
Tonye K. Jack and Robin L. Elder

Several models are used for the design and performance evaluation of axial compressors - thickness, clearance, efficiency and others. However, two principal models for the overall performance evaluation are used - in North America, the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) or Steinke Model, and in Europe, the UK National Gas Turbine Establishment Model (NGTE) or Howell/Calvert Model. In all, there are essential relationships and connects in some of these models. An earlier investigator had applied the NASA model to a major UK gas turbine manufacturer's equipment with useful results. The aim of this research effort was to evaluate some of the major models, decode the NGTE Calvert computer program since some of these relationships are experimentally developed and not available in the open literature, find the connecting relationships, through new models development.

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R.F. Pollution Reduction in Cellular Communication[Full-Text[References]
Sumit Katiyar , Prof. R. K. Jain, Prof. N. K. Agrawal

R. F. pollution has been recognized as health hazard in India in the prevailing circumstances. There is lot of hue and cry against cellular towers installed in residential area. Recently high court in India has issued an order not to install towers in residential areas. For meeting the exponential demand of cellular communication in India this will be a set back for future growth. An appropriate solution has to be developed for meeting demand as well as RF pollution concern of the society. This paper deals with the installation of low power base stations in residential areas instead of high power macro cell base stations. Macro stations are proposed to be used for fast traffic, low power micro cell for a slow traffic / pedestrian and pico cell / femto cell for indoor use. These cells will be in hierarchical structure along with adaptive frequency allocation techniques and A-SDMA approach.

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Teachers And Awareness: A Case Study of Landslide Hazard In Penang Island[Full-Text[References]
Vijaya Govindasamy, Habibah Lateh

A study of awareness of landslide hazards have been conducted among secondary school teachers. The survey focused on four schools which are located in landslide areas and same methodologies were adopted to collect data from each school. Guided and close-ended questionnaires were distributed to 60 teachers in four selected schools in Penang Island. From the survey, the results showed knowledge and awareness of landslide hazards among the teachers are average. There need to be addressed if landslide hazard had to be detected at an earlier and beginning stage. The results of the survey of teachers indicate that more than 20 percent of teachers lacked of landslide knowledge and below 50 percents of the teachers' awareness of the landslide is average.

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Identification of groundwater prospecting zones using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques in and around Gola block, Ramgargh district, Jharkhand, India[Full-Text[References]
M.P. Sharma, Anukaran Kujur, Udayan Sharma

Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) is a rapid and cost effective techniques, it provides information of large and inaccessible area within short span for assessing, monitoring and management of groundwater resources. The interpretation of the remote sensing data with conventional data and sufficient ground truth information makes possible to identify and delineate the various ground features such as geological structures, geomorphological features and their characters that may cater direct or indirect presence of ground and surface water. The present study area is an attempt to delineate the groundwater potential zones in and around Gola block of Ramgargh district, Jharkhand, India, using integrated approach of Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. The groundwater prospect map is a systematic effort and has been prepared considering major controlling factors, such as geology, geomorphology, drainage pattern, drainage density, lineaments, slopes etc. which influence the occurrence, movement, yield and quality of groundwater. The map presents hydrogeomorphological aspect, which are essential for planning, development, management and extraction of groundwater. The present information depicted is very useful for planner and local authority in respect of site selection of well types, depth of well, water quality, success rate of wells and as well as groundwater development and management.

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Fusion Technique for Multi-focused Images using Stationary Wavelet Packet Transform[Full-Text[References]
Dr. A. A. Gurjar, Ms. Swapna M. Patil, Prof. S. B. Kasturiwala

Image fusion is defined as the process of combining two or more different images into a new single image retaining important features from each image with extended information content. There are two approaches to image fusion, namely Spatial Fusion and Transform fusion. In Spatial fusion, the pixel values from the source images are directly summed up and taken average to form the pixel of the composite image at that location. Transform fusion uses transform for representing the source images at multi scale. The most common widely used transform for image fusion at multi scale is Wavelet Transform since it minimizes structural distortions. But, wavelet transform suffers from lack of shift invariance & poor directionality and Stationary Wavelet Transform and Wavelet Packet Transform overcome these disadvantages. The Multi-Wavelet Transform of image signals produces a non-redundant image representation, which provides better spatial and spectral localization of image formation than discrete wavelet transform. In this paper, Multi-Wavelet Transform, Stationary Wavelet Transform and Wavelet Packet Transform were combined to form Multi-Stationary Wavelet Packet Transform and its performance in fusion of multi-focused images in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Root Mean Square Error, Quality Index and Normalized Weighted Performance Metric is presented.

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Comparison study between Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams without Stirrups and Reinforced Concrete beams with stirrups[Full-Text[References]
Anil Kumar. R and R. RudraPrasad

This experimental works aims to study (i) the behaviour of Fibre reinforced Concrete Beams(FRCB) without shear reinforcement (ii) the possibility of using steel fibers as shear reinforcement in reinforced concrete beams (RCB). Conventionally the beams are designed with shear reinforcement/ stirrups along with the tensile reinforcement which is expensive because of the labour cost associated with reinforcement installation. Hence, experimental works are carried out to find alternative solution to take care of shear forces without shear reinforcement. The steel fibres of aspect ratio 66.67 were in co-operated in the designed mix with fibre volume fraction (1.0and 1.5%) to study the behaviour of FRCB under two point lading. The test results showed that, the shear reinforcement is not required for FRCB of 1.0% and above upto shear stress of 1.77N/mm2 for concrete of cube strength 36.66 N/mm2 at 28days.

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Single Link clustering on data sets[Full-Text[References]
Ajaya Kushwaha, Manojeet Roy

Cluster analysis itself is not one specific algorithm, but the general task to be solved. It can be achieved by various algorithms that differ significantly in their notion of what constitutes a cluster and how to efficiently find them. Popular notions of clusters include groups with low distances among the cluster members, dense areas of the data space, intervals or particular statistical distributions. Most data-mining methods assume data is in the form of a feature-vector (asingle relational table) and cannot handle multi-relational data. Inductive logic programming is a form of relational data mining that discovers rules in _first-order logic from multi-relational data. This paper discusses the application of SLINK to learning patterns for link discovery. Clustering is among the oldest techniques used in data mining applications. Typical implementations of the hierarchical agglomerative clustering methods (HACM) require an amount of O(N2)-space when there are N data objects, making such algorithms impractical for problems involving large datasets. The well-known clustering algorithm RNN-CLINK requires only O(N)-space but O(N3)-time in the worst case, although the average time appears to be O(N2 log N).

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Computational Morphology and Natural Language Parsing for Indian Languages: A Literature Survey[Full-Text[References]
Antony P J and Dr. Soman K P

Computational Morphology and Natural Language Parsing are the two important as well as essential tasks required for a number of natural language processing application including machine translation. Developing well fledged morphological analyzer and generator (MAG) tools or natural language parsers for highly agglutinative languages is a challenging task. The function of morphological analyzer is to return all the morphemes and their grammatical categories associated with a particular word form. For a given root word and grammatical information, morphological generator will generate the particular word form of that word. On the other hand Parsing is used to understand the syntax and semantics of a natural language sentences confined to the grammar. This literature survey is a ground work to understand the different morphology and parser developments in Indian language. In addition, the paper also deals with various approaches that are used to develop morphological analyzer and generator and natural language parsers tools.

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