Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2017 Edition


Publication for Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2017.


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Dynamics of Ebola Virus[ ]


In this work a deterministic and stochastic model is developed to investigate the dynamics of Ebola epidemic. The model includes susceptible, exposed, infected, quarantined and removed or recovered individuals. The model used in this work is based on a deterministic model. The Chowel et. al (2015) work on early detection of Ebola is modified by introducing an assumption that the quarantined class is totally successful and cannot infect the susceptible class. The resulting model is transformed into a stochastic model and solved using the Euler Maruyama method. Data generated with the values assigned to the parameters are used for the simulation. We have been able to develop and analyse a model with an effective isolation of infected individuals and its effect to the basic reproductive number is analysed. In our simulation, the population of infectious individuals is shown over a period of time. It is seen that the disease will produce an epidemic and after some time, the infected class maintain a uniform increment.

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Extended Constrained Controllability of Retarded Functional Differential Equations[ ]


In this work, Extended Constrained Controllability of Retarded Functional Differential Equations, we seek to establish some controllability conditions for Linear and Semi linear retarded delay systems, due to (Klamka, 2009). Necessary and sufficient conditions for local relative controllability of linear retarded delay system are established, using change of order of integration and a comparative approach of a system with and without delay. Sufficient conditions for local relative controllability of semi linear retarded delay system are also established, using the associated linear dynamical system. The result was obtained, using the generalized open mapping theorem. An example is provided to illustrate the theory.

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Study of indigenous fertilizer Marketing system and its impact on farmers' livelihood in Sindh Province of Pakistan[ ]


In many countries, achieving food security is a primary concern in agriculture. Sustainable Intensification of agriculture production and higher fertilizer prices including prevention of inputs material in balance quantity are the key issues in agriculture crop producing countries, mainly in south Asian countries. Agriculture sector play an important role in the movement of economy’s wheel of Pakistan. Balance use of fertilizer can improve the crop yields by integrating the economic and environmental needs of the country to be in sustainable level, but the demand of fertilizer as per crop yield and rising fertilizer prices in the markets depressing the small-households in rural areas to increase their cost of production for required fertilizer nutrients of their crops. In this order, a field survey has been conducted to evaluate the indigenous fertilizer markets supply system and impacts of fertilizer prices on yield, how prices are varying in spatial transportation in remote areas, how subsidy and regulated polices are benefitted to agriculture growth in the country.

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ON THE NUMBER OF SOLUTIONS OF EQUATION Xn = 1[ ]


The number of solutions of the monomial given by xn = 1 forms a group A say. Thus, let x = f(n; k) be a solution. There exist stochastic di erential equations involving @x @k and @x @n of which the solution has a placeand is applicable to the Mckendrick-von Foerster equation, where n 2 Zn0 and k 2 R. Moreover, for any equation of second degree, the number of solutions in the function forms a group of order 2.

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A Study on Parallel Computing and its Approaches[ ]


Engineering tools are used for a variety of analyses work ranging from bolted joints, air-flow analysis to finite element methods. Despite the computing power present today, engineering analyses often take long time to complete on a single machine. The Honeywell Engineering tools portfolio consists of applications both old and new but not all of them are adaptable to a parallelized or clustered environment. This paper tries to act as guide to engineers in using modern software libraries and clustered hardware to migrate from single core applications to multi-core applications.

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PREVALENCE OF PREMARITAL COHABITATION AND PREMARITAL SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AMONG UNDERGRADUATES IN NIGERIA[ ]


The issue of pre-marital cohabitation and pre-marital sexual behaviours among undergraduates in Nigeria has attracted a lot of attentions among scholars, researchers and policy makers. This study therefore examined the relationship between pre-marital cohabitation and pre-marital sexual behaviours among undergraduates in Nigerian Universities. Ninety two undergraduates were randomly selected from four public universities in Ogun and Lagos states. This sample was made up of forty eight males (52%) and forty four females (48%). Sixty one of selected samples had involved in cohabitation sometimes or presently cohabitating. This represented two-third of the total sample.

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L’effet d’un programme d’entraînement simultané de la force et de l’endurance sur la performance des marcheurs Algériens[ ]


L’objectif de cette étude est de montrer l’effet de l’entrainement simultané de la force et de l’endurance sur la performance des marcheurs algériens. Nous avons pour cela comparé deux groupes (groupe témoin (GT) et groupe expérimental (GT)) utilisant pour le premier groupe un entrainement basé uniquement sur des entrainements en endurance alors que le deuxième groupe a entrepris un entrainement simultané de la force et de l’endurance. L’étude s’est déroulée sur une durée totale de 10 semaines avec une phase de pré-tests avant l’entrainement et une phase de post tests après l’entrainement. Nous avons ainsi pu mesurer le VO2max, le 10 km marche, le demi-squat, le développé couché et la puissance des membres inférieurs. Les résultats obtenus nous montrent que les performances se sont améliorées pour les deux groupes sur les principales variables déterminant la performance en endurance qui sont le VO2max et le 10 km marche (P < 0.05), alors que le groupe expérimental ne montre aucune amélioration significative par rapport au groupe témoin après les différents entrainements suivis (P>0.05). Selon nos résultats, l’entrainement simultané n’a pas eu l’influence attendue sur la performance en endurance des athlètes par rapport à l’entrainement uniquement basé sur l’endurance.

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An innovative approach of online recommendation mechanism for achieving SELLER’S and BUYER’S reciprocity[ ]


The purpose of this paper is to present a novel e-commerce model which is aimed at enhancing shopping experience for both the buyers and the sellers by overcoming the limitations of the existing models. This will be accomplished by incorporating the traditional features of brick and mortar market place such as price negotiations, incentives, discounts and supplementary product recommendations. The distinguishing factor of this model is that, its stated features will be made available while maintaining privacy control for its users. The model will utilize collaborative filtering and users’ behavioral analysis.

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Impact of IT over business operations: Case of Moroccan Law firms[ ]


Due to the complexity of the business environment companies have delved into, several studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the most effective combinations of operations improvements for organisations. This paper analyses one major factor that directly contributes to this end: the use of Information Technology. Our study focuses on the automation of business processes and the positive impacts it can have on organisations’ operations. In order to illustrate our claim, we have decided to base our research on a real-life example related to Moroccan law firms. Indeed, throughout this paper, we are investigating the various benefits automation can have on processing clients’ data and performing many other law-related tasks that are usually manually intensive. The results of our research show that, indeed, automation of lawyers’ work is highly needed to help them better their performance and process clients’ cases in a faster and more efficient manner.

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Studies on the Consequences of the Chemical Interactions Occurring in the Cores of Nuclear Reactors[ ]


Water radiolysis is still up till now a controversial problem particularly in case of water chemistry of primary coolant systems in light water reactors (LWR), especially in BWRs.Oxygen arising from radiolysis of the reactor water in core affects to a large extent, as an oxidizing agent, the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) so also are the other chemical species produced by radiolysis of water.Power reactor systems are very numerous and very much complicated. In the essential parts of these reactors such as the reactor core , steam generators, as well as in the secondary circuits where water plays an important role as coolant or moderator or both, the integrity of the construction materials are vulnerable to adverse effects related to corrosion.In the present work the interaction of water in water cooled/moderated nuclear reactors with the reactor components under the strong irradiation field are studied in order to shed some light on the prevailing chemical interactions occurring in the reactor cores.In the present work: The changes occurring in the stray gamma/neutron irradiation field, the systems or components in LWR that are susceptible to the effect of the water used as a coolant or moderator has been studied in details. This comprised metals used in reactors particularly different types of steels used as well as zircaloy materials.

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A rare anatomical variation of the spinal accessory nerve[ ]


Anatomical variation of the spinal accessory nerve to the internal jugular vein are reported in the literature and anatomy text. Knowledge of the landmarks of the spinal accessory nerve and its relationship to the internal jugular vein are extremely helpful in its identification during neck surgery for precluding neurovascular complications. The nerve mostly passes lateral( anterior) or medial( posterior) to internal jugular vein at the level of medial aspect of posterior belly of digastric muscle. On the other hand, there is a rare anatomical and surgical variant. Asin our case report, we describe an unusual relationship of the spinal accessory nerve to the internal jugular vein. In our case study, the nerve pierce the internal jugular vein.

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Collision-Avoidance System Based on an Insect[ ]


Insects’ vision system has proven key to the modern day scientific discoveries. Entomological studies have proven that insects have designed a visual system that performs same tasks as those required by RPA’s early detection and avoidance of possible predations over a wide field of view otherwise known as collision avoidance. This literature review paper will dissect studies from journals, periodicals, research studies, and graphical impressions on how insects have been key to modeling Collision-Avoidance Systems. It is understandable that all animals and scientific creations are motivated to move without hitting objects within their trajectory .

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PROSPECTS ON LAND USE OF ALAHSA GOVERNORATE AND ITS EFFECTS ON URBAN HEAT ISLAND[ ]


The aim of this study is to investigate land use pattern of Alahsa Governorate and its effects on urban heat island. Data used to analyze the land use of the governorate was collected from Alahsa Municipality. While, data collected to study the urban heat island of the governorate was collected from authorized bodies who control weather station networks over Alahsa Governorate, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A considerable increase in urban growth in Alahsa Governorate took place. The urban land increased from 15706.9 in 2004 to 24649.1 Acres in 2014, with an increase of almost 9000 Acres. Moreover, the approved expected urban growth is 38000 Acres by 2029 adding approximately 19000 Acres of lands.

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Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity of Smallholder Farmers in Southwest Nigeria[ ]


This study was undertaken to assess the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity and farmers’ adaptation strategies in Egbeda local government area, Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. The study sourced primary data from a total of 411 households who are mainly farmers and it also used different methods and approaches including Social Analysis System (SAS2), multi-stage sampling techniques, structured questionnaires, focused group discussion and key informant/in-depth interview. The secondary data was obtained from credible publications and institutions including the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet). The primary data obtained was triangulated with the secondary data to arrive at the findings of this study which covered a period of 30 years from 1985 to 2015. The findings from this study showed that crop yield had drastically decreased due to erratic rainfall, increase in sunshine hours, increase in temperature and pest infestation. This calls for urgent actions to be taken by all relevant stakeholders in the agriculture sector be it the farmers themselves, government, private sector, non-governmental organizations and other non-state actors to adequately address the adverse impacts of climate change.

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A Novel Laser Cooling System for MRI Scanner Using Soft Computing[ ]


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scanner is a powerful tool used for visualization of soft tissues by the medical community. The most expensive and important component of MRI is the superconducting magnet. During the operation, the magnet in the MRI scanner creates a very high magnetic field and which in turn creates a huge temperature, which can create undesirable effect in the scanner. So a cooling system is used to cool the superconducting magnet. Traditionally liquid helium is acting as the cooling agent. However the cost of liquid helium is high and the handling of liquid helium is difficult. In this paper we proposed a cooling system based on the LASER technology. The Laser Cooling System (LCS) with normal controller is modeled and the data obtained from this is used to model a hybrid system based on soft computing techniques. Here the PID is combined with Fuzzy. The performance analysis suggests that the hybrid system provides better results than the normal controller with a global temperature accuracy of 95.12%. Ultimately we suggest that our overall system becomes a new way of cooling system for MRI scanner with low cost and less maintenance difficulties.

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Exploring the Relationship between Employer Brand and Employees’ Retention[ ]


Due to the fact that employer brand is important in recruiting the best applicants besides retaining the current employees, the purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between employer brand and employees’ retention. For this purpose, Iran Melli Bank was chosen as statistical population and the branches of the Bank in the City of Tehran were chosen as the sample which was divided into five regions: center, north, south, east and west by cluster sampling method. Moreover, in every region, some branches were selected randomly and 530 questionnaires were distributed among bank employees and 380 questionnaires were collected totally. Then, structural equations modeling based on partial least squares for data analysis was used. According to the findings, there is a positive and significant relationship between employer brand and its dimensions including compensation, brand and reputation, authority, work environment, corporate social responsibility and employees’ retention.

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The relation of the intensity of the emotion in the influence of the sport performance[ ]


The objective of the study was to identify the prominent emotions in the Sports Swimming modality and to evaluate the relations that are established between the Intensity and the Influence of the emotions in the sport performance in young swimmers. A total of forty-four young male and female swimmers from a team of the 1st National Division were evaluated with the Questionnaire on Emotions in Sports Performance (QESP). Pearson's Correlation was used to examine the interrelationship between Intensity of emotions and Influence of emotions (p≤0.05) on the sample. The results of our study confirm that there are emotions with correlations in intensity influencing sports performance, and that this relationship is important, since emotion has a powerful effect on performance.

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Comparison of Perioperative Perfusion - Pressures in terms of Postoperative Morbidity in Coronary Surgery[ ]


Continuum of Perfusion Pressures were compared in terms of Renal Dysfunction, Neurological injury / Stroke, ICU stay , and Mortality in elective coronary surgery cases. It was a prospectively conducted study from March 2014-Feb2017. Total Patiens( N=467) underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for 3Vessel Coronary Artery Disease(VCAD =55%), Left Main Stem (LMS=18%), Left Main Equivalent / Proximal Left Anterior Descending Artery (LAD) lesions(17%), N STEMI with ongoing ischemia (2.5%), 1-2 VCAD with inducible ischemia/ large myocardium at jeopardy (5%) and 2-3VCAD with low Ejection Fraction (EF=2.5%) during this period with either Higher perfusion pressures ( >75mmHG)=(n1=260) or Lower perfusion pressures (<70mmHG)= (n2=207). Statistcal analysis was conducted with SPSS 16.0. ICU (Intensive Care Unit) prolonged stay (>7 days) was significantly higher in (n2) -group as compared to (n1) group (p<0.05). Mortality was 3% in Lower Perfusion (n2) group and 1.5% in Higher Perfusion (n1) group. Statistically significant Renal Dysfunction (Stage 2-3 RIFLE criteria) and perioperative neurological injury were noted in Lower perfusion- group. But no significant difference was found amongst two in terms of occurrence of Stroke (p<0.09). Ambivalent data was collected as regards the Perioperative MI, Low cardiac output (CO) and Mechanical inotropic support-requirements for two groups. However Ventilatory dependence (>5 days) was slightly higher in Lower perfusion group (n2), though it never reached significant levels (p>0.05). Overall study was indicative of favouring Higher perfusion pressures on-pump for better outcomes related to CABG surgery.

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Dentigerous cyst : A Case report[ ]


Dentigerous cyst (DC) is one of the most common type of odontogenic cyst, developed abnormally around unerupted teeth. DC is frequently found in the age group between 20 and 40 years.Small dentigerous cysts are asymptomatic and discovered only on routine radiographic examination. A case of a 12year old boy with a symptomatic dentigerous cyst in the right mandibular premolar region was studied. The management comprised of enucleation and one year follow up.

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Aging Workforce at Saudi Aramco: Implications, Challenges and Strategic Directions[ ]


Saudi Aramco is an oil company owned by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This company is internationally well-known due to its completely incorporated operations concerning extracting, draining and filtering fossil fuels such as crude oil and natural gas, There area variety of issues that companies need to address in developing successful strategies to better sustain the ongoing participation of a labor force consisting of mainly mature-age workers, The company occupies the leading role in terms of crude oil reserves and production with the capacity of producing vast amounts of fossil fuel,.most of which is exportedas crude oil and natural gas liquids (NGL).

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Innovative Use of Space Swimmer Bars System as Shear Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete Beams[ ]


The sudden shear failure of reinforced concrete beams due to excessive shear forces made the design for shear reinforcement even more challenging. This type of failure is completely undesirable and it demands higher factor of safety. This pushed researchers to look for other alternatives. Several alternatives to the traditional shear reinforced will be introduced and discussed in this study. New concept of shear reinforced called swimmer bars shear reinforcing system is explored in this study. This new type of swimmer bars require no welding but perform as good as the welded swimmer bars. This study focuses on new and innovative type of swimmer bars. This new swimmer bars system used in this study is called three dimensional space swimmer bars system. This type of swimmer bars are proven to be effective in taking care of the shear forces in reinforced concrete beams. Also, this type of improved swimmer bars system improves on the shear failure mechanism of reinforced concrete beams.

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Diagnosis and management of osteoid osteoma in children;Review[ ]


Our main objective in this review was to discuss the diagnosis and therapeutics option in management of osteoid osteoma. We also intended to review different diagnostic methods as well as different treatment strategies. We conducted a narrative review of the literature using the online databases such; Medline and EMBASE. Studies ivolving the diagnostic procedures and management options were targeted in our search. We included studies published up to September, 2017. restriction to English language and human subject were performed in our search strategy. Osteoid osteoma is a benign primary skeletal tumor taking place generally in the cortex of long bones, but also in the spine. Osteoid osteoma may happen in basically any bone of the body, however the method of therapy has to be considered carefully, especially when it occurs in the spinal column. Osteoid osteomas and osteoblastomas in childhood years can be taken care of efficiently either operatively or nonsurgically. Signs for surgical procedure consist of failing to regulate signs with NSAIDs, neurological deficit, and also requirement for pathological medical diagnosis. The use of modern intraoperative CT as well as image advice can be helpful in challenging situations.

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Linear attenuation coefficient Methanol solution of oxalic acid by varying concentration at 0.36 MeV gamma energy by varying concentration[ ]


Linear attenuation of 0.36 MeV gamma radiations from methanol by solution of oxalic acidstudied for different concentrations. Mixture rule for theoretical calculation of attenuation coefficient is developed for the solution. Our study explores the validity of the expected exponential absorption law for γ-rays radiations in solution and also provides an alternative method for direct determination of linear attenuation coefficients of soluble compound in water.

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In- Silico Docking Study of Terminalia catappa Linn as a Potent Anti-diabetic Agent[ ]


Diabetes mellitus is one of the life threatening diseases in Africa, especially in Nigeria which has been shown to have the highest number of people with diabetes with an estimated 3.9 million people. The present study investigate the anti-diabetic active constituent present in Terminalia catappa Linn which bind at active site of G-protein coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), with lowest binding energy using Autodock/Vina 4.2. Molecular screening of phytochemicals constituent found in Terminalia catappa Linn reveals that Farnesyl acetone with a docking score of -7.9 kcal/mol in comparison with Cholic acid with a docking score of -7.3kcal/mol which is a standard agonist of G-protein coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) has high anti-diabetic potency. From the result, it can be concluded that Farnesyl acetone acts as a potent anti-diabetic agent and can be developed into a potent drug for type 2 diabetes.

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Macro, Micro and Nano Imprinted Gels[ ]


Molecular imprinting (MI) is a process in which imprinted gels prepared by cross linking of functional monmers with template. Cavities are left in porous material which rebind to other template molecule in specific location and not to different molecule on account of the matching location of the functional group. MIGs are commonly prepared by two methods. One is cross linkers in the presence of template molecule and second by freeradical copolymerization of ligand. MI process consists of three basic steps. (1) Analyte selection as a template. (2) In a polymer network incorporation of the template. (3) Removal of the specific cavities where rebinding of the other template occur. Template, monomers, cross-linkers and solution play important part in synthesis of MIGs. Macroimprinting is more sensitive towards temperature and many environmental factors. Microgels synthesis is more efficient than nanoimprinted gels because it is low yield process. Nanoimprinting could give better yield by postdilution method. Efficiency of MIGs can be measured by swelling ratios. MIGs show deviation in their behavior due to aqueous solvent. MIGs are responsive to pH and temperature and their catalytic activity is efficient at optimal condition but not at extreme condition.

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CENTRALIZED BORDER SECURITY INFORMATION[ ]


This paper presents a design of WINS (Wireless Integrator Network Sensor) in a distributed network using multi hop communication, operated at low power and low frequency. In WINS, the PIR Sensor (PASSIVE INFRARED) detects the human body around 200 feet and uses the concept of Black Body Radiation. The combined effect of Sensing, Signal Processing, Computation and Decision capability is been described with more advancement and accuracy in an Integrated System. WINS has an advantage over other security systems as it is cheaper, faster, compact, scalable and is implemented using micro power CMOS Circuits.

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Effect of Residual Stress on the Mechanical Behavior of AISI 304, For TIG Welding[ ]


Fatigue is a phenomenon which should be taken into consideration in an engineering design. Residual stress is one of the important factors that affect fatigue life. Tensile residual stresses are harmful for product life and should convert into compressive residual stresses. Welding is a metal joining process, and amount of residual stress produced in welding is more than other mechanical processes. Two plates of AISI 304 grade of dimension 300X300X3 mm are used in present work. TIG welding is use for joining of plates. Longitudinal and transverse specimens are extracted from this plate. Another two plates are welded at an angle of 45° and same shaped specimen is extracted named as Angular weld specimen. These specimens are tested on UTM by using tensile test. Using Labeas and Diamantikos formula calculated residual stress is assigned as an initial stress in finite element software Ansys Workbench. Transient thermal and transient structural analysis is carried out, in order to investigate effect of residual stress on fatigue strength of a component. Stress vs. strain curves for virgin, longitudinal, transverse and angular specimens are compared and analyzed. Structural strength is also examined through this research work.

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A comprehensive overview of web crawler algorithms[ ]


The information on the World Wide Web is very large and increased all the time. The user need to a program that can access to this information on the web and download pages that contains this information in very systematic manner. The program that satisfied the needs of users is called the web crawler, It apart from search engine.

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Horizontal Fragmentation for Most Frequency Frequent Pattern Growth Algorithm[ ]


Data mining is become very important at the present time, especially with the increase in the area of information it's became huge, so it was necessary to use data mining to contain them and using them, one of the data mining techniques are association rules here using the Pattern Growth method kind enhancer for the apriori. The pattern growth method depends on fp-tree structure, this paper presents modify of fp-tree algorithm called HFMFFP-Growth by divided dataset and for each part take most frequent item in fp-tree so final nodes for conditional tree less than the original fp-tree. And less memory space and time.

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Evaluation of medical ethics application in Hail , KSA[ ]


Throughout history, men have repeatedly made judgments regarding their own conduct and that of their fellow men. Some acts have been judged to be right or good, while other acts have been denounced as wrong or evil. Ethical judgment in medicine, as inother areas of life, is an attempt to distinguish between good and bad conduct. Research ethics guidelines are essential for conducting medical research. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to establish national clinical research documents in the countries of the Middle East. This article analyzes these documents.

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Evaluation of Callus Induction and Plant regeneration on Different Media of Rice F1 hybrid using Anther Culture[ ]


Anther culture has become a powerful tool for the rapid production of haploid and inbred lines used for obtaining hybrid cultivars. The genotype and the composition of the callus induction basal medium were the major determinants of regeneration response. It is important to investigate appropriate media for combinations with high callus induction frequency and green plant regeneration. Callus induction ability of different media on F1 hybrid Paw San Hmwe (PSM) x IR 24 and plant regeneration ability on different media of PSM x IR 24 were evaluated through anther culture. The callus induction frequency was higher on SKI media due to might be lower level of NH4+. The frequency of callus induction was higher on SKI and He 2 media for Japonica x indica (PSM x IR24). In the present study, it was observed that green plant frequency was found on SKI and He2 and there was no green plant frequency on N6 medium. Our result indicated that SKI medium has the best response in anther culture ability and plant regeneration ability and SKI medium should be exploited in anther culture is called double haploid breeding program.

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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LOPERAMIDE ORAL FILMS[ ]


Loperamide is a synthetic opioid that does not have any central nervous action in therapeutic doses. It binds with intestinal µ-receptors and thus causes an alteration of the neuronal activity of the intestinal motility. The results are a reduction of the propulsive peristalsis and a reinforcement of the rhythmic pendulum movement (the intestinal transit time). Loperamide causes a prolonged passage, a thickening of the stool, and a decrease of fluid and electrolyte losses. The tone of the anal sphincter is also increased. Loperamide probably also has anti secretory activity. Fast dissolving sublingual films of loperamide were prepared by solvent casting method. Water soluble polymer hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose E50 & E5 were used as film forming polymer. propylene glycol was used as plasticizers. Sucrose was added as a sweetener and menthol as flavoring agent. The formulations prepared were evaluated for their uniformity of weight, surface pH, folding endurance, disintegration time, tensile strength, % elongation, content uniformity and % drug release. The FTIR studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer. From the observations of evaluation results, it was concluded that formulation F2 containing 0.2ml PG for films prepared using HPMC E 50 having sodium starch glycolate as super disintegrants is found to be the best formulation among the all other formulations.

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Comparision on Different Data Transformation[ ]


We discussing below squre root, cube root, log transformation, Tukeys lader of power transformation, ANOVA with Tukey transformation and box-Cox transformation. Applications of above said transformation’s merits and demerits also pointed out in detailed manner.

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Study of coupling optics involving hemispherical microlens on the tip of single-mode step index fiber in the framework of ABCD matrix which takes care of arbitrary angle of incidence[ ]


We use the formulated ABCD matrix for refraction of Gaussian light beam by a spherical surface at arbitrary angle of incidence in order to study the launch optics involving laser diode to single-mode step index fiber coupling via hemispherical micro lens on the fiber tip. The reported investigation of coupling optics is realistic in the sense that it considers all possible angles of incidence. Further, to the best of our knowledge, no such study in case of easily fabricable hemispherical microlens on the fiber tip has been reported till date. Moreover, in our present investigation, we have taken into consideration the limited aperture provided by the hemispherical lens. The execution of this simple formalism, as regards estimation of the excitation efficiency, involves little computation and consequently it will be user friendly with the system engineers who are working in the field of optical technology.

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A review of Automated Screening for Tuberculosis of Chest Xray and Microscopy Images [ ]


Tuberculosis is a major health issue people are facing all around the world. Tuberculosis is a prevalent, deadly infectious and penetrating disease basically triggered by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Mostly lungs are affected from Tuberculosis. The screening process for tuberculosis detection and diagnosis requires time and is susceptible to human errors. The interpretation of tuberculosis is tiresome and hardworking task requiring highly trained workers. The microscopy method for screening includes the Ziehl-Neelsen and fluorescence stained specimen’s microscopy. The diagnostic field has been revolutionized by the discovery of X-ray radiology. Chest X-rays radiology is another tool for detecting tuberculosis. The objective of this survey is to review different automated tuberculosis detection approaches using chest X-ray and microscopic images. The paper presents a summary of different automated systems designed. Many clinical and diagnostic applications utilize computationally designed algorithms that help in clinical diagnostic analysis by acquisition of images. It was concluded that Digital image is an important medium for analyzing, annotating, patient’s demographics reporting in screening of tuberculosis through chest radiography and microscopy. Using different approaches automated screening of tuberculosis provides an accurate, speedy and cost effective detection system to a manual system of slide analysis for workers. Algorithms designed for chest X-ray or Microscopy images will improve the efficiency and accuracy of the system. In future these approaches can be used to other laboratory based techniques of tuberculosis screening e.g. Drug Susceptibility test, Line Probe Assay and culturing.

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Application of Operation Research in the Pharmaceutical Industry[ ]


Management science, according to Stafford Beer, may be called as the business use of operations research. According to Frederick S. Hillier, operation research is applied to problems that concern how to conduct and coordinate organizational operations. Medicine, healthcare and pharmaceuticals are thriving industries in the 21st century, the relevance of which is bound to increase in the near future. The pharmaceutical industry is one with activities being undertaken on a massive scale, involving expertise of several other fields and sectors.

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Effects of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) on the health related quality of Life among Saudi Males at Al-Jouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia[ ]


The prevalence of IBS varies from 12 to 30% worldwide. Moreover, several studies had suggested the negative effects of IBS on the health related quality of life (HR-QoL). This paper seeks to assess and evaluate the effect of IBS on the HR-QoL among Saudi population at Al-Jouf region (Northern Saudi Arabia). The study primary depends on measuring the effect of IBS on the HR-QoL with several assessments and evaluation instruments. Furthermore, data was collected via structured questionnaire (25-IBSQoL) by using generic Arabic translated questionnaire in which 70 patients were enrolled (all men, aged 20±4).

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Simulative Design of DWDM System Using Different Dispersion Compensation Techniques[ ]


Over the years the demand for more bandwidth has increased tremendously because of the growing bandwidth hungry applications. Subsequently the transfer of this heavy amount of data requires faster data speeds. With the advancement in optical fiber technology and its ability to carry greater bandwidth at much higher data rates has led to the development of advanced multiplexing techniques, namely, Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing which lets several channels multiplexing and routing through the same optical fiber cable through the use of different wavelengths. The implementation of the DWDM technology has simply taken care of the bandwidth and data issue in a very effective and sustainable way. However the problem being faced in the DWDM multiplexing technique relates to the issue of dispersion. With dispersion, the overall system performance is degraded/deteriorated.

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Lifestyle Modification To Reduce Constipation Among Adult Females At Alahsa City[ ]


Constipation is a common problem that means going to the toilet less often than usual to empty the bowels, or passing hard or painful stool. It can be caused by a few fibers, or fluids, or as a side-effect of certain medications. It is demarcated as three or fewer bowel movements per week.The research design of the study was a quasi-experimental research design.Setting: The study was conducted at Alahsa city.Subjects: the subjects of this study comprised 110 adult women who suffered from constipation.Tools for data collection: “structured questionnaire sheet”. It includes items related to sociol-demographic characteristics as age, education, and residence. Also, it includes questions related to symptoms, causes, and lifestyle of the participants.Results revealed that the mean age of the sample was 49 years old. Participants had different health-related problems that cause constipation such as chronic diseases (50.9%) which must regular taking of medications (69.0%), colon problems (57.3%), thyroid disorders (8.2%), previous surgery (33.6%), stressors (69.1%) and anxiety (61.8%). Sample changes their lifestyle, do exercises (58.2%) and increased their daily intake of vegetables (98.2%), fruits (99.1%) and water (5.9 cups/day) to reduce constipation.Study recommended that quality of intestinal health affected by many factors such as healthy diet, exercise, and healthy bowel habits. Changes in lifestyle and increased the daily intake of vegetables, fruits and water are very important factors that help to reduce constipation.

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Realizing Sustainable Urban Form, the Role of Regulation and Market-Based Instruments[ ]


The discourse on sustainable urban form has been debating impacts of compaction and sprawl, whilst neglecting a major challenge, namely personal preferences and choices which might not confer with national and international policies and sustainability directives. Available means to influence and manage sustainable choices need to be brought into the heart of the debate as part of the higher goal of realizing sustainable urban form. Planning regulatory policy and market-based instruments can influence development patterns each in isolation, however, a combination of types of measure might best be applied. This paper reflects on planning regulatory policy drawn from a centrist and decentrist type of urban pattern exemplified in the UK and USA and available market-based instruments which can be combined with such policies as a means to achieve sustainable urban form.

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Overview of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System[ ]


This paper, titled, “Overview of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System” is a precursor to the subsequent papers on analytical performance model for SCADA System protocols. We examine the fundamental functions expected from a SCADA System, its components and the distinct features between SCADA System and Distributed Control System (DCS) - both are members of the set of Indus-trial Control System (ICS). This work is quite different from others as SCADA System is considered from different perspectives such as: a) role in monitoring and control of critical infrastructure like national electricity supply system and oil and gas pipelines; b) its layout and hierarchical architecture and c) its Master/Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) functional data/control flow. Its hierarchical model presented is compared with the Purdue Enterprise reference Architecture (PERA) which is one of the general models that visualize the entire enterprise system from the field or the plant to the apex (Computer System or production Scheduling). Compliance is confirmed.

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