IJSER Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2012 Edition

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Spin Coated YSZ Thin Films on Silicon Substrate [Full-Text[References]
Shirley Tiong Palisoc, Rose Ann Tegio, Michelle Natividad, Simon Gerard Mendiola, Benjamin Tuason, Kevin Kaw and Stephen Tadios

Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) thin films (<10 µm) were fabricated by spin coating technique on silicon (Si). Parameters such as concentration ratio of YSZ powder to solvent were varied accordingly. The effects of these variations were investigated and discussed. Using X-ray Diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy, the crystal structure of the samples were determined. The 8-YSZ thin films have cubic fluorite structure. The X-ray diffraction patterns were in agreement with the samples' Raman spectra. Pores were evident on single coated substrates but were minimized using higher YSZ concentration.

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Application of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Technique for investigation of air Pollution in Addis Ababa University, Natural and Computational Science College, Ethiopia[Full-Text[References]
Awoke Taddesse, A.K. Chaubey, Tilahun Tesfaye and Asres Yehunie

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) using high resolution ?-ray spectrometry was used to monitor environmental air pollution in Addis Ababa University, Natural and Computational Science College (Ethiopia) using Biomonitor Lichen. The low neutron flux from our isotope source is compensated by taking relatively long irradiation time and large mass samples. Gamma photon mass absorption correction was made for the relative large mass sample. It was identified that more than 18 air pollutant elements are accumulated in the lichen samples.

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Energy Absorption Capacity of Packaged Roma Tomatoes under Compressive Loading [Full-Text[References]
F. A. Babarinsa and M. T. Ige.

This study focused on the energy absorption capacity of Roma tomatoes as a strength parameter that characterizes mechanical damage of the packaged fruit when subjected to compression, in multi-layers. The aim was to relate the measured strength properties of the bulk fruit to mechanical failure at the bioyield, break and peak points of deformation. Compression tests were conducted on Roma tomatoes to investigate the effects of ripeness stage, vibration level and container type on energy absorption in the packaged tomatoes under compressive loading, using a 22x3 factorial experimental design. Tomatoes of three ripeness stages: unripe (5.6 Brix%) half-ripe (3.9 Brix%) and full-ripe (3.2 Brix%), were packed in plastic crate and raffia basket. These were subjected to three levels of vibration: non-vibrated, low vibration (frequency 3.7 Hz) and high vibration (frequency 6.7 Hz), using a laboratory vibrator. The fruits were compressed in a Universal Testing Machine and absorbed energy at bioyield, break and peak points was measured. Energy absorption decreased significantly (P=0.05) with advancing ripeness stage of tomatoes and vibration level (P=0.001). Container effects were significant at peak. Average absorbed energy ranged from 1.140Nmm to 1.875Nmm at bioyield, 13.597Nmm to 27.221Nmm at break and 15.629Nmm to 23.618Nmm at peak. The work will facilitate our understanding of the contribution of fruit ripeness and transit vibration to mechanical damage in packaged tomatoes. The results obtained can be used by designers of packaging materials, and handlers of fresh tomato fruits in Nigeria to reduce mechanical damage, especially those due to compression.

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Fatal tuberculous meningovasculitis[Full-Text[References]
Oumerzouk J, Hssaini Y, Ait Berri M, Ragabbi A, El jouehari A, A Bourazza

Tuberculous meningitis usually results in ischemic stroke, and rarely in hemorrhagic infarcts. We report a medicat history of a patient presenting a fatal outcome of tuberculous meningovasculitis. Brain MRI showed corticosubcortical T2-Flair and Diffusion weighted hyperintense lesions within frontal lobe, temporal lobe and right cerebella hemisphere, with contrast enhancement.

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DPC-SWICHING TABLE control for PWM Rectifier With the function of an Active Power Filter Based on a Novel Virtual Flux Observer[Full-Text[References]
A. Djerioui, K. Aliouane, M. Aissani, F.Bouchafaa

For improving the quality of the energy transfer from the power supply to the load, and reducing the harmful effects of the harmonics generated by nonlinear load. We propose a new multi-function converter (MFC) as an efficient solution to improve the power quality. This paper presents a new DPC strategy based on virtual flux Observer and switching table to control PWM rectifier achieving by this unit power factor and reducing the harmonic current of the non linear load. The good dynamic and static performance under the proposed control strategy is verified by simulation and experiment.

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Risk Management in Energy Industries of India[Full-Text[References]
Ankit Tiwari, Assistant Professor, Oriental University Indore, India

Considering the increased complexity of energy projects as companies are entering a new technological era marking the end of "easy oil", there is a growing concern about the real preparedness of companies to deal with the new risks they are facing. The potential severity of those risks due to the important damages caused to the environment and their possible impact on populations of India. Furthermore, the motoring of risk management is important for our country so as to do more research for future development.

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Urban Population Growth Trends in Jordan (2014-2044)[Full-Text[References]
Dr. Ebtisam Za'al AL-Mahasneh, Dr. Mahmoud Abdallah Al-Habees, Dr. Hamza Khalil Al-Khaddam

THE present study aimed at determining the main trends of population growth in Jordan. It also attempted to reveal any potential variance among the rates of population growth in urban centers in addition to draw comparisons in between through measuring the rate of ten years up to 2044, taking the results of the last two censuses of 1994 and 2004 into consideration. . The population growth rates were estimated by making use of the exponential equation. Besides, Ziv Rule was applied in order to determine both rank and size of the first cities in Jordan. For the purpose of clarification, the appropriate explanatory diagrams were provided. The study used the descriptive analytical method. The main findings indicated that the city of Amman would remain the first dominant city until 2044 in terms of the urban sector in Jordan. The study found out that the center territory of Jordan is regarded as an attracting point for people followed by the cities of Irbid and Zarqa.

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Comparison of JIT with other Industrial Production Approaches: A Review[Full-Text[References]
Rajesh Gautam, Sunil Kadyan, Sandeep Ohlan

As competition increases day by day and all the manufacturer wants to produce the product at minimum cost with proper utilization of the resources without any loose cost of inventory. Thus for that different techniques are adopting like reduction inventory, change in production layout, utilizing of resources in most efficient manner. Although such perfect scenarios are unfeasible, there are many methodologies of industrial production planning that can significantly contribute to a more efficient and effective production scheme. This means that managers need to have a deep understanding of production management systems in order to select the one that is more appropriate for their company. In this paper, a critical review of such well-known and widely-used methodologies is presented to support management in their selection of an appropriate one.

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Sp-Separation Axioms[Full-Text[References]
Alias B. Khalaf, Hardi A. Shareef

In this paper Sp-open sets are used to define some new types of separation axioms in topological spaces. The implications of these separation axioms among themselves with some other separation axioms are obtained. Also their basic properties and characterizations are investigated.

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Design of Optimal Fractional Order PIDController using Genetic Algorithm and PSO Algorithm[Full-Text[References]
Mehdi yousefi tabari, saeed Balochian

An intelligent optimization method for designing Fractional Order PID (FOPID) controllers based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) ear presented in this paper. Fractional calculus can provide novel and higher performance extension for FOPID controllers. However, the difficulties of designing FOPID controllers increase, because FOPID controllers append derivative order and integral order in comparison with traditional PID controllers. To design the parameters of FOPID controllers, the enhanced PSO algorithms is adopted, which guarantee the particle position inside the defined search spaces with momentum factor. Experimental results show the proposed design method can design effectively the parameters of FOPID controllers.

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Branchless Banking: "A Substitute for Hawala System in Pakistan" [Full-Text[References]
Syed Shabib-ul-Hasan, Hina Naz

Branchless banking is making transaction without visiting a formal banking system. It includes; internet, SMS banking, mobile banking, ATM's, POS and EFTPOS. Mobile banking has become the future of formal banking system. Hawala is an informal, traditional system for financial transactions in which no money actually enters in bank; all transactions are based on trust among the parties. In Pakistan, majority lives in rural areas and literacy rate is not phenomenal. Number of mobile phones connections is much higher than bank accounts. This work is done with the aim to acknowledge the importance of branchless banking in financial transactions and can it really help us in fighting against money laundering and other illicit functioning through Hawala, which is widely used in underdeveloped and developing countries like Pakistan. Furthermore, this paper also aims at highlighting the similarity between Hawala and Mobile Banking and to explore if these similarities could bring the unbanked population into financial mainstream.

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Optimization of Cellular Layout under Dynamic Demand Environment by Simulated Annealing[Full-Text[References]
P.Dharmalingam, K.Kanthavel, R. Sathiyamoorthy, M.Sakthivel, R. Krishnaraj, C.Elango

Grouping the machines and parts in a cellular manufacturing system based on similarities is known as the cell formation. This paper proposes a method for design of cell layout for a manufacturing system under dynamic demand environment for automation batch production industry. The proposed method of cell layout has two phases. In the first phase, Rank Order Clustering (ROC) was used to determine the initial cell layout for first period. This Layout was considered as static layout for other periods to calculate material handling cost. The second phase employs the use of an optimization technique (Simulated Annealing algorithm) to solve the proposed model to develop a better solution. For the purpose of study, three cells are taken in which each cell holding four machines. The demand for each period doesn't exceed ten components. This layout is applied in all the periods. Thus the entire planning horizon uses a single layout even though the demand is different in different periods of the planning horizon. The algorithm calculates better solution to the batch production industry.

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ICT as a Collaborative Medium for English in High School (IRAN- 2010)[Full-Text[References]
Morteza Khodabandehlou, Shahrokh Jahandar, Gohar Seyedi *, Reza Mousavi Dolat Abadi

Is technology (ICT) a collaborative medium for English language learning? This paper attempts to ameliorate the pedagogical status of ICT as integrated to English language teaching and learning and shed light upon its position in language pedagogy by arguing that we have the software, we have the hardware, but we lack the human ware in that many schools now have computers that are being used ineffectively or run the programs that do not actually require pupils to learn effectively. To this purpose, a project is examined in two phases and the results showed quite clearly that there is a link between high computer use and high achievement or value added scores in English language learning. And it is suggested that a real catching up process can only be achieved through acquiring the teachers' ICT skills, subject knowledge, planning activities, confidence, focusing on learning and effective explanation.

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A Comparative Analysis of clustering based Routing Techniques for WSN[Full-Text[References]
P.Madhumathy ,Dr. D.Sivakumar

In recent years, there has been a rapid proliferation of research concerning Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), due to the wide range of potential applications that they can be used for. Sensor nodes are typically powered by batteries with a limited lifetime, and in most cases, the batteries cannot be recharged. The energy problem in WSNs remains as one of the major barriers that prevent the complete exploitation of this technology. Almost in all the hierarchical or cluster based protocols in the literature, the alternate Cluster Head (CH) selection or the re-clustering was done in such a way that there exist more delay and high energy consumption thereby resulting in the reduced lifetime of the network. In this paper, the focus is mainly driven over the survey of the energy-efficient hierarchical cluster-based available routings for Wireless Sensor Network

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Effect of Ethanol addition to Straight Vegetable oil on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine [Full-Text[References]
Nandkishore D.Rao , Dr.B. Sudheer Premkumar

Experimental investigations have been carried out to evaluate the effect of addition of ethanol to vegetable oil- ethanol blend on performance and emission of a compression ignition engine. Use of straight vegetable oil (SVO) for diesel engine is limited due to their high viscosity and poor volatility. The SVO( Honge oil ) shows lower thermal efficiency and higher unburnt hydrocarbon emissions, etc. In long term, SVO exhibits injector choking, fuel pump damage and fuel filter clogging, etc. To reduce the viscosity and to increase the volatility of the fuel, an ethanol is added to vegetable oil so that thermal efficiency and emissions can be improved. During investigation, blends of vegetable oil with different proportions of ethanol are prepared. Blends BSVO-80 and BSVO -70 are prepared with 20% and 30% of ethanol with SVO respectively. Basic properties like viscosity, calorific value, specific gravity are evaluated for all test fuels. The blends of SVO with alcohol show lower viscosity, improved volatility, better combustion and less carbon deposits as compared to SVO. Improvement in brake thermal efficiency, reduction in nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and smoke emission are observed with increase in amount of etha-nol in blend. The engine performance with the blend BSVO-70 is in closer approximation with diesel fuel. It could be concluded that blend BSVO-70 can be a substitute for diesel.

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Shortest Path Routing Algorithm for Ficonn in Load Balanced Data Center Networks [Full-Text[References]
K Udaya Bhanu, K Chandra Shekar

This paper explores a Ficonn interconnection structure for load balanced data center servers using bi-ports. The tree-based structures are increasingly difficult to meet the design goals of data centers because of a single-point failure spot for its sub tree branch. And using excessive switches does not fundamentally solve the problem, but results even higher cost. So we are going for a new structure to interconnect a large number of servers which contain dual Ethernet ports, in which one is used for network connections and another for the backup purposes. If we make that both the ports are used for network connections then we can build an effective inter connection structure for the data center networks. We call such a network structure called as Ficonn. In addition, in this paper, we are using A* algorithm to find the shortest path and boost up the routing of packets transmitted between the commodity servers. And we have also proposed the deployment of Ficonn.

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Comparison of GIS based SCS-CN and Strange table Method of Rainfall-Runoff Models for Veeranam Tank, Tamil Nadu, India[Full-Text[References]
M.Latha, M.Rajendran, A.Murugappan

One of the major problems confronted by the hydrologists for many years is the prediction of runoff from a given basin for a known rainfall. In this situation, development of a rainfall runoff model is important in Veeranam tank catchment located at latitude 11° 15'00" and longitude 79° 30'00' E in Cuddalore District of Tamilnadu, India. By considering the above said aspect the rainfall-runoff model studies were carried out by using two rainfall-runoff models, one of the empirical strange method and SCS-CN method. All these works are carried out for three rain gauge stations, namely Jayankondam, Lower Anaicut and Senthurai station which come under Karuvattuodai sub watershed (4B1A5F) of Coleroon river basin, Tamilnadu, India with four years of daily rainfall (2000 - 2004). From the results it is inferred that scs - in method yields more run off than strange Table method even by considering the parameters which influence run off characteristics.

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Design of Braun Multiplier with Kogge Stone Adder & It's Implementation on FPGA[Full-Text[References]
Ms. Madhu Thakur ,Prof. Javed Ashraf

Multiplication is the basic building block for several DSP processors, Image processing and many other. Over the years the computational complexities of algorithms used in Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) have gradually increased. This requires a parallel array multiplier to achieve high execution speed or to meet the performance demands. A typical implementation of such an array multiplier is Braun design. Braun multiplier is a type of parallel array multiplier. The architecture of Braun multiplier mainly consists of some Carry Save Adders, array of AND gates and one Ripple Carry Adder. In this research work, a new design of Braun Multiplier is proposed and this proposed design of multiplier uses a very fast parallel prefix adder ( Kogge Stone Adder) in place of Ripple Carry Adder. The architecture of standard Braun Multiplier is modified in this work for reducing the delay due to Ripple Carry Adder and performing faster multiplication of two binary numbers.

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A Performance comparison of vapour compression refrigeration system using various alternative refrigerants[Full-Text[References]
A.Baskaran, P.Koshy Mathews

A performance analysis on a vapour compression refrigeration system with various refrigerants mixture of R152a, RE170, R600a, and R290 were done for various mixture ratios and their results were compared with R134a as possible alternative replacement. The results showed that all of the alternative refrigerants investigated in the analysis except R431A, [R 152a (29%), R290 (71%)] have a slightly higher performance coefficient (COP) than R134a for the condensation temperature of 500C and evaporating temperatures ranging between -300C and 100C.Refrigerant blend of R152a/RE170 (20/80 by wt%) instead of R134a was found to be a replacement refrigerant among other alternatives. The effects of the main parameters of performance analysis such as refrigerant type, degree of sub cooling and super heating on the refrigerating effect, coefficient of performance and volumetric refrigeration capacity were also investigated for various evaporating temperatures.

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Fuzzy Programming Approach For A Compromise Allocation Of Repairable Components[Full-Text[References]
Irfan Ali and S. Suhaib Hasan

The present paper, considered the allocation problem of repairable components for a parallel-series system as a multi-objective optimization problem for two different models. In the first model, the reliability of subsystems are considered as different objectives. While in the second model, the cost and time spent on repairing the components are considered as two different objectives. Selective maintenance operation is used to select the repairable components and a fuzzy programming algorithm is used to obtain compromise allocation of repairable components for the two models under some given constraints. A numerical example is also given to illustrate the procedure.

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(Civilectronics) The Electronically Control of Civil Works for Infrastructure (O&M) Automatically Smart Gates for Storm Water Inlets with Electronic Maintenance [Full-Text[References]
Khaled A. Hamid Elnems

The world is witnessing rapid developments in information and technologies different, it has become of electronic systems a strong influence and direct the knowledge society, where control of the individual and society, which uses information technology tools and communication technologies that allow the building of knowledge and control, and a giant of the technology as we know is the computer and covered by the programs and the characteristics of Informatics. The Computer & Computer Program can playing big roles in our lives, we only used the computer for Non-core like (Chat, game, music, etc). But it can be used for a lot of benefits work to controlling, Admin our Life and save money, by using the Computer Program.

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Image Classification Using Segmentation Graph Kernels[Full-Text[References]
Athira Devi C P,Arya Venugopal

Introducing a multiregion graph cut image partitioning through kernel mapping of the image data. The proposed func-tional contains two terms: an original kernel-induced term which evaluates the deviation of the mapped image data within each region from the piecewise constant model and a regularization term expressed as a function of the region indices. Using a common kernel function, the objective functional minimization is carried out by iterations of two consecutive steps: 1) minimization with respect to the image segmentation by graph cuts 2) minimization with respect to the regions parameters via fixed point computation

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Waste Heat Recovery System by Using an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) [Full-Text[References]
Md. A. A. Mamun, Subrato Biswas

Though the concept of Power Plants based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is the new technology in Bangladesh, it can play a significant role to produce power from various heat sources when other alternatives were either technically not practical or not economical. These power plants in sizes from 300 kW to 130 MW have demonstrated the maturity of this technology.[6] The cycle is well adapted to low moderate temperature heat sources such as waste heat from industrial plants. This paper represents the feasibility of ORC based power plant in Bangladesh which has been suffering from energy crisis and unable to meet the present demand. The ORC technology is applicable to heat recovery of steel mills, rerolling mills, cement plants, and offers significant advantages over conventional steam bottoming cycles. One such system, the 2.630 MW Power Plant is now under analysis forecasts at Rahim Steel Mill in Bangladesh. [2] The environmentally friendly power plant is the first to be installed in these types of industries

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Modified Variable Step Size Power Control Algorithm for CDMA Systems[Full-Text[References]
Anand Gachhadar

Power control mechanism is an important issue for Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems which helps in achieving higher capacity, combating against near far effect and provides high link performance. Unless a suitable power control mechanism is developed cellular systems cannot perform better. Power control allows to minimize the transmit power while keeping the system performance above the required value. In previous research [4], variable step size for closed loop power control system has been studied and results showed an increase in convergence speed and stability by properly choosing the step size. The new algorithm presented in this paper shows that it can perform better than variable step size power control algorithm and can obtain higher stability and convergence speed for step size d at 0.1.

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Challenges Faced and Solutions towards Conservation of Ecology Of Urban Lakes[Full-Text[References]
Patil Snehal, Padalia Unnati

A lake is the most beautiful and expressive feature of a landscape. It is often described as the "Eye of the Earth ". Urban lakes form vital ecosystems supporting livelihood with social, economic and aesthetic benefits that are essential for quality life. The nutrient- poor, oligotrophic lake is oxygen saturated and has a low microbial population; whereas nutrient-rich, eutrophic lake has a bottom sediment layer and can have an anoxic hypolimnion. As microbial biomass increases with nutrient level, light penetration gets depleted. Thus the lower parts may receive poisonous gas like H2S released by anaerobes. The sewage and agricultural waste may increase the percentage of Nitrogen and Phosphorous into the lake waters. This in turn can cause bloom of algae, bacteria and plants in the epilimnion zone. Cyanobacteria in oligotrophic fresh water can cause algal bloom. It has been noted that if both Nitrogen and Phosphorus are present, Cyanobacteria competes with algae. Toxic blooms, as well as bacterial contamination and heavy metal pollution, may significantly impair all the water uses and represent a health risk of the urban population. Thus, in the last years, a growing public awareness has developed regarding the quality of urban lakes and special management plans in several urban areas have been augmented worldwide to restore the hygiene, maintain the recreational value and to avoid sanitary problems arising from the deterioration of their water quality

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Scattering of thermo elastic waves at wavy boundary of a micropolar semi-space[Full-Text[References]
Dr. Ayaz Ahmad

In this work we discusses the scattering of plane thermo-elastic waves at wavy boundary of a micropolar semi-space . Method of small perturbations has been used. The analyses shows that surface wave breaks into three parts. Rayleigh wave with velocity C scattered waves with velocity of propagation and .It is also seen that scattered wavevelocity depends on the wave length and also on the wavy nature of the boundary.

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The Impact of Content Related Information on Iranian EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension[Full-Text[References]
Nader Assadi Aidinlou,Mahdiyeh Seyed Beheshti Nasab,Seyed Fariborz Pishdadi Motlagh

The present study investigatesthe effect of content related information on listening comprehension and how far it assists EFL language learners with their performance on post-lecture detailed listening comprehension questions. Subjects took a TOFEL test, served as a pre-test to be randomized in a control and experimental group. In experimental group performed pre-listening tasks through which they received general prior information about the content of the lectures. They then listened and answered some multiple-choice comprehension questions that asked for the specific information in the lectures. The result of the data revealed that the experimental group did not perform significantly better than the control group. In other words , the treatment appeared to have no significant effect on the performance of the experimental group on post-lecture listening comprehension questions.

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Tooth-Bending Effects in Plastic Spur Gears Influence on load sharing, stresses and wear [Full-Text[References]
Asst.Prof.Subburaj Ramasamy

This describes the investigation of a steel-and-plastic gear transmission, using both numerical (FE) and analytical methods. The aim was to study the influence of the stiffness of the gear material on the bending of the gear teeth, and the consequences on contact path, load sharing, stresses and kinematics. As has been shown in previous literature, the tooth bending of plastic gear teeth results in an increase in the contact path length and in a considerable change in load sharing. The root stresses, in principle independent of the modulus, become quite different for plastic gears due to changes in load sharing. Also, on the contact stresses which depend on the modulus the preliminary and prolonged contact path have a significant influence, inducing very high stress peaks. These peaks, due to contact of the sharp tooth tips, result in pressure-velocity (PV) values, which are up to a factor of seven times higher than calculated using conventional theory. Furthermore, the FEA results show that the kinematics of plastic gears change dramatically. In the extended part of the contact path, the tooth tip makes a reciprocating movement on the root of the mating gear. Our hypothesis now is that this high PV, reciprocating movement is the governing mechanism of wear in plastic gears.

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A Survey of Different Techniques for Detection of Wormhole Attack in Wireless Sensor Network[Full-Text[References]
Moutushi Singh, Rupayan Das

The nature of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks make them very attractive to attackers. One of the most popular and serious attack in wireless ad hoc and sensor network is the wormhole attack. It is a particularly severe attack on routing protocols for ad hoc networks in which two or more colluding attackers record packets at one location, and tunnel them to another location for a replay at that remote location. When this attack targets routing control packets, the nodes that are close to the attackers are defended from any alternative routes with more than one or two hops to the remote location. All routes are thus directed to the wormhole established by the attackers. This paper focuses on Wormhole attack detection in wireless sensor network. The wormhole attack is particularly challenging to deal with since the adversary does not need to compromise any nodes and can use laptops or other wireless devices to send the packets on a low latency channel. In This paper we have discussed and compared some of the very popular techniques for detecting this kind of attack.

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Thermal analysis of vapour compression refrigeration system with R152a and its blends R429A, R430A, R431A and R435A[Full-Text[References]
A.Baskaran, P.Koshy Mathews

This paper presents the analysis results of R429A, R430A, R431A and R435A as drop in substitute for R152a at various evaporating temperature with condenser temperature 30°C, 40°C and 50°C. A theoretical study of thermodynamic properties such as pressure, density, and specific volume, latent heat of vaporization compression index, and critical values are done. The theoretical performance of vapour compression refrigeration system with R152a, R429A, R430A, R431A and R435A was done and their results are compared. The effects of the main parameters of performance analysis such as refrigerating effect, compressor work, coefficient of performance, volumetric refrigerating capacity, discharge temperature, pressure ratio, condenser duty, compressor power, refrigerating mass flow are analyzed for various evaporating temperatures. The compressor power required for the refrigeration during analysis with R152a and its blends were observed. The results shows that the refrigerants R435A consumes 1.098% less compressor power than that of R152a.The COP, Refrigerating effect for R435A is 1.229%,32.198% higher than R152a respectively . The refrigerant mass flow is decreased by 24.353% while using R435A substitute to R152a. Other results obtained in the analysis show a positive indication of using R435A as refrigerant in vapour compression refrigeration system substitute to R152a.

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Design and Fabrication of New Radon Chamber for Radon Calibration Factor of Measurement[Full-Text[References]
Murtadha S. Al-Nafiey,Mohamad S. Jaafar,Sabar Bin Bauk,N.F. Salih

This study consists of two parts: the first part is concerned with designing a new radon chamber that is constructed using a continuous radon monitor together CR-39 Nuclear Track Detectors (NTDs). The aim behind designing such a chamber is to measure radon at different times. The chamber has a cubic shape and it is made of pixy glass with a volume of 0.125m^3. The solid radium 226 source with an activity 5µCi was placed at the bottom of the chamber to generate radon. The result has shown that the track density increased when increasing the exposure time to radon and the latter's homogenous concentration inside the chamber until it reached 38.377 ± 20 kBqm^(-3). Second, the calibration factor for radon has been measured using CR-39 NTDs. Besides, PVC was used to calculate the calibration factor k. The values of the calibration factor for radon was 0.024 ± 0.004 (?tr.cm?^2 per? Bq.m?^(-3) .d ) under three parameters, temperature, humidity and efficiency; accordingly the values were as such 27 ± 1 c^°, 57 ± 5 RH % ; 80 % respectively .The study further revealed that the best PVC chamber that detects and measures the real value of airborne radon concentration is 237.67?cm?^3.

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Improved AODV Protocol For Solving Link Failure In MANET[Full-Text[References]
Asha Ambhaikar, H.R. Sharma, V. K. Mohabey

Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an emerging trend and it has to face many challenges and issues. An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network, without the use of existing infrastructure. When two nodes are not within the radio range of one another, they use intermediate nodes to route packets for them. Routing in MANET is a challenging problem which draws researcher's vision, due to nodes mobility, dynamic topology, frequent link breakage, limitation of nodes (memory, battery, bandwidth, and processing power), and lack of central point like base stations or servers. So by analysing and comparing different ad hoc routing protocols based on the metric throughput, packet delivery ratio, end to end delay which may give a solution to the challenges in the ad hoc routing in different situations. The mobility of nodes and instability of the wireless environment may result in link breaks between neighbouring nodes, even causes the route to be invalid. This paper focuses on the mobility of the source node and intermediate node which may result link failure. If a source node moves, it is able to reinitiate the Route Discovery Protocol (RDP) to find a new route to the destination using path updation. For intermediate node link break a Local Repair Procedure is used to update the path. This main objective of this paper is new path updation and resolving link failure in AODV. Computer simulation using NS2 simulator on Linux operating system shows the behaviour and performance improved in AODV routing protocol based on the metrics.

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Mitigationof Capacity Region of Network and Energy Function for a Delay Tolerant Mobile Ad HocNetwork[Full-Text[References]
DasariBharati, M.V. Rajesh

We investigate two quantities of interest in a delay tolerant mobile ad hoc network: the network capacity region and the minimum energy function. The network capacity region is defined as the set of all input rates that the network can stably support considering all possible scheduling and routing algorithms. Given any input rate vector in this region, the minimum energy function establishes the minimum time average power required to support it. In this work, we consider a cell-partitioned model of a delay-tolerant mobile ad hoc network with general Markovian mobility. This simple model incorporates the essential features of locality of wireless transmissions as well as node mobility and enables us to exactly compute the corresponding network capacity and minimum energy function. Further, we propose simple schemes that offer performance guarantees that are arbitrarily close to these bounds at the cost of an increased delay.

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Strength Parameters of Packaged Roma Tomatoes at Break Point under Compressive Loading[Full-Text[References]
F. A. Babarinsa, and M. T. Ige.

Packaged tomatoes are highly perishable and tender, and are highly susceptible to mechanical damage during road transportation due to their low resistance to externally applied forces. This contributes greatly to the transit deformation leading to the breaking point under compression force. The study related mode of mechanical damage in the fruit to the strength parameters measured at break point, using compression tests. Experimental measurements of strength parameters of packaged Roma tomatoes were made to study the effects of ripeness stage, level of vibration and container type on load, deformation and stress at break of the fruit. Tomatoes harvested at three stages of ripeness: unripe (5.6 Brix %),), half-ripe (3.9 Brix %) and full-ripe (3.2 Brix %), were packed in plastic crate and raffia basket. The packaged tomatoes were subjected to three levels of vibration: non-vibrated, low-vibration (frequency 3.7 Hz) and high-vibration (frequency 6.7 Hz). These were compressed at a loading rate of 2.50 mm/min-1 in a Universal Testing Machine. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS 110 software package. Load and stress at break decreased significantly (P=0.05) with advancing ripeness stage of the fruit. Vibration level significantly (P=0.001) lowered deformation at break. The two-factor interactions vibration*container and vibration*ripeness were significant (P=0.001 and P=0.005, respectively) on stress at break. The results obtained increase substantially our knowledge about the properties of tomato affecting mechanical damage in the tomatoes. This enables designers of tomato packaging to control mechanical damage in packaged tomatoes with due consideration for the breaking strength of the fruit.

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Improved Satellite Image Preprocessing and Segmentation using Wavelets and Enhanced Watershed Algorithms[Full-Text[References]
K.M. Sharavana Raju, Dr. V. Karthikeyani

Satellite imagery consists of photographs of earth or other planets made by means of artificial satellites. Satellite images have many applications in meteorology, agriculture, geology, forestry, biodiversity conservation, regional planning, education, intelligence and warfare. Segmentation is a process of partitioning a satellite image into non-intersection regions and is considered as a vital step in many satellite image processing applications. The performance of the segmentation algorithm is often degraded by the image quality and because of their huge size, is often slow. The current need is an algorithm which can solve both these drawbacks. In this paper, a solution that enhances the image quality through a simultaneous process that corrects intensity, adjusts contrast, enhances edges and removes unwanted noise is proposed. The enhanced image is then segmented using a modified watershed algorithm that uses mean-shift clustering. Experimental results prove that both the proposed enhancement procedure and segmentation algorithm show significant improvement when compared with existing solutions.

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Examining the Relationship between Work-family conflict and Organisational role stress among women professionals in Chennai city[Full-Text[References]
Mrs.R.Muzhumathi, Prof.Dr. K. Jawahar Rani

The aim of the present research paper is undertaken to address specific problems of women professionals in Chennai city related to work family conflict and organisational role stress. Work-family conflict is an inter-role conflict that arises due to conflicting roles required by organisations and from one's family. This issue is of great importance as far as employee's performance and ultimately organisational performance is concerned. Sometimes severe contradictory roles results in work-family conflict that leads to stress. The word stress has given new meaning to this century. Every individual is under stress, it's neither bad nor does it always hamper the functioning (or) performance. This paper investigates the intensity of Work-family conflict creating ORS among women professional in Chennai city and to identify the relationship between ORS among women professionals. The data were collected from 491 women professionals using anonymous questionnaire. The results of the research found that stress among women are greatly depending on work-family conflict. Doctors were more stressed than any other and there is no significant relationship between ORS among women professionals. The introduction of more flexible work schedules produced positive benefits for employees and a stress management training programme are some of the recommendations provided.

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Environmental Distribution of Trace Metals in the Biu Volcanic Province Nigeria: Exposure and Associated Human Health Problems[Full-Text[References]
Lar, U.A, Usman, A. M

This study focuses on the concentration levels of trace metals in the soil and natural waters of Biu Volcanic Province Nigeria as well as human health problems associated with the exposure to these elements. Advance Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry was used to analyze the trace and major elements. The analysis of the soil samples revealed complete leaching of the potentially harmful elements (As, Se, Sb, and Pb) from the surface soils into the water sources. According to pollution index the Soils are contaminated with Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn and Lead, while water is contaminated with As, Pb, Sb and Se. The long term exposure of these toxic elements through the ingestion of water and food could have adverse health hazard to the inhabitants.

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Comparison of Underwater Laser Communication System with Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network[Full-Text[References]
Vikrant, Anjesh Kumar, Dr. R.S.Jha

In this paper approach for the underwater sensor network based on the blue-green laser has been proposed. We describe the application of the underwater sensor network in the undersea exploration, and discuss the difficulties in the traditional underwater sensor network. A basic of prototype of underwater laser sensor network has been advanced, which include the architecture of laser network and protocol stack for underwater laser sensor network. Based on the advantages in the underwater laser communication, the underwater laser sensor network has great potential perspective in the undersea exploration.

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Estimation of Solutes in Orange Peel Extract for Pectin Production[Full-Text[References]
Tekeste Yeshitla Gebre

The main purposes of this paper was to estimate the solutes in orange peel liquid extract used for pectin production based on the optimum extraction conditions. In the method used, a dry orange peel and pulp powder was subjected to pectin extraction using water in hot dilute mineral acid. A central composite design was used and the influences of the extraction conditions, pH and temperature, on the yield of the solutes were investigated. Moreover, their significance was analyzed, and the effects of both variables were found to be significant on the yield of the solutes. Finally, the optimum extraction conditions and the peel to solvent ratio were efficiently determined.

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Initiatives and implementation of e-Governance Programmes: A Case Study of Odisha[Full-Text[References]
Lalit Sharma, Prof Dr Priyadarshi Patni

E-governance is more than just a government website on the Internet. The strategic objective of e-governance is to support and simplify governance for all parties; government, citizens and businesses. The use of ICTs can connect all three parties and support processes and activities. In other words, in e-governance electronic means support and stimulate good governance. Therefore, the objectives of e-governance are similar to the objectives of good governance. Good governance can be seen as an exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to better manage affairs of a country at all levels. It is not difficult for people in developed countries to imagine a situation in which all interaction with government can be done through one counter 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, without waiting in lines. However to achieve this same level of efficiency and flexibility for developing countries is going to be difficult. The experience in developed countries shows that this is possible if governments are willing to decentralize responsibilities and processes, and if they start to use electronic means. This paper is going to examine the legal and infrastructure issues related to e-governance from the perspective of developing countries. Particularly it will examine how far the developing countries have been successful in providing a legal framework.

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Optimal Capacitor Placement Using Fuzzy And Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm For Maximum Loss Reduction [Full-Text[References]
Suman Zakka , M.Bhaskar Reddy , Suresh Babu Palepu

This paper presents a new methodology using fuzzy and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABCA) for the placement of capacitors on the primary feeders of the radial distribution systems to reduce the power losses and to improve the voltage profile. A two-stage methodology is used for the optimal capacitor placement problem. In the first stage, fuzzy approach is used to find the optimal capacitor locations and in the second stage, Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm is used to find the sizes of the capacitors. The sizes of the capacitors corresponding to maximum loss reduction are determined. The proposed method is tested on 15-bus, 34-bus and 69-bus test systems and the results are presented.

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Effect of crop residues on soil fertility and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) - guar (Cymopsis tetragonoloba) crops in dry tropics[Full-Text[References]
Nazar Omer Hassan Salih, A. R. Mubarak, A.A. Hassabo

The effect of crop residue on soil fertility and yield of wheat - guar crops wear conducted in this experment for six seasons in a guar-wheat crop rotation. Across all seasons, average plant yield was higher in crop residue plots treatments than that found in residue removal plots (227.78%). Also, fertility of soil was consistently higher with crop residue plots compared to crop residue removal. These results indicate that continuous application of crop residues along was improved soil fertility and efficiency in yield of wheat and guar.

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Ejection Seat Mechanism in Civil Aircraft[Full-Text[References]
Richard Johnson

This paper deals with the ejection system that can be implemented in a civil aircraft. It is important for an aircraft to have an ejection seat in case the plane meets an accident in a battle or during test flight and the pilot has to bail out to save his or her life. The mechanism involves lifting of the pilot to a safe distance away from the aircraft and then deploying the parachute. As there is increase in air traffic, this ejection system provides additional safety measures to the life of passengers. By this method along with the pilot, the crew members and the passengers can be saved. This ejection system consists of a specially made ejector pad, track system and parachute. The ejection system is governed by a timing sensor which ensures that the movement of the passenger seat take place in equal interval of time to avoid collision between two consecutive seats.

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Young's Modulus for Packaged Roma Tomatoes under Compressive Loading[Full-Text[References]
F. A. Babarinsa and M. T. Ige

Young's modulus denotes the inherent rigidity or stiffness, and resistance of a fruit to elastic deformation, and expresses the fruit's tendency to be deformed elastically under applied force. This study related the deformations encountered in packaged Roma tomatoes to Young's modulus as a strength parameter that characterizes mechanical behavior of the packaged tomatoes under compression. A 22x3 factorial experimental design was applied in conducting compression tests to investigate the effects of ripeness stage, vibration level and container type on Young's modulus of the packaged tomatoes. Tomatoes of three ripeness stages: unripe (5.6 Brix%), half-ripe (3.9 Brix%) and full-ripe (3.2 Brix%), were packed in plastic crate and raffia basket. They were subjected to three levels of vibration: non-vibrated, low vibration (frequency 3.7 Hz) and high vibration (frequency 6.7 Hz), using a laboratory vibrator. The fruits were compressed in a Universal Testing Machine at a speed of 2.50mm/min; Young's Modulus was measured and force-deformation curves were obtained. Young's Modulus decreased significantly (P=0.05) with advancing ripeness stage of tomatoes and with vibration level (P=0.001) but was independent of packaging container. Average Young's Modulus ranged from 1.140Nmm to 1.875Nmm at bioyield, 13.597Nmm to 27.221Nmm at break and 15.629Nmm to 23.618Nmm at peak. These findings will be useful in predicting and controlling the deformation or complete failure that occurs in packaged tomatoes caused by compression stress during road transportation. Containers can be adequately designed with due consideration for physical characteristics of tomatoes such as shape, size, and firmness in relation to externally applied compression stresses.

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Helianthus - a Low Cost High Efficient Solar Tracking System Using AVR Microcontroller[Full-Text[References]
Arindam Bose, Sounak Sarkar, Sayan Das

A solar tracking system is a generic term used to describe devices that orient various payloads toward the sun. Payloads can be photovoltaic panels, reflectors, lenses or other optical devices. This paper describes a potential solar system using two stepper motors, light sensor and a concave mirror. This method not only improves power collection efficiency by about 65% by developing a system that tracks the sun to keep the solar panel at perpendicular to its rays but also decreases the overall cost of production. This solar tracking system is designed, practically implemented and experimentally tested. The design details and the experimental results are shown.

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On a Subclass of Analytic Functions with negative Coefficient Pertaining to p?q- Function*[Full-Text[References]
V.B.L. Chaurasia, R.C. Meghwal

The aim of this paper is to analysis the subclass SC(?,?,?) pertaining to the Hadamard product of p?q-function ([12]) with negative coefficients in unit disc ? = {z : | z | < 1}. Further, coefficient estimates, distortion theorem and radius of convexity for this class are also established. In addition we discuss closure properties and integral operator for function belonging to the class SC(?,?,?).

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Validation of Experimental Strain Measurement Technique and Development of Force Transducer[Full-Text[References]
Prof. Bipin D. Patel, A.R.Srinivas

The accurate assessment of stress, strain and loads in components under working conditions are an essential requirement of successful engineering design. Experimental stress analysis over years has been playing an increasingly important role in aiding engineering product designers to produce not only efficient, economic designs but also in substantial reductions in weight and yet aid in easier manufacturing of the products. Electrical resistance strain gauges are a remarkable device which is small, lightweight, linear, precise and fairly inexpensive is used as a sensor in wide variety of applications. Load cell transducer is the most prevalent sensor which uses electrical strain gauges. In a load cell, the unknown, load is measured by sensing the strain developed in a mechanical member. Since the load is linearly related to the strain as long as the mechanical member remains elastic, the load cell can be calibrated so that the output signal is proportional to the load. The Thermal coefficient of expansion of unknown material may be determined with the strain gauges by mounting two half bridges resistances on the known material and unknown material respectively. Here, in this work, an attempt is made to develop a force transducer to find an unknown load using a cantilever beam. The Cantilever Beam (CLB) based transducer will be calibrated and validated using numerical approach, analytical approach and experimental measurements.

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Architectural Aspects for LMS based Higher Education Model[Full-Text[References]
Kamal K Vyas, Dr S Tiwari, Amita Pareek

With the process of globalization, we are entering into the post-industrial society where knowledge has become a driving force and the information technology has revolutionized the whole process of the life. Today there is a need of e-learning enabled Higher Education System. During the past decade Education Systems have been re-engineered for bringing in efficiency, effectiveness and economy through the use of advanced technology like LMS based Higher education model. It is time to give a fresh look to the higher education and introduce such changes which can restore confidence in the ability of the state universities and colleges for providing, cost effective, education with a spirit "Any time Any Where". In this IT era, where distance is dead, "What use to be far is very near and What is local is global". With this objective in mind, this paper reveals the Architectural aspects for LMS based higher education model in this 3G and onwards era.

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Symbolic Simulation By Nodal Method Of Effective Branch Current Source[Full-Text[References]
I. I. Okonkwo, P. I. Obi , G. C Chidolue, S. S. N. Okeke

State variable are crucial to transient simulation initialization of the electrical circuits. Other variable that are mathematically related to state variable may also be used to initialize transient response especially in symbolic simulation. In this paper we formulated and simulated electrical circuit transient symbolically using the transient nodal equation derived from branch effective current source. The result of the simulation agreed with the existing Matlab simpowersystem tool.

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A Mobile Design Framework for Continuous Mobile Learning Environment in Higher Education [Full-Text[References]
Mr. Paduri Veerabhadram, Prof. M.De.Beer,Dr.Pieter Conradie

This paper proposes a conceptual framework for mobile learning applications, that provides systematic support for the design of a mobile continuous learning system. It is based on a combination of the theory of continuous learning, mediated by technology, and several literature studies on mobile learning. It explores how mobile device learning application can be designed with reference to identified theories, factors and tools. The proposed framework provides support for the successful design of mobile continuous learning systems.

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The Effect of Time on Volume Flow Rate of the Distillate Output of Single Slope and Double Slope Insulated Solar Stills[Full-Text[References]
Sabi'u Bala Muhammad and Kaisan Muhammad Usman

The experiment was conducted using both single slope and double slope insulated solar stills both filled with same sample of water to the capacity of 25l and 50l respectively. The distillate yields of the two different solar stills were measured in ml and the corresponding volume flow rates were calculated and tabulated. The graphical representations of the results were presented in form of bar charts. The highest yields of the solar stills were observed between the hours of 15.00-16.00 as 210.00ml and 490.00ml respectively with volume flow rates of 3500mm3/s and 8166.67mm3/s correspondingly. The lowest yields as recorded between the hours of 8.00 and 9.00 were 0.40 ml and 30.00 ml with the corresponding volume flow rates of 6.67mm3/s and 500.00mm3/s for both single and double slope solar stills accordingly. There was a remarkable increase in the output of the two different solar stills from 8.00am to 4.00pm on hourly basis and then a sudden decline in the output was observed between 4.00pm and 6.00pm.

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Physical Space And Its Nature (Physics)[Full-Text[References]
Debasis Roy

Physical space has got definite properties. Nature of space has been considered from some points of view of Physics, Philosophy and Psychology to propose a simple semi-liquid model in order to represent a section of the nature of physical space.

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Reproduction of Images by Gamut Mapping and Creation of New Test Charts in Prepress Process[Full-Text[References]
Jaswinder Singh Dilawari, Dr. Ravinder Khanna

With the advent of digital images the problem of keeping picture visualization uniformity arises because each printing or scanning device has its own color chart. So, universal color profiles are made by ICC to bring uniformity in various types of devices. Keeping that color profile in mind various new color charts are created and calibrated with the help of standard IT8 test charts available in the market. The main objective to color reproduction is to produce the identical picture at device output. For that principles for gamut mapping has been designed.

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Secure Wireless Network System against Malicious Rogue Threats (System Attacks) within cooperative distributed network and wireless network[Full-Text[References]
Latesh Kumar K.J, Dr.Lawrance R

With the expanse of the Internet and the increased reliance on computer networking technology for everyday business, the need to protect electronic data and communication from malicious attack has become increasingly critical. This paper addresses the rogue system problem, a significant threat in modern networks. A rogue system is a device installed within a network without the authorization or knowledge of network administrators, which is typically engaged in unauthorized activities. These systems pose a major threat to network data and resources, potentially resulting in the exposure of sensitive information or network performance degradation. This paper presents analysis and solutions for rogue system threats within a cooperative distributed network environment and within various types of wireless environments. In addition, a tool is presented which enables high speed network packet logging, for the purpose of rogue system detection, using inexpensive equipment in a scalable distributed storage infrastructure. Also the development of a secure communication protocol which protects a distributed network from potential rogue system attacks while enabling the implementation of bandwidth conservation techniques for efficiency. An important enhancement of a standard wireless communication protocol for the purpose of preventing both insider and outsider rogue eavesdropping attacks. A novel packet payload slicing technique for the purpose of detecting rogue wireless access points within a corporate network environment. Analyses of the potential of host-based rogue wireless man-in the middle attack detection. The development of a tool for high speed traffic analysis to aid in rogue system detection. Rogue system threats will continue to grow as networks become more complex and new attack techniques evolve to better evade detection. The future direction of this work includes applying these techniques to newly identified threats for the purpose of gauging the effectiveness of the proposed methods and to aid in discovering new means of defending against rogue system attacks. In addition, rogue threats in less traditional types of network environments, such as peer-to-peer and personal area networks, will be addressed in order to provide protection from all means of electronic rogue system attacks.

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Achieving a Real Multitasking, Multiprocessing and Multithreading by using Monitors[Full-Text[References]
Mr. M. S. Sonawane

Any object or thing in computer has its own "Monitor" So at a time only one task (program, process, or thread) can enter into monitor. So point to discuss is, at the depth or by looking from monitors view Where is the Multitasking (Multiprogramming, Multiprocessing, Multithreading)????? Even though there are DUAL Core Processors. So this paper discusses how we can achieve a real Multitasking, Multiprocessing & Multithreading by creating and maintaining number of monitors.

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E-Result Publication Guide Lines with an Efficient Wavelet Based Automation Technique for Universities of Odisha[Full-Text[References]
Ghanashyam Rout, Dambarudhar Seth, Kumuda Chandra Pradhan, Srikanta Patnaik

Result publication is one of methods at scholars' disposal to demonstrate academic talent. Successful publications bring attention to scholars and their sponsoring institutions, which can facilitate continued funding and an individual's progress through their field. In popular academic perception, scholars who wants to go higher study, the result is most important to admit. Publishing the academic result which focuses on activities of the candidate's academic carrier submitted to academic record. This article articulates about E-result publication guide lines and related technologies keeping in view the needs of various Universities of Odisha. Various weaknesses in results publication as pointed out by different researchers have been taken into account and a noble solution is proposed in the present work. The proposed process will allow E-result publication to be taken securely under the wavelet specialization information technology skill

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Isolation And Screening Of Cellulose Degrading Microorganisms From Fecal Matter Of Herbivores [Full-Text[References]
Mahesh Salunke

Herbivores are the organisms that are adopted to eat plants. Harbivory is a form of predation in which organisms consume autotrophs. i.e. in this context Harbivory refers to animals eating plants.Cellulase due to its massive applicability has been used in various industrial processes such as biofuels like bioethanol, triphasic biomethanation; agricultural and plant waste management ; chiral separation and ligand binding studies. The cellulase is used for many industrially important processes like commercial food processing in coffee, brewery, wineries, and textile and paper industries.Cellulases that catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellulose, it is produced mainly by symbiotic bacteria in the rumen of ruminants.In present studies the cellulases producers isolated from fecal matter of deer and elephant by serial dilution technique and producers are screened on CMC (Carboxy Methyl Cellulose) media.The present work concentrates on the isolation of cellulose-degrading bacteria from herbivores excreata and assessment of their cellulolytic activity. The coculturing of cellulose-degrading bacteria and yeast was also carried out for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose into ethanol.

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Furtherance of Elliptic Curve Cryptography Algorithm in the field of GSM security[Full-Text[References]
Satarupa Chakraborty

Mobile Phones have totally changed the world; nowadays people can afford to forget their daily household needs but not their own mobile phones. This increasing popularity has sensed a huge growth in the acceptance of modern mobile phones. With the increasing number of features in mobile phones security has become the chief area of concern as it is apposite to all the authoritative applications throughout the world. Today as GSM accounts for 80% of the total mobile phone technologies in the market so lack of security measures can crumple resulting in hampering of its service. Some of these security issues have been sort out using 3GPP. In this paper we will be centralizing our discussion on the operational methodology of RSA algorithm and elliptic curve cryptography algorithm and will be closely examining which of the above anticipates a secure method of encryption for GSM key generation.

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