Volume 4, Issue 5, May 2013 Edition

ICICE Conference Papers


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Nucleus Interactions at 200 GeV/c via Neural Network Technique[ ]


-nucleus interactions at 200 GeV/c have been studied. Two cases are considered; the charged pions multiplicity distribution and the negative ones. The neural net work (NN) technique has been adopted to study the same two cases, the trained NN shows a better fitting with experimental data than the PTFM calculations do. The NN simulation results are satisfactory and prove a vital and strong presence in modeling -nucleus interactions at 200 GeV/c. From paper to paper; we prove that the NN technique is better than the old conventional ones.

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Effects of Steel Mill Dust on the Strength Characteristics of Black Cotton Clay Soils[ ]


The results of laboratory investigations on the influence of steel mill dust on the strength characteristics of tropical black cotton clay soils are presented. Tropical Black Cotton clay soils were mixed with steel mill dust at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%and 30% steel mill dust content (by dry weight of soil) in order to establish the soil stabilizing potentials. The Unconfined compressive strength and CBR tests on the soil-steel mill dust mixtures yielded peak values at 30% mill scale content. The soil-steel mill dust mixture can be used as subgrade and sub-base courses of rural roads when compacted at the energy of the West Africa Standard.

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A Genetic programming for modeling Hadron-nucleus Interactions at 200 GeV/c[ ]


Genetic programming (GP) is a soft computing search technique, which was used to develop a tree-structured program with the purpose of minimizing the fitness value of it. It is also a powerful and flexible evolutionary technique with some special features that are suitable for building a tree representation which is always the best solution for the problem we encounter. In this paper, GP has been used to describe a function that calculates charged and negative pions multiplicity distribution for Hadron-nucleus interactions at 200 GeV/c and also compared with the parton two fireball model (PTFM). GP calculations are in accordance with the available experimental data in comparison with the conventional ones (PTFM). Finally, the calculation results showed that the GP model is superior to the traditional techniques that we have ever seen so far.

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Analysis optimum transmit power of 10 Gbits optical CDMA system in fiber-to-the-home access network [ ]


In this paper, the optimum transmits power for an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) is analyzed at different data rates and transmission distance. We used Enhance Double Weight (EDW) codes as a signature address in designing the system because this code can accommodate more number of simultaneous users under considerable standard Bit-Error-Rate (e.g. = 10-9). The induced EDW codes for OCDMA system can suppress multiusers interference and increase the bit-error-rate performance with optimum transmit power. The numerical simulations have been taken into the account to carry out analysis. We ascertained by simulation results that the optimum power is decreases with the distance and high bit rate and maintain error floor transmission rate (10e-09).Therefore this system can be considered as a promising solution for optical access network such as Fiber-to-the-Home access network

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Commodity Price Effect on Stock Market: A Markov Switching Vector Autoregressive Approach[ ]


Real economic data always present nonlinear properties such as asymmetry and radically change in the series through time. Missing data and jumps as well as breaks also common reported in economic time series model. Thus, linear models are no longer suitable used in estimate the economic data and markov switching vector autoregressive model (MS-VAR) is applied in study the economic model. This paper will present the analysis of commodity price effect on stock market by using markov switching vector autoregressive model. Oil price and gold price are selected to represent the commodity price and the influence of those prices on Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia stock market are investigated. Furthermore, the mean adjusted markov switching vector autoregressive model (MSM-VAR) and mean adjusted heteroskedasticity markov switching vector autoregressive model (MSMH-VAR) are investigated to determine the suitable specification of the model in providing a more significance and reliable result when analysis the economic relationship model between oil price, gold price and stock market returns.

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Fitting Finite Mixture Model to Exchange Rate Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation [ ]


Exchange rate has great influence to the inflation and economic growth for a country. The importance of currency is that the great influence on import and export prices with the changes of exchange rate. Thus, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is used to fit finite mixture model. In this paper, a two-component mixture of normal distribution is used to analysis the return value of nominal monthly exchange rate for Malaysia, Thailand and Philippines by using maximum likelihood estimation. The data collected for this paper is taken from July 2005 until September 2012

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Variable Twist Angle of Flexible Electromagnetic Hyper Redundant Robot[ ]


Denavit Hartenberg (D-H) Kinematic structure representation of robot having revolute joint normally have fix arm length a, offset distance d, twist angle a and only varied joint angle ?. This paper introduce two (2) inputs variable of twist angle a and joint variable ? besides fix value of arm length a and offset distance d. Variable value of a and ? are dependent on polar electromagnetic actuator actuation sequence. The actuator extension and their combination will determine the joint variable value of joint angle ? and twist angle a. This electromagnetic muscle is arranged in four (4) polar arrays around disk body. Even though the electromagnetic muscles are classified as prismatic joint, their sequence and combination of operation producing two joint variables of joint angle ? and twist anglea. Output from this forward kinematic model is the end effector NOAP matrix and its yaw, pitch and roll orientation representation. This novel module is intended for building a high assemblage of Hyper Redundant Robot. A low cost polycarbonate plastic and spring are used for structure of flexible body module. Coil of more than 1000 turns is employ in order to generate distance extension. The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is used to manage the sequence of energizing the coils for having value of ∝ and θ.

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Experimental Study in the Process Parameters in Laser Percussion Drilling[ ]


In order to service and grow in the present day of global competition, every manufacturing concern focuses mostly on two factors i.e. productivity and quality. Laser drilling is a popular non-traditional machining technique for producing large numbers of cooling holes of various sizes (less than mm diameter) and angles in modern aerotech components such as turbine blades, injector nozzles, and combustion chambers. Although the productivity of microhole in very high, the quality of hole (straightness, circularity, aspect ratio, heat affected zone, micro-crack spatter rate etc.) is poor due to unique nature of the process. In the present paper experimental investigation has been carried out using Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array technique to optimize the main laser and process parameters to get a quality hole in case of in plane carbon steel specimen. Pulsed Nd: YAG laser beam has great ability for micro-machining of plane carbon steel materials because of high laser beam intensity at low mean beam power, good focusing characteristics due to very small pulse duration and less heat effected zones. The quality characteristics such as aspect ratio (depth / diameter), heat affected zone, spatter deposition, hole circularity are studied though scanning electron micro-scope (SEM). The specific advantages of this Taguchi's technique of optimization are that with a very less number of experiments, optimization is possible.

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Digital Prototyping: A Case Study on its Viability in Enhancing Small and Medium Ceramic Industries [ ]


Small and Medium Industries are important to almost all economies in the world, particularly to developing countries and, within that broad category, especially to those with major employment and income distribution challenges. They contribute to the output and creation of jobs; also they are a nursery for the large firms of the future. Hence, this paper seeks to explore further on findings from previous research work which experimentally investigates the viability of digital and rapid prototyping in small and medium scale ceramic industries. The findings from the research revealed that digital and rapid prototyping are viable in reducing development time and improving prototype accuracy; however, the research shows that rapid prototyping is an expensive approach and thus, proposed conventional method of prototyping (hand turning and carving) to be still valid in small and medium ceramic industries. Therefore, based on these findings, this further research seeks to explore how digital prototyping can be used to enhance conventional method of prototyping. Rather than replacing conventional method with digital and rapid prototyping, this research tried to enhance the conventional method by integrating it with digital prototyping. The findings from this further research revealed that the conventional method of prototyping can be enhanced by integrating digital prototyping (3D CAD model) into development process as this will help designers/carvers to visualize products digitally throughout product development process, thereby communicating the whole concept and idea being proposed. Also, this will build their creative skills and make them think "outside the box" thereby making them capable of producing innovative and exclusive prototypes/products

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Performance Evaluation of Custom Power Devices in Power Distribution Networks to Power Quality Improvement: A Review[ ]


Power distribution networks are considered the main link between power industry and consumers and they are exposed to public judgment and evaluation more than any other section. Thus, it is essential to study power quality in distribution section. On the other hand, power distribution networks have always been exposed to traditional factors such as voltage sag, voltage swell, harmonics and capacitor switching which destruct sinusoidal waveforms and decrease power quality as well as network reliability. These are the abnormalities which are imposed to the networks by the consumers resulting in bad effects on other consumers and the network equipment. Thus, power suppliers are committed to provide the consumers with a reliable power of acceptable quality. These goals are achieved by applying power electronic devices, called Custom Power devices, in power distribution networks to solve the problem of abnormalities which disturb power quality. The present study tries to introduce and compare different types of Custom Power Devices and explain their application and the simulation results show the role of these devices in power quality enhancement.

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Application of Binary Particle Swarm Optimization in Automatic Classification of Wood Species using Gray Level Co-Occurence Matrix and K-Nearest Neighbor[ ]


This paper proposed an application of Binary Particle Swarm Optimization in automatic classification of wood species. The images of wood species are taken from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia's CAIRO Wood Database which consists of 25 species. The features of the images are extracted using Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix. Then, Binary Particle Swarm Optimization is use to optimize feature selection and parameters related to it. The result indicates that the proposed approach obtained a better result compared to previous literatures with fewer features used as input for the classifier.

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A Comparative Study of the Application of Swarm Intelligence in Kruppa-Based Camera Auto-Calibration [ ]


This paper presented a comparative study of the application of two Swarm Intelligence algorithms: Particle Swarm Optimization and Firefly Algorithm in automatic camera calibration problem. The fitness function used in the camera calibration problem is based on the Kruppa's equation. A case study from a dataset provided by Le2i Universite de Bourgoune is taken for benchmarking the performance of both algorithms. The result is compared with previous literatures. Result obtained from these algorithms indicates there is potential for further improvement.

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A SmartInk: Mediator Solution of Technology Learning Dilemma for Digital Note Application [ ]


This paper proposed a novel solution for technology learning dilemma found on current note taking application. SmartInk system prototypes implemented with specific mediation tools to improve technology research progress for transferring note taking into digital age. Technology learning dilemma was addressed here as one of critical issues exists in most developed tools of note taking application. Initial results of conducted experiments for evaluation SmartInk prototype proof the strong ability of systems in solving current problem in terms of system efficiency, effectively, and usability. Our conclusion drawing here that mediation tools can be developed by using the powerful of technology to bridge the gap between traditional tasks of note taking and digital environments without losing learning consistency

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Transverse product effect on CSEM with double Hydrocarbon reservoir in seabed logging [ ]


In this paper, simulations are performed to reaffirm the relationship between the resistivity and the thickness of the Hydrocarbon reservoir by considering double layers of Hydrocarbon in seabed logging application. In order to establish this correlation, various simulation models are carried out using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) tool and the results obtained from each simulation is plotted as graphs using MATLAB. The simulations are performed, by varying the resistivity and thickness of the second Hydrocarbon layer at various target depths. The results obtained from the simulations, illustrate that the resistivity and the thickness of the Hydrocarbon have a direct relationship by a factor of 1 and that the electric field strength is affected by considering multiple layers of Hydrocarbons, so as to know that the electromagnetic waves transmitted reach the bottom layer of Hydrocarbon and not just only the first upper layer of the Hydrocarbon reservoir under the seabed floor.

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Evaluation of Electric Field Components Response for Offshore Hydrocarbon Detection[ ]


This study is aimed to provide new insights on determining E field components for the sea bed logging application. In the scenario of increasing interest in CSEM since last two decades, it is desirable to evaluate the individual field component for the better hydrocarbon presence response. 1D forward modelling is carried out that have the capability to simulate offshore hydrocarbon detection using resistivity contrast analysis. Initially the study supports the proved Ex component of the in-line antenna with orientation along x direction as powerful response as compare to Ey and Ez field by providing a maximum of 93% difference with and without hydrocarbon. However the analysis of further results identifies that even with a weaker response, Ey component with same antenna orientation carries better information for hydrocarbon presence, a maximum of about 100% difference with and without hydrocarbon. Thus outcomes from this research have a clear potential for selecting the informative component of E-field to further the experiments for enhanced hydrocarbon detection.

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Preliminary Overview of Potential Recommendations and Future Directions in Pursuit towards the Progression of Nanotechnology in Malaysia[ ]


The emergence of a new technology is characterized by the authenticity of its atypical features that makes it distinguishable and distinctive from other existing technologies. Not a single emerging technology is characteristically identical as the other. This form of an unusual complexity that embeds extremely promising potential is what makes it stand out as a new and maturing technology. Even if it is a stand alone or a hybrid formation or a composition of multiple disciplines put together, this technology becomes a resourceful contributor and a source of magnificent derivative innovations and services. One that does not need any introduction to scientists and researchers worldwide is none other than nanotechnology. Nevertheless in terms of awareness and level of knowledge absorption, the term "nano' lingers only in the minds of the common public as just a buzz word. The scientific activity that takes place at the microscopic nano-scale has spurred the gigantic interest of governments all over the world because of its soon to be seen progressive and massive visionary benefits. Rest assured, comes along with it is a degree of foreseeable destruction if the right kind of planning fall short in taking place. Additionally, the translation of lab nano-prototypes into fully fledged innovations has been slow paced resulting in sluggish infiltration into the commercial arena due to many identified barriers. Since the 6 year establishment of Malaysia's National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) in 2006, planning has been taking place; yet there has not been a policy plan for nanotechnology that has been crafted out to address these pitfalls. Therefore, this paper suggests a preliminary overview of potential recommendations and policy directions in pursuit towards the future progression and sustainability of nanotechnology in Malaysia.

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Investigating Deep Target Reservoirs Using MCSEM Methods[ ]


This paper describes a technique called Sea Bed Logging (SBL) as a tool to investigate deep sea target reservoirs. SBL is an application of marine controlled source electromagnetic (MCSEM) sounding. The basis of the approach is the use of a mobile electric dipole source and an array of electric field receivers. The transmitting dipole emits a low frequency electromagnetic signal both into the overlying water column and downwards into the seabed. The array of sea floor receivers measures both the amplitude and the phase of the received signal that depend on the resistivity structure beneath the seabed. A survey consisting of many transmitter and receiver locations can be used to determine a multidimensional model of subsea floor resistivity. A hydrocarbon reservoir can have resistivity perhaps 10 to 100 times greater. With an in-line antenna configuration the transmitted electric field enters the high resistive hydrocarbon layer under a critical angle and is guided along the layer. Electromagnetic signals constantly leak from the layer and back to the seafloor. The guiding of the electric fields significantly alters the overall pattern of current flow in the overburden layer. These capabilities are harvested in this paper in an effort to determine the depth at which hydrocarbon can be detected. A survey is done for one field one with an offset 50Km. The depth of the Hydrocarbon reserves is varied from 1000m to 3000m at intervals of 100meters. The data collected is analyzed and summarized in the preced-ing sections.

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High efficient Fibre Plant Utilization by Multiple PON infrastructure based on Frequency Re-use Approach for Scalable FTTH Networks[ ]


We have proposed a hybrid time-division multiplexing (TDM)/dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) scheme in order to build a scalable and flexible passive optical network (PON) that satisfies current and future bandwidth demands. Increasing efficiency and capacity in PON networks were our main objectives. To this end, we proposed to involve an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) in the proposed configuration and exploit its two properties of wavelength cyclic (WC) and free spectral range (FSR). Wavelength cyclic property has been exploited in order to allow different bit rate optical line terminals (OLTs) to use the same frequency band and handle their traffic over a common fibre. Free spectral range has been targeted in order to allow each optical network unit (ONU) to handle its traffic via the same AWG input/output ports as well as to multiply system capacity. The performance of the proposed PON architecture has been examined by using OptiSystem and Matlab software packages under BER constraints. It has been verified that the architecture was able to transmit different bit rate services simultaneously (622Mbps, 1Gbps, 2.5Gbps and 10Gbps) over a 24Km shared feeder. This variety of service is provided to 16 passive remote terminals (PRTs) with 16 ONU group for each. Each group can accommodate up to 16 ONU, total of 256 ONU/PRT, resulting in over all system capacity 4096 ONU

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Animation as a Problem Solving Technique in Mechanical Engineering Education[ ]


It is apparent that engineering education requires an environment that is fully functional and practical in order to achieve the best results for students. Multimedia technologies specifically animation renders the classroom more attractive and interactive. When students are accustomed to studying in such a developed environment they will not only understand faster but will also be more creative and are more likely to generate more practical and inventive ideas. Moreover, animation delivers information in a creative manner that makes it difficult for students to forget thus resulting in better knowledge retention and improved academic performance.

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GaD-eM: An Adaptive Game Design Model for Malaysian Higher Education (HE)[ ]


this paper aims to identify existing issues in designing educational game and discuss the limitation of existing GBL framework or model. The outcome of this study is an educational game design framework called GaD-eM that addresses all limitations identified earlier.

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A Dynamic Self-Adaptive Music-Inspired Optimization Algorithm for the Hippocampus Localization in Histological Images: A Preliminary Study [ ]


The hippocampus is a structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain that is involved in episodic memory function. The texture features of the hippocampus could give better differentiation between Alzheimer's disease and normal controls. The localization of the hippocampus structure in MRI histological images is considered as a multimodal global continuous optimization problem, which is solved by means of soft computing techniques using stochastic global optimization methods. Recently, the harmony search (HS) algorithm, a music-inspired optimization method, was introduced as a new soft computing rival. However, the overall performance of this algorithm is quite sensitive to the proper settings of its parameters prior to starting the optimization process. Many have proposed HS-based variants that promote self-adaptive parameter settings. In this paper we propose a new HS-based algorithm with dynamic and self-adaptive features. Since this work represents an early step prior to considering a full implementation on actual biomedical images, the proposed algorithm is tested using a multimodal global continuous optimization benchmarking problems rather than actual hippocampus biomedical images. Results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm against many other HS-based competing methods.

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Monitoring, Tracking and Quantification of Quality of Service in Cloud Computing[ ]


Cloud computing has become a buzzword in computing circles now a days. Due to the attraction of cloud computing, it has attracted several service providers to the market in a very time. These cloud service providers have created a very competitive market for the customers to choose from. Due to the heavy competition, the cost of cloud services must be kept at a minimum in order to attract the sufficient number of customers. Also on the other hand, the service providers must assign as many customers as possible to a single physical system, so that the investment on these systems becomes profitable. When many customers are assigned to a single physical system, the Quality of services (QoS) of the cloud offerings would suffer. Hence it becomes necessary to monitor, track and quantify the QoS of the cloud systems in order to provide the right information to both customers and service providers. This information would help both customers and service providers in terms creating a match between them based on expectations and the capacity to meet them. This would increase the efficiency of the cloud systems by loading them to the optimum levels without sacrificing on the expected quality. Continuous monitoring would help to understand the behavior of the system in the short term and long term helping the service providers to take the necessary remedial actions soon. In this paper, the authors describe the research motivation, objectives, research questions, methodology adopted and significance of the PhD project carried out for developing a QoS monitoring, tracking and quantifying system. It also outlines the progress of the work so far along with the achievements.

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A Comprehensive Survey on Quality of Service Implementations in Cloud Computing[ ]


Quality of service plays is an important factor in distributed computing. Cloud computing has been the paradigm in distributed computing. Under cloud computing, computing resources are hosted in the internet and delivered to customers as services. Prior to the commencement of services, the customers and cloud providers negotiate and enter into an agreement named service level agreement. The services level agreements clarify the roles, set charges and expectations and provide mechanisms for resolving service problems within a specified and agreed upon time period. Service level agreements also cover performance, reliability conditions in terms of quality of service guarantees. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive survey on quality of service implementations in cloud computing with respect to their implementation details, strengths and weaknesses.

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Shared Services in Collaborative System Configurations [ ]


In network collaborative system, dispersed and co-located users work together to accomplish assigned task in order to achieve their shared goal. While working together, many work related activities are conducted such as interactive communication, sharing resources and manipulating media objects. Furthermore, these activities can happen in many ways either sequential, parallel, synchronous or asynchronous method. Hence, it is crucial to control and coordinate the shared resources, especially during the collaboration process. Currently, various kinds of effective, appropriate and sufficient shared services component used in supporting the collaborative activities. These services are important elements in the successful collaborative environment. However, the implementation involves some technical obstacle such as limited sharing of media objects, complexity in bridging the external sharing applications, lack of flexibility and ease to use sharing platform and neglect the ad-hoc sharing configuration by end-user. Thus, the shared-media are always under-utilized and services component management creates issues of object's access control and conflicts. This paper provides a general abstraction of service components and a comparative study on shared services on several collaborative system frameworks. Results show that existing shared services are not tolerably designed for end-users to design and develop their sharing methods easily.

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Case Study: Using Spreadsheet to Deploy Chained Business Rules[ ]


This paper presents some ideas about business rules and how they are managed. The translation of business rules into electronic format enables the firm to capitalize on its written rules. By encoding electronically these rules, a junior employee could perform the activities which were used to be performed by a senior employee.While there are better software that can be used for this purpose, the ubiquity of Excel spreadsheet makes it a choice as a vehicle for translating these techniques into its proper usage. Furrther, critical Excel functions were shown on how to manage and encode these business rules into spreadsheet. Eleven functions or techniques of Excel spreadsheet were identified as a key technique in transforming business rules into a viable spreadsheet application. A small case study is shown to illustrate the techniques.

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Determination of Mathematical Model and Torque Estimation of s-EMG Signals based on Genetic Algorithm [ ]


This paper discusses the conversion of surface electromyography signals (s-EMG) to torque for robotic rehabilitation. Genetic algorithm (GA) has been applied as control algorithm for a number of selected mathematical models. s-EMG signals was treated as input to the mathematical model where pararameters of the mathematicl model were optimized using GA. Hence, the estimated torque is considered as output data of mathematical model.

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Adoption of Iris Recognition System in Financial Sectors: A Case of Saudi Arabia Point of View[ ]


The process of creating and protecting of a unique and safe identity for citizens or customers is one of the most difficult and major challenges for organizations whether public or private sectors because of the high rate of fraud, identity theft and Plagiarism personality for illegal purposes [1].Several studies conducted around the world have proven that identity theft and fraud is the most serious crime within the banking sector, this is the result of the new technology revolution [2],[3],[4]. Biometrics recognition proved it credibility, reliability, accuracy and validity, also, it had been implemented within many application at many countries towards maximum level of privacy and security in order of maximize accuracy identification and verification [5].The motivation of this study to be a good basis to stimulate the decision makers to apply Iris technology in both private and public sectors towards more secure and safe environment among Saudi citizens.

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Mobile learning in the sphere of physical problems solving using the semantic structures method[ ]


The article proposes an original way to train skills of solving problems in physics using the method of semantic structures developed by T.N. Gnitetskaya withing the framework of the informational model of intra-subject connections. The analysis of a physical task is performed in the course of building the structure, which semantic elements are physical concepts, values, laws located on subordinate levels and logically related to each other by internal connections. Using this method allows three levels of correction and self-monitoring of students' work in mobile learning, the only one of which is full-time. The proposed approach to mobile learning in the sphere of solving physical problems promotes improvement of analytical skills and students' intellectual level.

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The effect of the seeding power on RSOA-based colorless ONU performance in FTTH-PON[ ]


In this paper, the limitations of the RSOA-based colorless ONU in FTTH-PON are investigated and observed. First of all, the architecture of the colorless receiver used is described. Then, the relationship between the input power and the output power of RSOA is explained, while the RSOA is an important element in colorless schemes as a light source. After that, this paper will explain the effects of the relationship between input power and output power of RSOA on the upstream performance. It is clear from the simulation results that the seeding power must be high to saturate the RSOA and to make upstream performance better.

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The Transformation of Saudi Arabia through Tablet-Based Technology[ ]


The aim of this paper is to explore how tablet technology will eventually transform our education system by heightening both student and teacher engagement in a variety of learning contexts. We expect to discern from our research the positive impact that Tablet PCs will have on learning, although the use of this technology is not yet widespread. Preliminary findings clearly demonstrate that exploration by students and teachers alike will be greatly facilitated by using this newest technological innovation. Functionality, cost-effectiveness, and ease of operation of tablet-based technology are also additional factors to be considered when considering the incorporation of tablets into the classroom or workplace.

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Towards The Use of Advance Technology in E-Learning: A Review[ ]


E-learning is the use of technology to enable people to learn anytime and anywhere. The use of latest learning technology in e-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. The information and communication systems, whether networked learning or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. In this paper we introduce the current status of the technology use in e-learning by looking at different e-learning technologies and briefly discuss its effects in learning. It then explains five related studies that addressed the impact from using a definite technology in e-learning. We aim to acknowledge the current status o using technology in e-learning.

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Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Oxide Nanoparticles by a Novel Method[ ]


Silver oxide (Ag2O) nanoparticles were synthesized through a simple chemical method using silver nitrate (AgNO3) in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as reducing agent. In current study, synthesis process by maintaining the solution pH using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution was investigated and compared. Zetasizer Nano series, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) studies were performed to confirm the size distribution measurement, chemical compound composition, crystallographic structure and functional group corresponding to Ag-O. Silver nanoparticles synthesized in the form of silver oxide were confirmed by the XRD study

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CMOS Based Thermal Energy Generator For Low Power Devices[ ]


This paper presents a thermal energy generator (TEG) designed using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process which converts thermal energy into electrical power. Energy harvesting techniques provide viable option to improve battery performance of low power devices. TEGs are of special interest due to its energy efficient, have no moving part and free maintenance. Secondly, thermal energy or heat gradient is an unremitting energy that is abundantly found from various sources such as the sun, industrial machines, automotives, mobile systems and human body. The proposed energy harvesting device takes advantage of the temperature differences between the hot to cold parts to produce an electrical power and provides a solution for micro-scale electronic systems. A 220 pair of thermopiles made of n-doped and p-doped polysilicon materials are electrically connected in series and thermally connected in parallel. Simulation shows that at a temperature gradient of 3 K, the proposed device can produce an output voltage and power of 0.29 V and 0.04 mW, respectively. Compatibility of the proposed TEG design with the standard CMOS processes enables to realize a novel on-chip power supply capable of powering many low-power wireless sensor networks and devices.

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Before and After: User's Knowledge Maturity within Personal Information Management[ ]


Personal Information Management (PIM) is an important discipline that evolves with the technology advancements in their operating systems. The understanding of its four main activities in PIM: organizing, retrieving, deleting and archiving are crucial because the information growth in our desktop increased overtime. The paper presents the study conducted to enhance understanding of one of the causes for core phenomena - user's knowledge maturity which was identified in prior studies. The qualitative approach is taken to deepen our understanding on this cause. As a result, we found that several issues pertaining to time and users' task have increased their knowledge on organizing-keeping information on their desktop.

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Overhead Analysis as One Factor Scalibility of Private Cloud Computing for IAAS Service[ ]


The rapid development of technology leads to improvement in a variety of computing concepts, information and communication technology(ICT). The ICT environment is become more complex and costly. Cloud Computing is one of phenomenon int the new ICT services, Cloud Computing model has three categories of services : Infrastructure As A Service (IAAS), Platform As A Service (PAAS), Software As A Service (SAAS). It also has four deployment models which are private cloud computing, community cloud, public cloud and hybrid Cloud.This research aims to determine the overhead of the virtualization environment. It is expected the private cloud with virtual technology, that utilizes the maximum resources does not degrade server scalability. The implementation of private cloud is using OpenStack with configuration multiple interfaces multiple servers. The results of the thesis indicate that the overhead of a single virtual machine is 114 ms (database server) and 212 ms (web server), to ten virtual machines are active 615 ms (database server) and 786 ms (web server). Overhead that occurs on a single VM can still be neglected, despite the performance degradation with increasing number of active virtual machines the execution time of servers application tends to be linear close to shape belongs to the physical servers.

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The Impact of Intergration HCI in Software Pro-cessing Models[ ]


Users' dissatisfaction with the software used will impact the efficiency. Moreover, the lack of knowledge of users' involvement in the development of the software will cause issues to the user's later on. In the case of human-computer Interaction (HCI),it has been suggested that a user's participation and HCI concern in the application growth life-cycle (SDLC) as an important procedure for a successful program execution. However, it is still not sure to what extend user participation is important and HCI problem has been settled by system professionals. The result which is mentioned in this paper and the review opinions from the experts' point of view are taken from analysis on the value of HCI in SDLC. The objectives of the analysis are to identify the condition of the users' contribution in SDLC and to identify the HCI elements that have been settled. Results show that many of the experts have engaged the customers in SDLC, but the majority only during the need research stage. The conclusions have also shown that HCI components on performance are well resolved. However, the non-functional components such as social, environmental issues have not been highlighted by experts. This paper indicates with recommendations to further analyze the users' interest on the value of the users' contribution in the program development.

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Comparative Analysis of Ecological Footprint of Two Different Neighbourhoods in Minna, Ni-geria[ ]


This paper discusses the comparative analysis of Ecological Footprint of two different neighbourhoods in Minna: M.I Wushisi and Tunga Low-Cost estate. It considers the building design, types, consumption pattern, lifestyle, and land-use in these estates. One prominent way of curbing sprawl is the design of eco-village that encourages human-scale settlement that encompasses social interaction, environmental sustainability and low-impact lifestyle. Globalization has been seen as a factor that determine environmental and social problem in the society. The method employed in this study makes use of both primary and secondary data to analyse and present the analysis in tabular form to show the relationship of different consumption that contributes to Ecological Footprint of these estates. There was the use of questionnaire for data collection, and a total of 360 and 370 questionnaired administered in both estates. The result indicated that the Ecological Footprint of Tunga Low-Cost (0.94gha) is lower than M.I Wushishi (0.98gha) due to building type, household size and lifestyle. Thus, this implies that the urban planners and designer has to be abreast of necessary information that will allow them to design a city that will be sustainable and consider consumption and lifestyle of the inhabitants of such city or neighbourhood. In addition, the study illustrates that Ecological Footprint could play a useful role in conducting such assessments, by documenting some of the behaviours that are most crucial to a person's total environmental impact and how they are related to design and building form.

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Impact of public space utilization frequencies on tacit knowledge sharing[ ]


Public space influence on knowledge sharing acquisition has become an interesting issue among knowledge management, urban land-scaper, and knowledge based development researchers. Thus, this study aim to investigate the contributing influences of the degree of public space usages on tacit knowledge sharing. Cyberjaya Malaysia was considered as the study area having been adjudged as a high technology park that foothold in knowledge sharing for its knowledge based development. A total of 384 survey questionnaires were administered by the residents of the study area in various public spaces within the city to collate the respondent's perception on their degree of public space utilization in relation to tacit knowledge sharing behaviour. Validated variables were adapted to measure knowledge sharing while the frequencies of public space utilization were measure with the user's degree of visits to public spaces. Data collated were analysed with statistical packages for social science "SPSS" to access the differences and similarities in respondents perception. Our findings revealed that the frequencies at which people utilized public spaces exhibited similarity differences in their tacit knowledge sharing tendencies. Human attitudes towards sharing their knowledge indicated to require much social interactions and public space utilization.

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E-Learning Acceptance among Tertiary Education Students[ ]


In current year, e-learning received special attention from higher education in implementing distance learning courses. Therefore, in this study, we examined the factors influence the acceptance of e-learning among tertiary education students. The factors tested were results demonstrability, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence. A total of 213 respondents received from several private higher education learners in Malaysia who are currently pursuing Certificate, Foundation, Diploma and Degree.The findings of this study revealed that results demonstrability and performance expectancy is significant positively influence the acceptance of e-learning. Whereas, effort expectancy and social influence is insignificantly influence the acceptance of e-learning.

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A comparative study towards using Web 2.0 tools into the development of learners thinking skills[ ]


The use of technology is introduced into the educational system to enhance the quality and quantity of the process of teaching and learning by way of computer-assisted instruction and the use of the Internet. Blogs, podcasts and wikis have been adopted by many online professional and educational providers and services to carry a certain learning needs. This paper aims to introduce the importance of Web 2.0 tools in the learning process especially the development of higher order thinking skills among students. A model was constructed based on the recommendations extracted from the prior research towards using Web 2.0 as a knowledge management tool to develop students thinking skills in different educational domains. Finally, this paper has introduced the potential benefits from using the proposed model into the learning process.

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Assessment on Contents of the Learning Management System[ ]


Most assume that adult learners are not concerned with access to the LMS or even with using it in their learning and would prefer a more conventional mode of learning. However, at the Asia e University in Malaysia, most of the learners are adult learners who are actively engaged in utilizing learning materials available in the learning management system (LMS). A sample group of 145 adult learners responded to the study, demonstrating that the contents of the university's learning management system are of quality, complete, relevant and current. In addition, the sample group was satisfied (e-satisfaction) and will keep using the LMS (e-retention) in future.

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