IJSER Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2012 Edition
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Efficient Wideband High Gain Low Noise Amplifier in Modern Radars[Full-Text[References]
Alaa El-Din Sayed Hafez, Mohamed Abd El-latif Mowad

In this paper a wideband single stage pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHMET) amplifier has been designed at 5.8 GHz, the input and output matching circuits have a pi form.Noise cancelling principle and sensitivity analysis are performed .Simulation results have been compared with their correspondence in [10] give 2.71 dB improvement in amplifier gain at the same noise figure (N.F) and input, output returns loss. A new optimized low noise amplifier (LNA) using PHEMT at 3 GHZ have been designed to achieve an improvements of 3.3 dB in amplifier gain and 1.81 dB in noise figure.Also the two stages (common gate in cascaded with common source) LNA have been analyzed and optimized for (1-16) GHz full band application to achieve maximum gain over a wide frequency band. Simulation results carried out sever improvement in amplifier gain over the results obtained for the two structures in [16-17] respectively with no change in N.F value .The improvement in optimized gain for the first and second structures are (3.278, 2.82) dB. The comparative study between the traditional and optimized structures showing a superior performance of LNA making them sutiable to be used in modern radar systems.

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Determination of Optimal Duration and Labour Cost of Overhauling ABB Type 13D Gas Turbine Using Network Analysis[Full-Text[References]
Nwankwojike, B. Nduka

Network analysis technique was used in this study to establish the optimal duration and labour cost of overhauling ABB type 13D gas turbine in Nigeria as well as the critical jobs that required adequate management attention/supervision in order to check corrupt upward review of project cost that characterized this sector resulting from intentional delays in the execution of turbine overhauling projects in this country. Results showed one thousand, two hundred and forty- three (1243) hours or approximately 155.38 days (at 8 working hours per day) and four million, twelve thousand and five hundred naira (N4,012,500.00) as the respective optimal duration and labour cost of the project. In addition, activities A, B, D, G, H, J, L, N, O, P, R, S, U and V were revealed as the critical jobs of this maintenance project while the optimal specific number of various types of manpower required to achieve these optimal duration and cost were determined as ten engineers, twenty technologists, seven craftmen and forty- five unskilled labourers.

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Potential of Pulverized Bone as a Pozzolanic material[Full-Text[References]
F. Falade, E. Ikponmwosa, C. Fapohunda

This paper presents the results of a study on the potential use of pulverized bone (PB) as a pozzolanic material and supplementary cementing material in the production of concrete. Tests were conducted to determine the influence of pulverized bone on the consistency and the setting times of cement paste at different percentages of replacement from 0 to 100% at interval of 10%, using the Vicat Apparatus. 75mm cubes of cement/sand mortar were prepared from a mixture of cement and sand in the proportion of 1: 3 with water/cement ratio of 0.4 in order to determine its strength development pattern. The chemical composition of pulverized bone was also determined. The results showed that the incorporation of pulverized bone into cement paste resulted in low water demand to achieve the same consistency by as much as 30%. Also, the addition of pulverized bone into cement brought about delayed setting times of the paste indicating that the pulverised bone has a retarding effect on the paste. The results further indicate that pulverised bone could be used as a partial replacement of cement without damage to the strength provided that the level of replacement does not exceed 20%. Results of investigation showed that at up to 20% replacement of cement with pulverized bone, there was no significant difference in the 28-day strength of the specimens containing pulverised bone and the control specimens (without pulverised bone). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that pulverised bone has pozzolanic properties and it can be used as partial replacement of cement in concrete

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Wind Speed Behavioral Modeling for Economical Energy Generation using Windmills [Full-Text[References]
K. Aboul-Seoud, Alaa El-Din Sayed Hafez, Mohamed Abd El-latif, A. Abou-Raya

The energy generation using windmills depends mainly on the wind speed which has a random behavior so; it is difficult to create statistical approaches with prior and deterministic parameters. Since wind speed is directly affected by some factors such as seasons, years, solar activities and land breeze, the behavioral modeling can be achieved. Prediction of wind speed is essential in order to protect systems in-action from the effects of strong winds. In this paper, data represent wind speed in Alexandria, Egypt has been obtained over a time window of twenty years. The frequency spectrum of the wind speed data have been obtained using Fourier transform (FT). The spectrum is fitted by twelve Gaussian distributions which are transformed back to the time domain. The central amplitudes are modified to accurately represent the actual time domain data using two different approaches. The proposed model is tested through the prediction of wind speed profile over the next two years following the available data window. The predicted data are compared with the actual ones. The constructed model showed a great consistency and high accuracy in modeling the wind speed behavioral in the selected site.

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Optimization of Specific Mechanical Energy Consumption of a Palm Nut-Pulp Separator Using Mathematical Programming Technique[Full-Text[References]
Nwankwojike B. Nduka, Agunwamba C. Jonah, Ogbonnaya A. Ezenwa

The influences of the driving power, cake breaker speed, auger speed, and helix angle, of a palm nut-pulp separating machine on its specific mechanical energy consumption, SE was evaluated and quantified in order to determine the optimal setting of these operational parameters at which the separator will operate with minimum energy consumption as well as maximum efficiency and throughput possible. This optimization was performed using mathematical programming modeling in which the developed SE model formed the objective function minimized, subject to the constraints of it efficiency, throughput and factor levels within which the operational parameters influence the responses significantly. SE model analysis showed that the main effects of all the operational parameters provided strong primary contribution to the specific energy mechanical consumption of the separator while the quadratic effects of the auger speed, and cake breaker speed and interactions of and provided secondary effects to the response. The optimization results revealed that the palm nut-pulp separator is more efficient and energy saving when operate at an optimal driving power, cake breaker speed, auger speed and helix angle setting of 4.103kW (5.5Hp), 2821rpm, 2116rpm, and 450 for respectively. The machine performed with an average specific mechanical energy consumption of 16.41kJ/kg, efficiency of 95% and throughput of 900kg/h at this factor setting. This indicates 38.61% reduction in specific mechanical energy consumption of the separator, and increase in its efficiency and throughput by 1.06% and 3.72% respectively when compared with that of the factor settings previously obtained from the graphical optimization of the machine.

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Biostratigraphy, Depositional Environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of Akata Field (Akata 2, 4, 6 and 7 Wells), Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria[Full-Text[References]
E.A. Okosun, J.N.Chukwu, E.O. Ajayi, O.A. Olatunji

Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphic analysis were carried out in the Akata Field from Akata-2, Akata-4, Akata-6 and Akata-7 wells in the eastern Niger Delta. Three planktic foraminiferal zones Globorotalia continuosa, Globorotalia obesa/Globorotalia mayeri, and Globorotalia peripheroacuta together with three benthic zones of Spirosigmoilina oligocaenica, Uvigerina sparsicostata, and Eponides eshira/Brizalina mandorovensis were established in both Akata-2 and Akata-4 wells. One planktic foraminiferal zone of Praeorbulina glomerosa was proposed for Akata-6 and Akata-7 wells. One benthic zone of Brizalina mandorovensis/Eponides eshira and Poritextularia panamensis are proposed for Akata-6 and Akata-7 wells respectively. Calcareous nannofossil analysis was also carried out in Akata-6 and Akata-7 wells, Sphenolithus heteromorphus Zone was established in both wells. Miocene age has been assigned to the studied intervals of the four wells based on the foraminiferal assemblages. The studied wells were correlated using the established biostratigraphic zones. A littoral (deltaic) to marine (outer neritic) environments of deposition has been inferred for the four wells based largely on the presence of environmentally restricted benthic foraminifera species. Three third order maximum flooding surfaces were recognized in Akata-2 and 4 while two were recognized in Akata-6 and 7 wells. The wells have been divided into sequences and systems tracts.

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The Impact of Self-directed Learning Strategies on Reading Comprehension[Full-Text[References]
Morteza Khodabandehlou, Shahrokh Jahandar, Gohar Seyedi, Reza Mousavi Dolat Abadi

For several decades, self-directed learning (SDL) has been a major focus of adult education (Merriam and Caffarella 1999) since the publication of Malcolm Knowles' book in 1975. However, this study aims to investigate the impact of self-directed learning on learners' reading comprehension proficiency and the measurements that teachers can do to encourage self-direction among adult learners. This is done by introducing self-direction strategies of reading comprehension, to the learners to be able to monitor their own learning. To this end, they applied more of the metacognitive strategies that are believed to be at the heart of self-directed activity (Grow, 2010). 92 upper-intermediate and advanced female Iranian EFL learners, studying English in IELTS & TOEFL Center of Arian in Gorgan, Iran, randomly selected and divided into two groups: experimental and control that the same syllabus and assessment procedures followed. The instrument includes an IELTS reading test. Finally, the data gathered by the experiment of the study was analyzed through SPSS software, using Independent Samples t-test. The results reveal that there is a significant difference between mean score of TDL (Teacher-Directed Learning) and SDL, and after treatment students perform better that proves superiority of self-directed over teacher-directed readers.

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The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Iranian EFL Learners' Listening Proficiency[Full-Text[References]
Shahrokh Jahandar,Morteza Khodabandehlou, Gohar Seyedi, Reza Mousavi Dolat Abadi

The current investigation attempts to determine the impact of Emotional Intelligence (EI) components on listening proficiency as well as gender differences in some of the significant emotional competencies of EI. To this end, 168 intermediate learners (including 75 male and 93 female) were chosen randomly from among English students of Rodaki and Shafagh University, Tonekabon. The data was analyzed through SPSS, using ANOVA, MANOVA and F-test. The results confirmed the significant impact of EI components on listening in male and female. Additionally, by considering gender through the influence of EI components, it showed that this impact on female learners is greater than male. The other case is investigating the effect of each EI component on listening comprehension and gender separately. The findings revealed that Stress Tolerance, Interpersonal Relationship and Flexibility have great impact on listening in male and female; instead male ought to be stronger to enhance 'Stress Tolerance'.

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Optimal Path Selection Routing Protocol in MANETs[Full-Text[References]
Dr. Sapna Gambhir, Parul Tomar

An Ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network without the help of any centralized access point or existing infrastructure. In such an environment, routing protocols are required to transfer packets from source to destination as some mobile nodes can act as intermediate nodes to forward a packet to its destination, due to the limited range of each mobile node's wireless transmissions. Dynamic source routing (DSR) is one of the routing protocols used for ad hoc networks. In this, When a node requires a route to a destination, it initiates a route discovery process within the network. Source node broadcasts a route request (RREQ) packet to its neighbors, which then forward the request to their neighbors, and so on, until a route is found or all possible route permutations have been examined. The main disadvantage of DSR protocol is that source node contains at most one route to destination at any moment of time. So, there is no way for the choice of optimal path for different type of applications like multimedia, voice, mail, etc. In this paper, a new protocol (DSR-A) is proposed which selects route from source to destination depending on bandwidth requirement of source node and battery life of all the nods on a path from source to destination.

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Insilico Designing And Development of Vaccine For V.Cholerae O139 In Cholera Disease[Full-Text[References]
Dr. Ramani Iyengar, Sriranjini A.S, Jasmine

V.cholerae was first isolated by Italian anatomist Filipo Panici. V.cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera, a major health concern in most of the developing countries. V cholerae carry strains the encode the cholera toxin. These cholera toxins enters the Epithial cells and after crossing host line of defense it starts colonizing itself in the small intestine. Cholera is usually a non contagious disease. The main aim of this project is to design and develop a vaccine against cholera. Vibrio Cholerae is a bacterium with 12,865 odd proteins causing cholera. Among these 1 protein sequence was selected having least identity and least E- value. It was then screened by using SDSC workbench tool. Then antigenic determinants were found by using different tools. The sequence with least identity was taken into consideration and then further designed and used for docking studies. From this Docking analysis the epitope molecule LEALVEDL was found to be the best vaccine candidate.

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Use and outcome of Electronic Health Record for health insurance an experience of Symbiosis Centre of Health Care[Full-Text[References]
Dr. Alaka O. Chandak, Dr. Rajiv C. Yeravdekar, Ms. Rajashree Varma, Dr. Girish Tillu, Maj. Gen. Dr. V. W. Tilak

Effective use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) applications by Symbiosis Centre of Health Care (SCHC) for 23,782 students and employees) has resulted in efficient data management & information dissemination without errors & delay during hospitalization. The EHR [1] was evaluated by healthcare & paramedical staff for Use & Outcome. The Use is studied for ease of use, security, flexibility, reliability, efficiency, service response, technical support, ability to make changes and overall satisfaction. Outcome was evaluated in terms of reduced human errors, workload of doctors, time saved in data management, automated reports generation & independent data submission. The experience of using the system for 6 months had a composite score for logistic use and outcome were 63.6 % and 60.4 % respectively. It assists in reducing turnaround time (TAT), decision making, medical audit, faster processing of insurance claims, improved time saving, reduced errors & effective data flow that eased health insurance system.

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Intelligent Cars using RFID Technology[Full-Text[References]
Gurjot Singh Gaba, Nancy Gupta, Gaurav Sharma, Harsimranjit Singh Gill

RFID system (Radio Frequency Identification), an automatic identification system relying on exchange of information through radio frequency, is emerging as one of important technologies that find its use in various applications ranging from healthcare, construction, hospitality to transportation sector and many more. This paper describes about RFID technology, concentrating its use in improving performance of cars. This paper shows how RFID technology facilitates some new different features in the car that are helpful for one and the society.

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Design, Synthesis and FPGA-based Implementation of a 32-bit Digital Signal Processor[Full-Text[References]
Tasnim Ferdous

With the advent of personal computer, smart phones, gaming and other multimedia devices, the demand for DSP processors in semi-conductor industry and modern life is ever increasing. Traditional DSP processors which are special purpose (custom logic) logic, added to essentially general purpose processors, no longer tends to meet the ever increasing demand for processing power. Today FPGAs have become an important platform for implementing high-end DSP applications and DSP processors because of their inherent parallelism and fast processing speed. This design work models and synthesizes a 32 bit two stage pipelined DSP processor for implementation on a Xilinx Spartan-3E (XC3S500e) FPGA. The design is optimized for speed constraint. A hazard free pipelined architecture and a dedicated single cycle integer Multiply-Accumulator (MAC) contribute in enhancing processing speed of this design. The design maintains a restricted instruction set, and consists of four major components: 1) the hazard free speed optimized Control unit, 2) a two stage pipelined data path, 3) a single cycle multiply and accumulator (MAC) and 4) a system memory. Harvard architecture is used to improve the processor's performance as both memories (program and data memory) are accessed simultaneously. The complete processor design has been defined in VHDL. Functionalities of designed processor are verified through Functional Simulation using Modelsim SE 6.5 simulator. The design is placed and routed for a Xilinx Spartan-3E FPGA.

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Biosurfactant Production by Microorganism for Enhanced Oil Recovery[Full-Text[References]
Elyas Golabi, Seyed Ruhollah Mortazavi Poor Sogh, Seyed Noroldin Hosseini, Mohammad Amin Gholamzadeh

Biosurfactants are a group of surface active agents which are produced by microorganisms. In this research a bacterial species with the ability of producing biosurfactant was isolated from soil. The bacterium was able to grow on gas oil as the sole source of carbon and energy. Concentrations of gas oil up to about two percent were not detrimental to the bacterial activity. The excess gas oil in the fermentation medium served as an exteractant for the biosurfactant. Separation of the organic phase from the aqueous phase and evaporation of the gas oil resulted in a powder of crude biosurfactant. Each liter of the fermentation medium gave about 2.8 grams crude biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration of the powder was 100 mg/L. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of distilled water to 26mN/m. An aqueous solution of the biosurfactant was used to enhance oil recovery in a high permeable and a low permeable laboratory core. The solution enhanced the oil recovery up to 15% in the high permeable core at ambient temperature. This figure was 7.5% in the low permeable core. The biosurfactant retained its activity in enhanced oil recovery when the temperature of the core increased to 80 oC

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Diplostomum Parasites Affecting Oreochromis niloticus in Chepkoilel Fish farm and Two Dams in Eldoret-Kenya[Full-Text[References]
Kembenya E. Migiro, Matolla G. K, Ochieng V. Ouko and Ngaira M. Victor

The Diplostomum parasite completes its life-cycle in fish eating birds, but spends considerable time in the eye vitreous humor of many fresh water fishes. Its infection in fish causes severe ocular pathology, and leads to increased susceptibility to predation. study on Diplostomum parasites was conducted at Chepkoilel University with an objective of assessing its parasitic indices and effects on O. niloticus. A total of 40 fish were collected from the fish farm and 155 from the dams between November 2010 and January, 2011. Fish were weighed and length measured to ascertain their condition factor. The fish were observed for the Diplostomum parasite to ascertain parasitic indices in the different habitats. The parasite abundance was related to fish size and condition factor to determine parasite's effect on O. niloticus. Fish were found to have a parasitic prevalence (%) of 100, 84 and 66 in Kerita dam, Kesses dam and Chepkoilel fish farm. Parasite mean intensity was 12, 9 and 14 respectively.

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Effects of Salinity on Growth and Total Lipid Con-tent of the Biofuel Potential Microalga Ankistro-desmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs[Full-Text[References]
Jayanta Talukdar, Mohan Chandra Kalita and Bhabesh Chandra Goswami

Growth responses and total lipid content of a native strain of the biofuel potential freshwater oleaginous microalgae A.falcatus was studied owing to its inherently high lipid content for potential utilization as renewable biomass feedstock of biofuels. Influences of salinity in increasing order from 40 mM to 320 mM of NaCl in BG11 medium on growth (µ), total lipid (TL) content and calorific value (CV) were studied in triplicate batch mode culture at light intensity 35 µmol/m2/s, temperature 25 ± 2 0C and 16:8 hrs light and dark diurnal cycles. Enhanced growth and total lipid contents were observed with increasing salinity up to 160 mM NaCl. The highest specific growth (µ=0.313 d-1) and least doubling time (T2=2.21 days) with maximum increase in cell numbers (2.9 x 105 ml-1) were recorded in medium supplemented with 160 mM of NaCl compared to control medium (µ=0.209 d-1, T2=3.32 days and 1.52 x 105 ml-1 respectively). Improved total lipid (55.3%), carbohydrate (14.5%), and protein (4.8%) contents were also determined compared to control medium (lipid 38.3%, carbohydrate 12.6%, and protein 3.1%, respectively). With maximum energy value of 27.9 ± 0.15 kJg-1, a close correlation (R2 = 0.955) between lipid content and calorific value was observed. With the support from present research findings, the native strain of freshwater oleaginous microalga A. falcatus could be a potent candidate for production of renewable biomass feedstock of biofuels. The present research findings will be supportive towards further culture optimization for increased biomass yield with concomitant lipid content and improved of fatty acid profile in mass cultivation

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A Compact Monopole CPW-Fed Band Notch Square- ring Antenna for UWB Applications[Full-Text[References]
Deepak Kumar, Tejbir Singh, Vikash Gupta, Hema Singh

This paper presents the design of compact CPW-fed band notched UWB square ring antenna. The main objective of this proposed research work is to reduce the size of antenna and avoid interference between UWB and WLAN application at 5.5GHz. The antenna consists of a square-ring metal patch and 50? coplanar waveguide fed. The structure of the antenna is miniaturized by optimizing its square ring profile and the required total size to obtain only 35x31 mm dimension. The antenna is then modified to possess band rejection at the wireless local area network (4.8-6.2 GHz) band by adding two slits within the CPW element. The geometry parameters of antenna are investigated and optimized with HFSS. The result show that the proposed antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of 3.1-10.6GHz with VSWR<2, except in the band of 4.8 - 6.2 GHz. An omnidirectional radiation pattern and stable gain are observed except notched band.

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A Comparitive Study of Kalman Filter, Extended Kalman Filter And Unscented Kalman Filter For Harmonic Analysis of The Non-Stationary Signals[Full-Text[References]
A.UmaMageswari, J.Joseph Ignatious ,R.Vinodha.

The accurate measurement of harmonic level is essential for designing harmonic filters and monitoring the stress to which the communication devices are subjected due to harmonics and specifying digital filtering techniques for phasor measurements . This paper presents an integrated approach to design an optimal estimator for the measurement of frequency and harmonic components of a time varying signal embedded in low signal-to noise ratio. This led to the study of Kalman, Extended Kalman and Unscented Kalman filter characteristics and a subsequent implementation of the study to design these filters. We have employed the Extended Kalman filter and Unscented Kalman filter algorithms to estimate the voltage magnitude in the presence of random noise and distortions. Kalman filter being an optimal estimator to track the signal corrupted with noise and harmonic distortion quite accurately. Tracking of harmonic components of a dynamic signal in communication system can easily be done using EKF and UKF algorithms and their results are compared.

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Estimation of Wastes Generated from Obsolete Personal Computers in India[Full-Text[References]
Pamela Chawla, Neelu Jain

The objective of this paper is to characterize future trends in obsolete computer generation in India in the next fifteen years using logistic model based approach. The amount of various toxic and non-toxic components generated from these computers as well as precious metals recoverable from the obsolete computers by 2025 is also estimated. In this model, the historical sales data and an assumed first lifespan distribution of desktop and laptop computers are used to estimate future computer penetration rate and subsequently obsolete PCs to be generated in India. The estimation carried out in this study will serve as a guideline for government & planning bodies to setup collection, recycling and disposal facilities for the different types of toxic and non-toxic waste generated from obsolete computers in the next 15 years. This would also help regulatory authorities in formulating policies to mitigate impacts of informal recycling.

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Search Query Performance Improvement on Medica Data Bases[Full-Text[References]
Thayyaba Khatoon Mohammed, Gayatri.M, G. Swathi, Sukerthi.S.

Search queries on biomedical databases, such as PubMed, often return a large number of results, only a small subset of which is relevant to the user. Ranking and categorization, which can also be combined, have been proposed to alleviate this information overload problem. Results categorization for biomedical databases is the focus of this work. A natural way to organizebiomedical citations is according to their MeSH annotations. MeSH is a comprehensive concept hierarchy used by PubMed. In thi spaper, we present the BioNav system, a novel search interface that enables the user to navigate large number of query results by organizing them using the MeSH concept hierarchy. First, the query results are organized into a navigation tree. At each node expansion step, BioNav reveals only a small subset of the concept nodes, selected such that the expected user navigation cost is minimized. In contrast, previous works expand the hierarchy in a predefined static manner, without navigation cost modeling. We show that the problem of selecting the best concepts to reveal at each node expansion is NP-complete and propose an efficient heuristic as well as a feasible optimal algorithm for relatively small trees. We show experimentally that BioNav outperforms state-of-the-art categorization systems by up to an order of magnitude, with respect to the user navigation cost.

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Association Rule Mining based on Apriori Algorithm in Minimizing Candidate Generation[Full-Text[References]
Sheila A. Abaya

Association Rule Mining is an area of data mining that focuses on pruning candidate keys. An Apriori algorithm is the most commonly used Association Rule Mining. This algorithm somehow has limitation and thus, giving the opportunity to do this research. This paper introduces a new way in which the Apriori algorithm can be improved. The modified algorithm introduces factors such as set size and set size frequency which in turn are being used to eliminate non significant candidate keys. With the use of these factors, the modified algorithm introduces a more efficient and effective way of minimizing candidate keys.

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Photoelastic Stress Analysis & Finite Element Analysis of an Internal Combustion Engine Piston[Full-Text[References]
Prof. H. V. Shete, Prof. R. A. Pasale, Prof. E. N. Eitawade

Two dimensional photoelastic technique & Finite element analysis is used to analyse stresses in a piston of an Internal combustion engine. The stresses due to combustion gas load only are considered. The results from both the methods are compared and validated. Based on the results, modifications in the piston profile can be suggested ,so as to reduce the weight and hence to increase the power output of engine.

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Evaluation of Treatment's Performance through Stochastic Model for Unorganized Drug Administrations[Full-Text[References]
P. Tirupathi Rao, D. Flora Evangil, P. Rajasekhara Reddy

Drug administration through non-competent methods is more prevalent in most of the unprivileged social and economic groups. Random picking of drug without verifying the suitability and administering the same as a part of the treatment leads to so many health complications. Hence, there is a need of the attention on evaluation of the drug performance on the specific disease, where the drug is administered either by individual choice or by the advice of non- competent medical supervisors. In this paper, we have developed a stochastic model to study the effectiveness of the drug by developing stochastic processes in trinomial experimental situation. The possibilities of drug effectiveness are categorized into three ways with different probabilities. Probability distribution for positive and negative impacts of the drug; and the statistical measures for evaluating the performance of drug are derived. Sensitivity analysis was carried out so as model behavior is observed. The aim of this study also includes to develop Medical Decision Support Systems (DSS) for drug performance. Development of computer desktop automation to this study will be more users friendly for health care industry.

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Effect of Magnesium Enhancement On Mechanical Property And Wear Behaviour of Lm6 Aluminum Alloy[Full-Text[References]
R. S. Rana and Rajesh Purohit

For last several decades aluminium and aluminium alloys are widely used in automotive industries because for their favourable properties like low density (about 2700 Kg/m3), good malleability, high formability, high corrosion resistance and high electrical and thermal conductivity. High machinability and workability of aluminium alloys are prone to porosity due to gases dissolved during melting processes. However, in the engineering application pure aluminium and its alloys still have some problems such as relatively low strength, unstable mechanical properties and low wear resistance. The microstructure can be modified and mechanical properties, wear resistance can be improved by alloying, cold working and heat treatment. In this regards, the present paper reports the influences of enhancement of magnesium contents on the mechanical properties and wear behavior of LM 6 aluminum alloy.

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New Design And Develelopment of Eskig Motorcycle[Full-Text[References]
Eskinder Girma

This paper work is on motorcycle body optimization, how to carry more number of passengers with comfort and safety. The ordinary motorcycle has only one driver seat and passenger seat: and specified as one rear wheel and twins shock absorber. The new ESKIG motorcycle's modeling and analysis is done on one driver and three passengers size and load with considering backrest. This motor cycle having a large seating length, two twins shock absorber and dual rear wheel. The drive system of dual rear wheel is derived by two chain and sprocket assembly on either side with the same gear ratio; both wheels do not have independent suspension. The first stage of the work was developing a preliminary design of motorcycle using appropriate assumption and mathematical calculation. This can be done with the help of wire-frame, 3D modeling and kinematic simulation of computer aided analysis software. The parametric computer aided design is develop by considering necessary assumption with comparing to data books.

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Assessment of Groundwater Quality Index for Upper Pincha Basin, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India using GIS [Full-Text[References]
Hema Latha. T., Pradeep Kumar G.N., Lakshminarayana. P, Anil. A

Present work is aimed at assessing Water Quality Index (WQI) for groundwater of Upper Pincha Basin, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh. This has been carried out by collecting groundwater samples and subjecting them to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis. Results obtained were compared with standard values recommended by WHO for drinking and public health. For computing WQI, eleven parameters viz., pH, TH, Cl, TDS, Ca, Mg, So4, No3, F, HCO3 and Na have been considered. WQI values for the groundwater samples from the study area ranges from 71.99 to 273.82. High value of WQI has been found to be mainly from excess presence of TH, Cl, TDS, Mg and HCO3. Using GIS contouring methods with Arc/View GIS 9.3, spatial distribution maps of pH, TH, Cl, TDS , Ca , Mg , So4 , No3 , F , HCO3 , Na and WQI have been created. WQI is used to assess the suitability of groundwater from the study area for human consumption. From the WQI assessment over 90% of the water samples are found to fall under poor water category. Analysis reveals that groundwater of the area needs field specific treatment before put to use.

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Performance Improvement in Optical Burst-Switching Networks[Full-Text[References]
Biswaranjan Swain, Ashis Tripathy

The emergence of the Internet has revolutionized the computer, and communications world like nothing before, and has permanently changed the lifestyle of human beings. The Internet is committed to providing at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information dissemination and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals, irrespective of the geographical distance separating them. As a result Internet traffic has skyrocketed, and is consuming increasing network bandwidth. At the same time, new time-critical multimedia applications such as Internet telephony, video conferencing, video-on-demand, and interactive gaming are consuming large amounts of bandwidth. All these facts are imposing tremendous strain on the underlying telecommunication networks, forcing us to search for alternative means to satisfy the demand.

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Fraud Detection of Credit Card Payment System by Genetic Algorithm[Full-Text[References]
K.RamaKalyani, D.UmaDevi

With an increase usage of credit cards for online purchases as well as regular purchases, causes a credit card fraud. In the mode of electronic payment system, fraud transactions are rising on the regular basis. The Modern techniques based on the Data Mining, Genetic Programming etc. has used in detecting fraudulent transactions. The technique of finding optimal solution for the problem and implicitly generate the results using genetic algorithm. The aim is to develop a method of generating test data and to detect fraudulent transaction with this algorithm. This algorithm is an optimization technique and evolutionary search based on the principles of genetic and natural selection, heuristic used to solve high complexity computational problems. This paper presents to find the detection of credit card fraud mechanism and examines the result based on the principles of this algorithm. The benefit of detecting fraud is to clear for both credit card companies and their clients. The fraudulent transactions are not prevented from being cleared; the company must accept the financial cost of that transaction. This reduces the cost associated with higher interest rates, and its charges.

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Study of Cluster Based Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks[Full-Text[References]
Sushruta Mishra, Alok Raj, Abhishek Kayal, Vishal Choudhary, Preksha Verma, Lalit Biswal

New advancements in the technology of wireless sensors have contributed to the development of special protocols which are unique to sensor networks where minimal energy consumption is vital and very important. As a result, the focus and effort of researchers is on designing better routing algorithms for a given application and network architecture of interest. Flat-based routing protocols have been found to be less advantageous to clustering routing protocols when their performance are compared in a large-scale wireless sensor network scenario. This is due to the fact that clustering operation reduces the amount of redundant messages that are transmitted all over the network when an event is detected. This paper is an investigation of cluster-based routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

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FEA Implemention In Analysis And Optimization of Top And Bottom Frame For Hydraulic Cotton Lint Bailing Press[Full-Text[References]
A. G. Naik, N. K. Mandavgade

This paper attempts to acquire the FEA implementation for analysis and optimization of top and bottom frame for hydraulic cotton lint bailing press. Ginning is the process of separation of fiber from cottonseed. Composite ginnery performs ginning and pressing operations to convert lint cotton into a bale. In modern day, capacity of ginning plant is such that the cotton bale handled by their press system gives rise to very large forces. Frame structure like all the other equipment has to be able to withstand these forces without damage. It is essential that the calculations for mechanical strength to check the suitability of top and bottom frame.

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Analysis of Existing Rolling Mill With Prototype Soft Starting Arrangement of Rolling Mill For Energy Conservation - An Experimental Approach[Full-Text[References]
A.M. Bisen, Dr. P.M. Bapat and Dr. S.K. Ganguly

In this paper an analysis is done on the main drive of rolling mill which consumes about 60 to 70 % of total energy of the plant. The existing rolling mill in India are using the 3 phase induction motor and flywheel to drive the rolling mill. The electric motor transmits the power to flywheel with the help of V-belt. An attempt has made after analysis of existing mill that by using some soft starting arrangement, which can be use as a clutch in between the motor and flywheel reduces the horse power of main drive which save the energy consumption of rolling mill. The optimum selection of drive can help in reducing the horse power of main electric motor and at the same time capable of energies the flywheel. An experimental analysis is done by using flat belt drive and motor sliding arrangement in order to reduce the H.P. of main electric motor.

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3D Image Processing Operations[Full-Text[References]
Mrs. A. Padmapriya, S.Vigneshnarthi

Image processing and pattern recognition has become a powerful technique in many areas. This includes Engineering, Computer Science, Statistics, Information Science, Physics, Chemistry and Medicine. Anyone who wants to extract data from image or visual project, image processing is required. Most of the image processing software's are able to process two dimensional images alone. This paper implements three basic image processing operations namely enhancement, blur and segmentation. Each of the operation can be implemented using a variety of algorithms.The algorithms are implemented using and their performance are compared in this paper.The proposed work produces better result of 3D images also.

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Semiautomatic Twilight Photometer, Design and Working[Full-Text[References]
Pratibha B. Mane

Aerosol measurements have been carried out at Kolhapur (16.41°N 74.13°E) by using newly designed Semiautomatic Twilight Photometer. Some noticeable features of the semiautomatic twilight photometer are improvement in efficiency of the system, growth in signal to noise ratio, augmentation in height resolution, lot of upgrading in the sensitivity of the system, expansion in duration of operation of the system, rise in rate of sampling, better accuracy in storing the data etc. The twilight scattering method yields a reasonable qualitative picture of the vertical distribution of the aerosols from about 6 km to a maximum of 350 km.

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Bacterial Surface Display using Outer Membrane Proteins as Anchoring Sites[Full-Text[References]
Sharadwata Pan and Michael K. Danquah

Surface display of heterologous proteins or polypeptides on the surface of bacteria has gained momentum in recent years. Until recently, arrays of anchors or carriers have been identified for displaying diverse passenger proteins on the surface of Escherichia coli, majority of these involving the outer membrane proteins (OMPs). The reason for opting outer membrane proteins lies mainly in its ability to withstand the incorporation of large libraries of novel polypeptides, without a significant loss in steadiness. In this context, a thorough understanding of the underlying genetic mechanism of the OMP-mediated surface display is necessary. In this mini-review, we attempt to do the same and also compare the OMPs from two commonly used and available bacteria. The far reaching consequence of this lies in efficient surface display of imaginative and innovative polypeptides with applications ranging from bioremediation, immunology to vaccine development.

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The Healthcare Delivery Model: Rise of Wearable Medical Sensors in building EMR Applications[Full-Text[References]
Onkar S Kemkar, Dr P B Dahikar

Due to the immense volumes of medical data, the architecture of the future healthcare decision support systems focus more on interoperability than on integration. With the raising need for the creation of unified knowledge base, the federated approach to distributed data warehouses (DWH) is getting increasing attention. In this paper we investigate the important requirements of communication architecture of wireless sensor networks, Further, we present a federated DWH model which enables the interoperability between heterogeneous and distributed medical IS, This paper reports on an ongoing research on developing an agent based system architecture for wireless sensor networks. The main objective of this system is to facilitate the design, implementation, and maintaining applications for sensor networks that consist of wireless sensor nodes.

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Design And Fabricated Model of An Improved Emission Monitoring And Warning System For Automobiles[Full-Text[References]
R.Yadagiri Rao, Md.Abu Basim

We, the human are always talking about saving the environment, but most of us don't know what the reasons for polluting the environment are. Emission is one of the foremost reason for the pollution, which leads to various hazardous effects like Global warming, Ozone layer depletion, Green house effect, Acid rain etc. Our ultimate aim is to reduce the emissions, because emissions are responsible for decaying of the environment.80% of world's pollution is mainly due to automobile emissions. All the leading manufacturers of automobiles, design their vehicles with the controlling devices for reducing the emissions, but none design their vehicle with emission monitoring system. As a result of this, the person using the vehicle will not get any knowledge about emissions. Keeping this in mind we designed the "DESIGN AND FABRICATED MODEL OF AN IMPROVED EMISSION MONITORING AND WARNING SYSTEM FOR AUTOMOBILES" which monitor the emission rates of the vehicle and are displayed in the dashboard. The rates are stored in the microcontroller for the duration of 6/12/18 months and are reset automatically after the programmed duration. There is also an additional feature in this system, whenever the emission rates exceed the safe limit a warning light will glow. From this he/she can judge their vehicle performance and take necessary actions to rectify it.

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Prefetching Algorithm for Layered Storage[Full-Text[References]
Mr. Shivakash Sahu, Mrs. Roshni Dubey

The goal is to motivate on challenging the immediate character of the currently used replacement algorithm, Least Recently Used. Furthermore, achievements in former researches provide the motivation for replacing the algorithm with a proactive one. The concept is called prefetching, meaning that the algorithm fetches files to store on primary storage before (therefore 'pre-') a user has requested them. Here first we start with LRU and then by challenging the Least Recently Used algorithm to be used in the current situation. Subsequently, related literature is used to motivate the research towards a prefetching algorithm based on data mining results. Furthermore, it states what this research contributes to former researches. Then we introduce the research questions. Afterwards description of which methodologies are used in order to answer these research questions.

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Study of some parameters on drilling of Al based Metal Matrix Composites - a review[Full-Text[References]
S.Senthil babu, B K.Vinayagam

Composite material in general, and metal matrix composites in particular, have been a main topic in research for the last 15 years. Metal matrix composites (MMC) have been found to be useful in a number of engineering applications and particle reinforced aluminum MMCs have received considerable attention due to their excellent engineering properties like high strength to weight ratio, high toughness, high impact strength etc. But these materials are generally regarded as extremely difficult to machine, because of the abrasive characteristics of the reinforced particulates. It is also acknowledged that their machining behavior is not fully understood. The work reviewed here investigated the drilling parameters like feed rate, drilling tool and its geometry, cutting speed and other parameters like influence of coolants, heat treatment etc.

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Predication of Life of Transformer insulation by developing Relationship between Degree of Polymerization and 2- Furfural[Full-Text[References]
Dipak Mehta, Prof. Hitesh Jariwala

Degradation of cellulosic materials can be identified by measuring dissolved carbon oxide gas content in oil, Degree Polymerization (DP) of paper and 2-Furfurol content in oil. Each method has some advantages and limitations. In case of dissolved carbon oxide gas analysis and furan content determination, sampling is easy but interpretation of result is not very reliable. On the other hand DP measurement of paper is reliable and accurate but it is not practical top draw paper sample from transformer in service. Therefore, attempts are being made to establish a reliable and good correlation among above parameters to get a simple and accurate result. This paper presents relation between DP and furan content. For given oil sample furan content first measured and using above relation DP value can be easily identified. Also this relationship is verified by with results of five no's field failed transformers.

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Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks[Full-Text[References]
Shashank Bholane, Devendrasingh Thakore

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consists of numerous small sensors. These sensors are wirelessly connected to each other for performing same task collectively such as monitoring weather conditions or specifically parameters like temperature, pressure, sound and vibrations etc. For all applications partial or full time synchronization is required and the message exchanged by sensor nodes for data fusion must be time stamped by each sensor's local clock. This helps to achieve a common notion of time in wireless sensor networks. This paper contains a survey, relative study and analysis of existing time synchronization protocols for wireless sensor networks, based on various parameters. No single protocol is optimal and sufficient in all aspects for designing a clock synchronization system. So the comparative study and design considerations will help a lot to the designer for designing a scheme which may or may not be application specific.

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Pulse Width Modulation Implementation using FPGA and CPLD Ics[Full-Text[References]
TAMBOLI J. I., PROF. JAGTAP S. R., SUTAR AMOL

Pulse width modulation (PWM) has been widely used in power converter control. Most high power level converters operate at switching frequencies in excess of 1 MHz at high power levels can be achieved using the planar transformer technology. PWM control is the most powerful technique that offers a simple method for controlling of analog systems with processors digital output. The resulting PWM frequency depends on the target FPGA or CPLD device speed and duty cycle resolution requirements. The contribution of this paper is the development of high frequency PWM generator architecture for power converter control using FPGA and CPLD ICs.

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Adaptive Complex Transformation for Sensorineural Impairment: A Practical Approach[Full-Text[References]
Sunitha.S.L and V.Udayashankara

Hearing impairment is the number one chronic disability affecting many people in the world. Background noise is particularly damaging to speech intelligibility for people with hearing loss especially for sensorineural loss patients. Several investigations on speech intelligibility have demonstrated that sensorineural loss patients need 5-15 dB higher SNR than the normal hearing subjects. This paper describes a practical approach using adaptive complex transformation filtering for sensorineural impairment to improve the SNR of the speech signal. The computer simulated results show superior convergence characteristics of the adaptive complex transformation algorithm by improving the SNR at least 7dB for input SNR's less than and equal to 0 dB, with 120 convergence ratio, better time and frequency characteristics.

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Surrogacy - Laws And Medical Ethics[Full-Text[References]
RICHARDSON WILSON, SHRIYA LUKE

The paper seeks to compare the legal regimes with respect to surrogacy in the US and the UK. The experience, short comings and success of the laws in these countries can be used to better the Indian ART Bill, 2010. The paper also makes a reference to the 'medical ethics' involved in the practice in light of the ICMR guidelines on the subject.

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Pulse Width Modulation Implementation using FPGA and CPLD Ics[Full-Text[References]
Jakirhusen I. Tamboli, Prof. Satyawan R. Jagtap, Amol R. Sutar

Pulse width modulation (PWM) has been widely used in power converter control. Most high power level converters operate at switching frequencies in excess of 1 MHz at high power levels can be achieved using the planar transformer technology. PWM control is the most powerful technique that offers a simple method for controlling of analog systems with processors digital output. The resulting PWM frequency depends on the target FPGA or CPLD device speed and duty cycle resolution requirements. The contribution of this paper is the development of high frequency PWM generator architecture for power converter control using FPGA and CPLD ICs.

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Digital Image Correlation and the Contributions of Stress-Strain Measurements towards Failure Analysis[Full-Text[References]
S.Bhowmick

Failure mechanisms contributed by stress or material fatigue have been witnessed in several industrial as well as at R&D applications in various forms. Metallurgical studies for failure analysis have ensured the contributions of residual stress in several cases. The most important and common consideration in all these cases has been the material. Definitely, there may be other contributing factors also like sudden load, operating temperature, lack of lubrication etc. The most vital aspect of all the scientific observations remains to search the accurate cause with parameters & the subsequent measures for remedy. Here, lies a very close & important relation between Condition Monitoring activities & Failure analysis studies. While mainly metallurgical engineering which includes in-depth study of microstructure, grain boundaries etc. dominates the field of failure analysis, on the other hand a combination of various streams starting from instrumentation to mechanical, which again includes lubricant analysis, vibration based signature analysis, sophisticated systems like digital image correlation constitute the domain of Condition Monitoring. But it must be acknowledged that failure analysis studies pave the way for Condition Monitoring activities, since it indicates the parameters that are needed to be monitored & controlled. Hence, failure analysis strengthens the condition monitoring initiatives. However, this paper mainly highlights upon the various causes and features of material fatigue or fatigue failure, their occurrence at industrial sectors and the subsequent experimental procedures for stress-strain measurement in R&D.

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Studies on Biological Removal of Plumb (Pb) by Bacillus subtilis[Full-Text[References]
Harikrishna Yadav. Nanganuru, Satish. Mutyala, Bhanu Prakash. Maradala

Waste from industries is a serious and growing problem in most developing countries. Some heavy metals are known to cause damage to living organisms including human beings. Their detoxification efficiency indicates good potential for application in bioremediation of toxic heavy metals. In those heavy metals, Plumb in soil is influenced to a great extent by microbial activity. Microorganisms have ability to absorb Pb from a medium. The biological removal of Pb ions from aqueous solutions by using the bacterial culture was investigated. The growth of the Bacillus subtilis culture was noticed by Pb concentration in growth medium, thus about 20% of the bacteria can grow up to 50 mg Pb/L medium. The results revealed that the living biomass of the cultures were more efficient to absorb Pb. The formulation of yeast, peptone medium fortified the cultures by ingredients favoured the best growth yields that have the highest Pb absorption. The absorption of Pb by Bacillus subtilis was considerably influenced by the pH value of the absorption medium, contact time, biomass levels and Pb concentration. Thus, 91% of Cd was absorbed in medium containing 10 mg Cd.

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Some approximation results on modified positive linear operators[Full-Text[References]
Dr. R .P. Pathak and Shiv Kumar Sahoo

Recently Deo N.et.al. (Appl. Maths. Compt., 201(2008), 604-612.) introduced a new Bernstein type special operators. Motivated by Deo N.et.al., in this paper we introduce special class of positive linear operators and shall study some approximation results on it.

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The Accounting Relationship between CEO Cash Compensation and Firm Size in TSX/S&P Companies[Full-Text[References]
Nulla, Yusuf Mohammed, D.Phil. Ph.D. Student, MSc, MBA, B.Comm

This study investigates the relationship between the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Cash Compensation and the Firm Size in the TSX/S&P index companies from the period 2005 to the period 2010. The totaled of the one hundred and twenty companies were selected through the stratified sampling method from the TSX/S&P index. The total sampling population was divided into three groups: the "Small", the "Medium", and the "Large". The research question for this study was - is there a relationship between the CEO Cash Compensation and the Firm Size?. To answer this question, the sixteen statistical models were created and accordingly sixteen attestations were performed. Overall, all the attestations results were found to have the relationship between the CEO Cash Compensation and the Firm Size. The correlations among the sub-variables of the CEO Cash Compensation - the Salary and the Bonus, and the sub-variables of the Firm Size - The Total Sales and the Total Number of Employees, were found to be ranged from the weak negative to the strong positive ratios.

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Modelling and Simulation of Trajectories of a Wire Like Particle in a Three Phase Common Enclosure Gas Insulated Busduct (GIB) with Image Charges[Full-Text[References]
M.Siva Sathyanarayana, J.Amarnath

In recent years, SF6 gas insulated switchgear (GIS) has become more widespread in electrical power substations and GIS rated from 66 to 1100kV are working successfully. The GIS is used in closed vessels, isolated from the atmosphere. This gives it intrinsically high insulation reliability because there is no contact with dirt or contaminates. To assure even better reliability, measures must be taken against metallic particle contamination. Some of these in use include changes in the manufacturing environment, modification of the structures, careful cleaning of the GIS both during and after assembling, etc. Even at most measures are taken to eliminate particle contamination effect metallic particle contamination in a compressed Gas Insulated Busduct (GIB) system Is inevitable and may substantially lower the corona onset and breakdown voltages of the system. The random movement of metallic particles in a GIB system plays a crucial role in determining the insulation performance of the system. In this study a statistical approach has been used to evaluate the probability of SF6 insulation breakdown due to the presence of contaminating metallic particles. Under 50-Hz AC voltage, the particle motion is complex, and under appropriate conditions, the particle may cross the gaseous gap from the low-field region near the outer enclosure to the high-field region near the central conductor. For the commonly encountered size of metallic particles in practical Gas Insulated systems, such a crossing of the gaseous gap takes several cycles of the 50-Hz voltage. In order to determine the particle trajectories in a three-phase common enclosure GIB) an outer enclosure of diameter 500 mm and inner conductors of diameters 64 mm spaced equilaterally are considered. Wire like particles of aluminum and copper has been considered to be present on enclosure surface of a three-phase bus duct. A method based on particle movement is proposed to determine the particle trajectory in GIS or GIB for a three phase common enclosure while the image charge effects of the conductors are considered. The motion of the wire particle was simulated using the charge acquired by the particles, the macroscopic field at the particle site, the drag coefficient, Reynold's number and coefficient of restitution. The computation of particle movement has been carried out on bare electrode system for different voltages. The results have been presented and analyzed.

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Experimental study on Masonry Infill Material Properties[Full-Text[References]
Palanisamy. M., Premalatha. J

Infills walls are constructed using different types of structural blocks such as clay bricks, fly ash bricks, solid concrete blocks, hollow and cellular blocks. Constructions of bricks or blocks with cement mortar are called masonry. Masonry structures are durable in nature and are resistant to severe climatic conditions. They also accommodate minor earthquake disturbances and normally will not lead to failure in differential settlement of foundations. The factors governing the strength of a masonry structure includes brick strength, mortar strength, elasticity, workmanship, brick uniformity and the method used to lay bricks. In this experimental study fly ash brick prism and clay brick prisms of sizes 230 x 230 x 300mm with CM1:4, CM1:5 and CM1:6 mix proportions were used. The compressive strength and modulus of elasticity tests was compared with curing period of 7th and 28th day's specimens of 3 each and of totally 108 prisms. The results of fly ash brick masonry prism proved that it has achieved maximum compressive strength and young's modulus

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The effect of probabilities of departure with time in a bank[Full-Text[References]
Kasturi Nirmala, Shahnaz Bathul

This paper deals with the Queueing theory and analysis of probability curves of pure death model. Starting with the historical back grounds and important concepts of Queueing theory, we obtained a relation to find time "t" where we get highest probability for departures which follow truncated Poisson probability distribution.

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Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Sobel edge detection method in DIP[Full-Text[References]
Jyoti Patil, Dr. A. L. Chaudhari

Diabetic retinopathy, a complication of diabetes that occurs as a result of vascular changes in the retina, It is a major cause of loss of vision. Automated image processing has the potential to assist in the early detection of diabetes, by detecting changes in blood vessel patterns in the retina. Image processing techniques can reduce the work of ophthalmologists and the tools used automatically locate the exudates. 0In this paper the process and knowledge of Digital Image Processing (DIP) is used. Automated analysis techniques for retinal images have been an important area of research for developing screening programmers. By using MATLAB for programming to develop the DIP tool for diagnosis of eye infection . Sobel edge detection algorithm is a method to find the edge pixels in an image. Edges are pixels which carry important information in an image. Thus sobel method is best technique for features are extended & used to classify the pixels in the patch into vessel and non vessel

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Angular Hydromagnetic Stability of Incompressible Dusty Fluid Flow between Two Rotating Cylinders[Full-Text[References]
Gurpreet Kaur, Arun Kumar Tomer and Shivdeep Singh Patial

In this Paper we have examined the stability of inviscid, incompressible, dusty fluid between two co-axial rotating cylinders with different angular velocities in the presence of angular magnetic field. We found out the sufficient conditions for stability when DNo<0 and DNo>0 and observe that the effect of magnetic field is stabilize. Also we obtained modes for non oscillatory and observe that the oscillatory modes are stable.

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Gamma-ray Spectrometric Analysis of Fly-ash Samples of Coal Fired Power Plants[Full-Text[References]
Ashutosh Pathak, Archana Sharma, Brijesh Pathak, S.Pathak

Suratgarh super thermal power station, Suratgarh and Guru Nanak thermal power station, Bathinda are the two potential sites selected for the study of radionuclides in fly ash samples by ?-ray spectrometer. The activities of Cs-137, K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232, ( in Bq/Kg.) are 17.8, 98.8, 29.1 and 120.9 respectively for Suratgarh thermal power plant and 25.7, 96.6, 25.0 and 123.2 respectively for Bathinda power plant.

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Energy Analysis of Thermal Power Plant[Full-Text[References]
Raviprakash kurkiya, Sharad chaudhary

Energy analysis helps designers to find ways to improve the performance of a system in a many way. Most of the conventional energy losses optimization method are iterative in nature and require the interpretation of the designer at each iteration. Typical steady state plant operation conditions were determined based on available trending data and the resulting condition of the operation hours. The energy losses from individual components in the plant is calculated based on these operating conditions to determine the true system losses. In this, first law of thermodynamics analysis was performed to evaluate efficiencies and various energy losses. In addition, variation in the percentage of carbon in coal content increases the overall efficiency of plant that shows the economic optimization of plant.

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Adaptive Particle Filter Approach To Approximate Particle Degeneracy[Full-Text[References]
J.Joseph Ignatious ,A.UmaMageswari, S.Abraham Lincon

The main problem of particle filter in nonlinear state estimation is the particle degeneracy. It can be overcome by Resampling operation. But Resampling operation leads to the problem of sample impoverishment. Therfoer an algorithm named Variance reduction technique is proposed to solve sample impoverishment and degeneration problem. It reduces the variance of the particle weights by selecting an exponential fading factor and this factor can be chosen adaptively and iteratively in terms of the effective particle number. Many improved particle filter algorithms were proposed to solve the degeneracy problem which are seemed to be complex. In this paper an algorithm is presented to show that the idea of Variance reduction technique is feasible to propose a new adaptive filtering algorithm.

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Effects of Variable Fluid Properties and Viscous Dissipation on Mixed Convection Fluid Flow past a Vertical Plate in Porous Medium[Full-Text[References]
P.K.Singh

In the present work, free and forced convection boundary layer flow of an incompressible and viscous dissipative fluid with variable thermal conductivity and temperature dependent viscosity past a an isothermal vertical plate is investigated. The convective flow is taking place in such a porous medium whose permeability is assumed to be spatially variable. The convective flow is due to two factors which influence the flow simultaneously- (1) free stream along the plate and (2) the buoyancy force caused by the variations in density due to temperature difference. The governing equations for the the boundary layer flow are converted into to a system of coupled ordinary differential equations by using suitable similarity transformations. These equations are solved numerically and effects of Grashof number, Eckert number and permeability parameter on the velocity and temperature are discussed and presented graphically

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An Adaptive image watermarking algorithm based on Neural networks [Full-Text[References]
Ms. Nanda yalamali , Mr.Manjunath Asuti

Image watermarking is a method used for security purpose ,certification, Aunthentication of an image the algorithm is based on neural networks .Neural network intelligence is used based on characteristics of human visual system .Discrete wavelet transform is used which gives lossless compression, The watermark is embedded by the Methos watermark pretreatment,neural network recovery .Extraction of an image can be done by watermark post processing & key inverse scrambling transform

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Traditional Knowledge And Sui-generis Law[Full-Text[References]
DR. BALAVANTH S KALASKAR

Traditional knowledge is a source of knowledge, which is unprotected by Intellectual Property Rights and often freely available within the public domain. At present World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is unable to satisfactorily protect traditional knowledge from patenting. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) failed to recognize the rights of traditional knowledge holders adequately. As regards protection of knowledge, innovations and practices associated with biological resources, these do not seem to meet the conditions required for grant of patents or other intellectual property rights (eg. copyrights, trademarks etc) under prevalent intellectual property regime, i.e., novelty, inventiveness and industrial applicability.

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Role of International Forums in Protecting Traditional Knowledge[Full-Text[References]
Dr. Balavanth S Kalaskar

India is rich in traditional knowledge. Patenting of traditional knowledge is a burning issue in the whole world. Different international forums are playing important role in protecting traditional knowledge from patenting. The efforts, which are done by the international forums, so for, are not sufficient. Patenting of traditional knowledge cannot be prevented in an overnight. Still much effort has to be done by all the member States of WIPO as well as all the international forums

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Economics of Continuous R.C.C. Beams Vis-à-vis Continuous Pre-stressed Concrete Beams[Full-Text[References]
A.R.Mundhada, Mohammad Shahezad

This paper presents the economics of continuous R.C.C. beams vis-à-vis continuous pre-stressed concrete beams. This work includes the design and estimates of continuous R.C.C. beams and continuous pre-stressed concrete beams of various spans. In today's jet age, we have a host of construction techniques at our disposal. Steel structures, R.C.C. Structures, Core and hull type of structure (combination of steel & R.C.C. construction), Ferro-cement and prestressed concrete are some examples. At times this choice available leads to confusion. The best way is to select the type of construction, depending on the circumstances and type of structure. The aim of this paper is to design medium span continuous R.C.C. beams as well as continuous pre-stressed concrete variety and then compare the results. Programming in MS EXCEL is done to design the beams. The idea is to reach a definite conclusion regarding the superiority of the two techniques over one another. Results reveal that a continuous R.C.C. beam is cheaper than continuous pre-stressed concrete beam for smaller spans but vice versa is true for larger spans.

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Effects of Jamming Attacks on Wireless Communication Systems[Full-Text[References]
Nand Dhandhukia, Prof. Kiran Parmar

This paper presents brief overview about simulation using OPNET Modeler. Study of jamming effect on various modulation schemes has been presented. How user data rate and the jamming effect are related is also discussed. Transmitter, receiver and Jammer nodes are created in simulation environment. Effect of jammer radiated power is also analyzed.

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Optimal Corona Ring Selection for 230 kV Ceramic I-string Insulator using 3D Simulation[Full-Text[References]
A. Rahimnejad, M. Mirzaie

Porcelain string insulators are extensively utilized in high voltage transmission lines. However, the electric field and potential distribution along an insulator string owing to the existence of metal conjunctions and resulting stray capacitances is not uniform and the units near to energized end fitting are more highly stressed. One practical way to improve the voltage distribution is corona ring installation at the energized side. Thus the investigation of electric ?eld and potential distribution along insulators, in presence of various corona ring designs, is an effective method to choose the most appropriate one. In this paper 3-D software -based on Finite Element Method- is used to investigate the influences of three different corona ring types, which are more common in Iran 230 kV transmission line, conductor length and also insulator numbers on voltage distribution along 230 kV porcelain insulator string. Eventually, the simulation results will be discussed.

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Iterative Switching Filter for High Density Noise Removal[Full-Text[References]
Jisha John, Ann Mary Jacob, Mekha Prasannan, Priyanka Suja Pradeep, Sruthi Ignatious

This paper proposes an efficient filter for the restoration of images that are corrupted by high density of impulse noise. In this method an iterative switching filter is used that switches between two cases depending on the noise percentage in the input image. For low noise percentage it searches for the noise-free pixels within a small neighborhood. The noisy-pixel is then replaced with the average estimated from noise-free pixels. For high noise percentage weighted median is used to replace the corrupted pixels. The iterative process continues until all noisy-pixels of the corrupted image are filtered. The proposed filtering method is tested using standard test images and found to be more efficient than already existing high density noise removal techniques.

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Impact of Curzate (fungicide) on Hematological Parameters of Oreochromis mossambicus[Full-Text[References]
Bhavika Desai and Pragna Parikh

Curzate, a fungicide, is currently registered for commercial use in over 50 countries on more than 15 crops, creates serious threat to the environment as well as target and non-target organisms like aquatic and land dwelling animals. The present investigation was carried out to study the impact of the fungicide on the hematological parameters of fresh water fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Adult fish of nearly similar weight (25 ± 1.9 g) and length (15.5 ± 1.2cm) were exposed to two sub lethal concentration i.e. 4.9 mg/l and 2.45 mg/l of Curzate for a period of 21 days. The hematological analysis showed significant reduction in red blood cells (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) value, packed cell volume (PCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), while total white blood cells (WBCs) count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were significantly increased in the treated groups as compared the control group. The present study shows that Curzate causes alterations in hematological parameters leading to physiological dysfunctions thus validating the toxic effect of the fungicide on the fish

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Protection against Man-in-the-middle Attack in Banking Transaction using Steganography[Full-Text[References]
Miss.N.Albina, Dr.M.Sridhar & Dr.M.Rajani

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. HTTP is not only used for communication purpose, it is also used for file/data transfer, chatting, etc. The HTTPS protocol to guarantee privacy and security in transactions ranging from home banking, e-commerce, and e-procurement to those that deal with sensitive data such as career and identity information. Users trust this protocol to prevent unauthorized viewing of their personal, financial, and confidential information over the Web. Even though the transfer of data can be attacked by the Man-in-the-Middle. This paper proposes a Steganography scheme that can be used to detect unauthorized modifications of HTTP communication. This allows detection of a possible attack on the communication. Unauthorized modification of the transmission is considered as the attacks in the banking transaction

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Study of Image CompressionTechniques[Full-Text[References]
R.Navaneethakrishnan

This paper addresses the area of image compression as it is applicable to various fields of image processing. On the basis of evaluating and analyzing the current image compression techniques this paper presents the Principal Component Analysis approach applied to image compression. PCA approach is implemented in two ways - PCA Statistical Approach & PCA Neural Network Approach. It also includes various benefits of using image compression techniques

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The Energy Consumption Performance of Roof Garden[Full-Text[References]
Shailendra Kasera, Ashish Nayyar, Dr. Dilip Sharma

Green roofs are a passive cooling technique that stops incoming solar radiation from reaching the building structure below. Many studies have been conducted over the past 10 years to consider the potential building energy benefits of green roofs and shown that they can offer benefits in winter heating reduction as well as summer cooling. Statistics have confirmed that a lawn placed on a roof top can reduce the cooling load. In this study, the eQUEST energy simulation program was used to determine the effects of roof gardens on the annual energy required for cooling, and annual electrical usage in a computer based model. In this case study two different cases were considered first one of only roof garden, later with 2inch XPS (Extended Polystyrene). It has been found that 3.79% of cooling load can be reduced by best case.

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Performance Improvement of An Oil Fired Furnace Through Oscillating Combustion Technology[Full-Text[References]
M.V. Aditya Nag, Ramana Reddy Dareddy

Energy is one of the important crucial input factor in the thermal industries require new combustion concepts for effective utilization of the fuel with controlled emissions.Due to the depletion of fossil fuels at alarming rate and increasing of pollution levels from the various combustion processes such as I.C. Engines, boilers and furnaces, the need arises for the evolution of the new combustion techniques in contrast with the existing combustion techniques. The increased consumption rate and crude oil price leads to the usage of alternate fuels or newer technological development. Furnaces operating below optimum efficiency and emission levels can be improved by new technological approaches by retrofitting in new systems. Oscillating combustion is relatively a simple process. It is accomplished by introducing an oscillating valve on the path of the fuel line. The oscillations are introduced by the valve which operates at different amplitudes and oscillating frequency. The effect of these oscillations is increased heat transfer to the load which results in low fuel consumption, increased production rate and boosts furnace efficiency. Oscillating combustion methodology for overall improvement performance of an aluminium foundry furnace was taken up. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) of an oil fired furnace which is a metric for total productive maintenance initiative has been calculated. The results of these experiments led to significant savings in fuel consumption, enormous reduction in NOx emissions and highly cost effective which results in revenue savings.

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Fuzzy Logic - Anti-lock Brake System[Full-Text[References]
Darshan Modi, Zarana Padia, Kartik Patel

In recent years fuzzy logic control techniques have been applied to a wide range of systems. This paper presentation deals with study antilock-braking system (ABS) using fuzzy logic. Vehicle dynamics and braking systems are complex and behave strongly non-linear which causes difficulties in developing a classical controller for ABS. Many electronic control systems in the automotive industry such as automatic transmissions, engine control and Anti-lock Brake Systems (ABS) realize superior characteristics through the set of fuzzy logic based control rather than traditional control algorithms. ABS is now accepted as an essential contribution to vehicle safety and speed estimation using fuzzy logic. Intel Corporation are leading supplier of Fuzzy Logic tools and systems. The use of fuzzy-logic in conjunction with microcontrollers is a fairly new development in automotive applications. Improving ABS capability is a mutual goal of automotive manufacturers and Intel Corporation. In future it is expected that ABS will be implemented all over the world.

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Appraisal of Review of Design In Implementation of Electrical Engineering Projects[Full-Text[References]
O. A. AKINSANYA

Engineering designs involve the use of science, technology, intuition and information to achieve transformation of concept into reality in pursuant of specific objectives. An inherent problem is that errors made in the design will affect the quality and performance of any system since reliability of a system is affected at every stage in its production. Data for this study was obtained by direct interview, use of questionnaire and review of samples. This paper showed the importance of review of design at early stages to uncover possible faults, reduce risks of flaws, thereby ensuring that it meets the durability requirement in a safe, functional and cost effective manner. Significantly 94% of examined designs had one or more flaws, while about 33% of designers were unaware of the need for the design review.

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Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Reverse Transcriptase by Casia occidentalis (L) Plant Extract[Full-Text[References]
Venkanna Lunavath and Estari

Human immunodeficiency virus type-1(HIV-1) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a major human viral disease with about 33.2 million people infected worldwide. The current treatment for HIV/AIDS is called Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) and is a combination of anti-HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90% of the HIV/AIDS population in the world. This reality has urgently called for the need to develop inexpensive alternative anti-HIV/AIDS therapy. In the current study, we characterized a panel of extracts of traditional medicinal plants for their activities against HIV-1 replication. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the invitro anti- HIV activity of Casia occidentalis plant extracts. Extracts were prepared from dried leaves in n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n butanol. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors by ficoll-hypaque density gradient centrifugation method. A toxicity study was performed on all crude extracts by MTT assay using PBMCs isolated from whole blood. HIV-1 RT inhibition activity of the all solvent extracts of Casia occidentalis was determined by a RetrsoSys HIV-1 RT activity kit (Innovagen, Sweden). The leaves of Casia occidentalis extracts are shows anti-HIV-1 activity and this plant has great potential for developing useful drugs.

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A Novel Approaches on Clustering Algorithms And it's Applications [Full-Text[References]
B.Venkateshwar Reddy, T. Asha Latha

Graph clustering algorithms are Random walk and minimum spanning tree algorithms. Random walk has been used to identify significant vertices in the graph that receive maximum flow while minimum spanning tree algorithm has been used to identify significant edges in the graph .We believe these two graph algorithms have useful applications in clustering, namely for identifying centroids and for identifying edges to merge or split clusters such that intra-cluster similarity is maximized while inter-cluster similarity is minimized. This paper investigates the graph algorithms, graph-based clustering algorithms, and their applications. graph algorithms and graph-based clustering algorithms, we propose novel variants of Star clustering algorithm that use different techniques for identifying centroids, and two novel graph-based clustering algorithms: MST-Sim and Ricochet. The variant graph algorithms and graph based clustering algorithms achieve higher performance in terms of effectiveness and efficiency for the applications of document clustering, k-member clustering, opinion mining, clustering for part-of-speech tagging.

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Design Telemetry Monitoring System[Full-Text[References]
S.B.Bhosale, M.M.Jadhav

Network controlled device has its own demand and application with fast development in technology. The proposed paper is design to add security issue to any general premises. In this paper, telemetry monitoring based on embedded system and Ethernet technology proposed. Method of embedded system interface based on Ethernet and ARM7LPC2378 processor. The platform itself has Ethernet interface on it DP83848H can directly connect with the Ethernet MAC, to develop system. A data can be transmitted transparently through Ethernet interface unit to the remote end desktop computer. This design has the advantage of cost-effective, easily realized, stable and reliable transmission and so on.

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Process Development Studies on Biodiesel from Palm kernel, Palm and Gingelly oils[Full-Text[References]
G. Kalyani, H.Joga Rao, Y.Prasanna Kumar

Biodiesel is the name for a variety of ester-based oxygenated fuels derived from natural, renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils. Biodiesel operates in compression ignition engines like petroleum diesel thereby requiring no essential engine modifications. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel can be produced from oil bearing seeds of many plants like pongamia pinnata and that are grown in the wild like jatropha curcas and blended with high speed diesel for transport vehicles, generators, rail engines, irrigation pumps etc. As part of the research program on biodiesels, work has been initiated to develop processes for biodiesels reusing different feed stocks of vegetable oils including non-edible oils. The results of the research work on transesterification and evaluation of biodiesel samples are presented. The following variables were studied on laboratory scale transesterification of three vegetable oils, gingili, palm and palm kernel in presence of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide catalyst-Mole ratio of vegetable oil to methyl alcohol and catalyst concentration. More over, the biodiesel samples obtained in the experimental studies have been evaluated determining the important physical properties like density, viscosity, distillation characteristics, cetane index, flash point, fire point, sulphur content and carbon residue. As observed from results, the yields of gingili, palm and palm kernel esters ranged from 90.3% to 95.7%.

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Some theoretical analogies in the description of strongly coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma[Full-Text[References]
Rakesh Kumar, G.L. Sawhney

We study some theoretical aspects of strongly coupled quark gluon plasma, as a function of Coulomb coupling parameter G. We study the evaluation of dynamic properties of the BCS/BEC crossover in relativistic fluid. We also discuss some fluid dynamic aspects of the crossover at critical temperature. The shear viscosity is minimum near around the unitary limit. We have clarified the thermal fluctuations in strongly coupled characteristic of plasma. The color deconfinement phase of quark gluon plasma also discussed.

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On the Morphology of Modern Sorani Kurdish Language[Full-Text[References]
Prof.Dr.Lazim M.Al-Badawi and Basil M.Youif

Sorani Kurdish language(SKL) is a continuum Varity of Kurdish dialects spoken and writ-en in an area of more than 30 millon inhabitants,covering a region between Turkey, Syria Iraq,and Iran. It has an old history related back to its origin in a proto-type Sanskrit lang-uage to give it an identity of a branch of indo-European family. Its regional variation is naturally predominates its studies in modern linguistics especially on the morphology level. Few explanations and descriptions were related to different dialects of SKL. Accordingly, the primary aim of this study is to utilize synchronic morphology using two different approaches to uncover some adequate knowledge of the word formation for the sorani Kurdish language as it is spoken and written by university educated Kurds.

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Traffic Classification Technique in Computer Networks[Full-Text[References]
S. M. Parvat, Prof. Dr. S. D. Lokhande

Traffic classification enables a variety of applications and topics, including Quality of Service, security, monitoring, and intrusion-detection that are of use to researchers, accountants, network operators and end users. Capitalizing on network traffic that had been previously hand-classified provides with training and testing data-sets. The classification of network traffic can be done using Machine Learning Method, for this the use of simulating tools like NS2 can be used. It requires network protocol headers and the properties of unknown traffic for a successful classification stage.

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