Volume 1, Issue 2, November 2010 Edition
     IJSER Research Group http://www.ijser.org/forum/index.php Register for IJSER Research Forum      IJSER Xplore IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database

Pages   [1]
 



Exudates Detection Methods in Retinal Images Using Image Processing Techniques[Full-Text] [References]
V.Vijayakumari, N. Suriyanarayanan

Exudates are one of the most common occurring lesions in diabetic retinopathy. Exudates can be identified as areas with hard white or yellowish colors and varying sizes, shapes and locations near the leaking capillaries within the retina. The detection of exudates is the major goal. For this the pre-requisite stage is the detection of optic disc. Once the optic disc is found certain algorithms could be used to detect the presence of exudates. In this paper few methods are used for the detection and the performance of all the methods are compared.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Survey of Frequency and Wavelet Domain Digital Watermarking Techniques[ Full-Text ] [References]
Dhruv Arya

Due to improvement in imaging technology and the ease with which digital content can be reproduced and manipulated there is a strong need for a digital copyright mechanism to be put in place. There is a need for authentication of the content as well as the owner. It has become easier for malicious parties to make scalable copies of copyrighted content with any compensation to the content owner. Digital Watermarking is being seen as a potential solution to this problem. Till date many different watermarking schemes have been proposed. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the current techniques that have been developed and their effectiveness.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

FPGA-Based Design of Controller for Sound Fetching from Codec Using Altera DE2 Board[ Full-Text ] [References]
A.R.M. Khan, A.P.Thakare, S.M.Gulhane

The trend in hardware design is towards implementing a complete system, intended for various applications, on a single chip. In order to implement the any speech application in Altera DE2 board a controller is designed to control the CODEC and acquire the digital data from it. This paper presents an experimental design and implementation of the controller using the specification given by the Philips for I2C protocol & DSP mode of operation of CODEC on cyclone-II EP2C35F72C6 FPGA in Altera DE2 board . A controller was designed using VHDL language, which performs the two operations: I2C protocol operation to drive the Wolfson Codec WM8731, sound fetching from Wolfson Codec WM8731 to FPGA in DSP mode. Altera Quartus II 9.0 sp2 web Edition is used for the synthesis of the VHDL logic on FPGA and ModelSim- Altera 6.5b (Quartus II 9.1) Starter Edition is used for the simulation of VHDL logic.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Insulin Bio Code - Standard Deviation[Full-Text] [References]
Lutvo Kuri

This paper discusses cyberinformation studies of the amino acid composition of insulin, in particular the identification of scientific terminology that could describe this phenomenon, ie, the study of genetic information, as well as the relationship between the genetic language of proteins and theoretical aspect of this system and cybernetics. The result of this research show that there is a matrix code for insulin. It also shows that the coding system within the amino acidic language gives detailed information, not only on the amino acid "record", but also on its structure, configuration and its various shapes. The issue of the existence of an insulin code and coding of the individual structural elements of this protein are discussed. Answers to the following questions are sought. Does the matrix mechanism for biosynthesis of this protein function within the law of the general theory of information systems, and what is the significance of this for understanding the genetic language of insulin? What is the essence of existence and functioning of this language.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Fiber Optics Based Parallel Computer Architecture[Full-Text] [References]
A.M V Raghavendra, B.Vuda Sreenivasarao

Computer architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It's a blueprint and functional description of requirements and design implementations for the various parts of a computer, focusing largely on the way by which the central processing unit (CPU) performs internally and accesses addresses in memory. In this paper, we present an overview of parallel computer architectures and discuss the use of fiber optics for clustered or coupled processors.Presently, a number of computer systems take advantage of commercially available fiber optic technology to interconnect multiple processors, thereby achieving improved performance or reliability for a lower cost than if a single large processor had been used. Optical fiber is also used to distribute the elements of a parallel architecture over large distances; these can range from tens of meters to alleviate packaging problems to tens of kilometers for disaster recovery applications.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Promoting e-Governance through Right to Information: A Case-study of India[Full-Text] [References]
Shalini Singh

Reinventing government has been a dominant theme since 1990s, wherein governments world over are attempting to improve the systems of public service delivery. Rapid strides made in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have facilitated the reinvention of governments and prepared them to serve the needs of a diverse society. In other words, the information age has redefined the fundamentals and transformed the institutions and mechanisms of service delivery forever. The vision is articulation of a desire to transform the way the government functions and the way it relates to its constituents. The concept of electronic governance, popularly called e-governance is derived from this concern.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ideals in Group algebra of Heisenberg Group[Full-Text] [References]
M. L. Joshi

In spectral theory ideals are very important. We derive the relation between non commutative and commutative algebra by a transformation which is associated to the semi-direct product of groups. We obtain and classify the ideal in L1 -algebra of Heisenberg group.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cryptography [Full-Text] [References]
Aayushi Jangid

In today's world when hacking and computer data robbery and theft are common phenomena, it is very important to protect data and information that is sent over a particular network. And that is where the need for cryptography arises. Cryptography is the science of writing the data or information in a secret code. It involves encryption and decryption. The data that can be understood without any special efforts is called as the plaintext. This data can be converted into the secret code and this process is called as the encryption. This encrypted data is called as the cipher text. This encrypted text can be converted back into the plaintext by a key and this process is called as the decryption. Thus, cryptography consists of both, the encryption and the decryption process.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Control of tomato wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Iycopersici using plant biological fungicides[Full-Text]
Bright Chima Megbo

All plant extracts [i.e. extracts from Portulaca oleracea L., Costus specious (rhizome), Curcuma zedoaria (tuber), Zingiber zerumbet (tuber) and Codieum variegatum (leaf)] used in this study significantly inhibited the spread and further development of the inoculum applied to leaves of the tomato plant. In this study, leaf extracts of Codieum variegatum significantly inhibited the proliferation of Fusarium oxysporum in both in vitro and the greenhouse. All biofungicides tested showed significant reduction in terms of radial diameter of Fusarium oxysporum in vitro after the treatment in comparison to the negative control (i.e. without any biofungicide), with the least inhibition of 64% by Curcuma zedoaria (tuber) extract and the highest inhibition of 89% exhibited by Codieum variegatum leaf extract. The other biofungucides Portulaca oleracea L., Costus specious (rhizome) and Zingiber zerumbet (tuber) also provided significant inhibition at 68%, 75%, and 81% respectively in vitro. Generally, the results of this study indicate a high inhibitory effect of all the biofungicides used on Fusarium oxysporum under in vitro and greenhouse conditions.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Brassinosteroids and Gibberellic Acid act synergistically to influence plant growth and development[Full-Text]
Bright Chima Megbo

Plants treated with brassinolide alone or where brassinolide was combined with gibberellic (BL+GA3) exhibited a notable increase in the size of both epidermal and mesophyll cells, this was also true for leaf size but such changes were not observed in the Control plants. A combination of Gibberrelic acid (GA3) and brassinolide exhibited the highest stem elongation as well as petiole growth rates. Lone brassinolide application stimulated petiole growth but no significant increase in stem growth as compared to the Control. Brassinolide alone had no significant effect on petiole growth, but the combination of brassinolide with GA3 increased petiole growth. There was a synergistic interaction between gibberellic acid and brassinolide in stimulating significant increase in stem growth in comparison to the other treatments where these plant growth regulators were used separately. Brassinolide treated plants at 150 mg.L-1 triggered a small increase in petiole growth when compared to the control. A combination of Gibberrelic acid (GA3) and brassinolide (BL) triggered a significant development of lateral buds. The herbage yield in terms of the leaf number, leaf weight and total leaf area was higher owing to brassinolide (BL) treatment in comparison to the control. Biochemical analysis of the leaf in this study showed that plants treated with brassinolide contained more sugars (both reducing and non-reducing) as well as starch in comparison to the control plants. The higher levels of starch and sugars in the leaf of plants treated with brassinolide positively correlated with higher chlorophyll levels as well as photosynthesis.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The effects of selected substances on polyploidization and the regulation of the cell cycle[Full-Text]
Bright Chima Megbo

Oryzalin, a dinitroaniline herbicide, applied to the plants inhibited microtubule polymerization from free tubulin subunits. The roots of plants treated with Oryzalin were club-shaped and the root tips were swollen. Oryzalin impeded both root and shoot growth and elongation. When Olomoucine was applied to an asynchronous Hibiscus esculentus cell suspension culture, the cells were blocked both in G1 and G2, but this effect was reversible. The Okra seed germination percentage of 79.3 % was significantly lower in plants treated with Colchicine when compared to untreated plants (i.e. Control) with 94.8%. Okra plants treated with Colchicine also exhibited reduced height as well as the mean number of leaves per plant. The mean stomata size was observed to be significantly higher in plants treated with Colchicine in comparison to the Control. The mean stomata size of the Control plants was significantly lower than those seen in plants treated with Colchicine. Plants treated with Colchicine were shorter than those of the Control. The plants treated with Colchicine also had thicker and coarse leaves which were greener in colour in comparison to the Control. Higher number of branches which portrayed a bushy growth habit, thicker roots and stems were also recorded in Colchicine treated plants. Treatment of cells with Colchicine resulted in cytologically changed cells. Examination of the internal tissues also indicated that the tissues had been polyploidised following Colchicine treatment. Flowers from treated plants exhibited enlarged pollen grains. The mitotic spindle formation was inhibited in chromosomes of colchicine-treated plants observed under the microscope using acetocarmin preparations. Polyploidy cells were observed in roots, stems, pollen, and other tissues.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------