Volume 1, Issue 2, November 2010 Edition
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Exudates Detection Methods in Retinal Images Using Image Processing Techniques[Full-Text] [References]
V.Vijayakumari, N. Suriyanarayanan

Exudates are one of the most common occurring lesions in diabetic retinopathy. Exudates can be identified as areas with hard white or yellowish colors and varying sizes, shapes and locations near the leaking capillaries within the retina. The detection of exudates is the major goal. For this the pre-requisite stage is the detection of optic disc. Once the optic disc is found certain algorithms could be used to detect the presence of exudates. In this paper few methods are used for the detection and the performance of all the methods are compared.

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A Survey of Frequency and Wavelet Domain Digital Watermarking Techniques[ Full-Text ] [References]
Dhruv Arya

Due to improvement in imaging technology and the ease with which digital content can be reproduced and manipulated there is a strong need for a digital copyright mechanism to be put in place. There is a need for authentication of the content as well as the owner. It has become easier for malicious parties to make scalable copies of copyrighted content with any compensation to the content owner. Digital Watermarking is being seen as a potential solution to this problem. Till date many different watermarking schemes have been proposed. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the current techniques that have been developed and their effectiveness.

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FPGA-Based Design of Controller for Sound Fetching from Codec Using Altera DE2 Board[ Full-Text ] [References]
A.R.M. Khan, A.P.Thakare, S.M.Gulhane

The trend in hardware design is towards implementing a complete system, intended for various applications, on a single chip. In order to implement the any speech application in Altera DE2 board a controller is designed to control the CODEC and acquire the digital data from it. This paper presents an experimental design and implementation of the controller using the specification given by the Philips for I2C protocol & DSP mode of operation of CODEC on cyclone-II EP2C35F72C6 FPGA in Altera DE2 board . A controller was designed using VHDL language, which performs the two operations: I2C protocol operation to drive the Wolfson Codec WM8731, sound fetching from Wolfson Codec WM8731 to FPGA in DSP mode. Altera Quartus II 9.0 sp2 web Edition is used for the synthesis of the VHDL logic on FPGA and ModelSim- Altera 6.5b (Quartus II 9.1) Starter Edition is used for the simulation of VHDL logic.

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The Insulin Bio Code - Standard Deviation[Full-Text] [References]
Lutvo Kuri

This paper discusses cyberinformation studies of the amino acid composition of insulin, in particular the identification of scientific terminology that could describe this phenomenon, ie, the study of genetic information, as well as the relationship between the genetic language of proteins and theoretical aspect of this system and cybernetics. The result of this research show that there is a matrix code for insulin. It also shows that the coding system within the amino acidic language gives detailed information, not only on the amino acid "record", but also on its structure, configuration and its various shapes. The issue of the existence of an insulin code and coding of the individual structural elements of this protein are discussed. Answers to the following questions are sought. Does the matrix mechanism for biosynthesis of this protein function within the law of the general theory of information systems, and what is the significance of this for understanding the genetic language of insulin? What is the essence of existence and functioning of this language.

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Fiber Optics Based Parallel Computer Architecture[Full-Text] [References]
A.M V Raghavendra, B.Vuda Sreenivasarao

Computer architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It's a blueprint and functional description of requirements and design implementations for the various parts of a computer, focusing largely on the way by which the central processing unit (CPU) performs internally and accesses addresses in memory. In this paper, we present an overview of parallel computer architectures and discuss the use of fiber optics for clustered or coupled processors.Presently, a number of computer systems take advantage of commercially available fiber optic technology to interconnect multiple processors, thereby achieving improved performance or reliability for a lower cost than if a single large processor had been used. Optical fiber is also used to distribute the elements of a parallel architecture over large distances; these can range from tens of meters to alleviate packaging problems to tens of kilometers for disaster recovery applications.

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Promoting e-Governance through Right to Information: A Case-study of India[Full-Text] [References]
Shalini Singh

Reinventing government has been a dominant theme since 1990s, wherein governments world over are attempting to improve the systems of public service delivery. Rapid strides made in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have facilitated the reinvention of governments and prepared them to serve the needs of a diverse society. In other words, the information age has redefined the fundamentals and transformed the institutions and mechanisms of service delivery forever. The vision is articulation of a desire to transform the way the government functions and the way it relates to its constituents. The concept of electronic governance, popularly called e-governance is derived from this concern.

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Ideals in Group algebra of Heisenberg Group[Full-Text] [References]
M. L. Joshi

In spectral theory ideals are very important. We derive the relation between non commutative and commutative algebra by a transformation which is associated to the semi-direct product of groups. We obtain and classify the ideal in L1 -algebra of Heisenberg group.

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Cryptography [Full-Text] [References]
Aayushi Jangid

In today's world when hacking and computer data robbery and theft are common phenomena, it is very important to protect data and information that is sent over a particular network. And that is where the need for cryptography arises. Cryptography is the science of writing the data or information in a secret code. It involves encryption and decryption. The data that can be understood without any special efforts is called as the plaintext. This data can be converted into the secret code and this process is called as the encryption. This encrypted data is called as the cipher text. This encrypted text can be converted back into the plaintext by a key and this process is called as the decryption. Thus, cryptography consists of both, the encryption and the decryption process.

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