Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2013 Edition
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Biomass and biogas for energy generation: recent development and perspectives[ ]


Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas.

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A Process for Selective Extraction of Cardanol from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) and its Useful applications[ ]


Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) is an useful product of cashew Industries. The cashew plantation and productions are high in the countries such as Africa, Australia and India etc. Cardanol is an important and very useful product of cashes nut shell liquid. This paper deals the extraction process of Cardanol and its industrial applications.

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Study of Effectiveness of Courbon's Theory in the Analysis of T-beam Bridges[ ]


In order to compute the bending moment due to live load in a girder and slab bridge, the distribution of the live loads among the longitudinal girders has to be determined. There are many methods to estimate load distribution. In this project Courbon's method is used to estimate the load distribution as it very popular and widely used because of its simplicity. But the Load factor obtained by Courbon's method is constant for all spans and this indicates the effect of variation of span is not at all considered. Therefore it is proposed to study "effectiveness of Courbon's theory" for various spans of bridge by varying number of longitudinal girders. In this project STAAD software is used in which bridge models are analyzed using grillage method. Finally load factor obtained from grillage analogy are compared with the Courbon's load factors to find out the difference and to obtain a new equation which considers the effect of span. The detailed study is carried out for four lane and six Lane bridges of spans 15m, 20m, 35m, 30m, 35m using IRC class A loading by varing a number of longitudinal girders. Also the study reveals that Courbon's theory gives higher values of bending moments for exterior girder. Therefore the problem of over estimation of load on exterior girder is solved by using Modified Courbon's equation.

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Monitoring and Identifying Abnormal Activities on Computer System[ ]


An intrusion detection system (IDS) is monitoring system which is used to identify abnormal activities in a computer system. Intrusion detection system reports alarms to system operator when it detects any abnormal condition. IDS is working in dynamically changing environment .Traditionally working of IDS depends on security experts which requires manual tuning.Basically an IDS consists of prediction engine which analyses data and outputs the prediction on the data. By seeing predictions system operator is able to know that data record is normal or is affected by any attack. Therefore prediction engine is the heart intrusion detection system.

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Study of Developed Cuk Converter for Renewable Energy Sources[ ]


Fuel cells are one of today's fastest growing renewable energy technologies that have a great promise for distributed generation and electric vehicle application because of their high efficiency, low environmental impact and scalability. This paper compares developed topologies of Dc-Dc cuk converters for renewable energy sources, like fuel cell. The studied topologies have the advantages of clear conversion processes, high efficiency and high output voltage with a small ripple. Also these topologies have simple structure, and fewer switches compare to a simple cuk converter and other classic Dc-Dc converters used in renewable energy applications. To be precise and real, we use Fuel cell stack and simulate this with Matlab simulink.

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Perfect Compression Technique in Combination with Training Algorithm and Wavelets[ ]


Wavelets have emerged as powerful tools for signal coding especially bio-signal processing. Wavelet transform is used to represent the signal to some other time-frequency representation better suited for detecting and removing redundancies The Neural Networks are good alternative for solving many complex problems. In this paper multi-layer neural network has been employed to achieve image compression A novel algorithm for neural network with different techniques is proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that this algorithm outperforms than other coders such as SPIHT EZW STW exits in the literature in terms of simplicity and coding efficiency by successive partition the wavelet coefficients in the space frequency domain and send them using adaptive decimal to binary conversion. Spatial-orientation tree wavelet (STW) and Embedded Zero tree Wavelet (EZW) has been proposed as a method for effective and efficient embedded image coding. This method holds good for au important features like PSNR, MSE, BPP, CR, image size. SPHIT has been successfully used in many applications. (The techniques are compressed by using the performance parameters PSNR, MSE, CR, and BPP.

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Evaluating the Longitudinal and the Transverse Horizontal Strains at the Bottom of Hot Mix Asphalt[ ]


Horizontal strain at the bottom of asphalt concrete due to repeated traffic loads is the most critical parameter in characterizing the fatigue performance of flexible pavement. The study of horizontal strain is thus very important to understand the strain behavior, predict the fatigue life and implement in design and analysis. A total of twelve Horizontal Asphalt Strain Gages (HASGs), six gages oriented in longitudinal direction and the other six sensors oriented in transverse direction are installed at the bottom of the asphalt concrete to measure the horizontal strains in both the longitudinal and the transverse directions for real time traffics. This study investigates these strains using the data from the installed sensors. The strains responses for eighteen-wheel vehicles for a couple of days passing between 4:00 pm to 6:00 pm are considered for the study. Results show that the longitudinal strain has both compressive and tensile components and the transverse strain is totally tensile when the wheel is on the sensor's path and compressive if the wheel totally deviates from the sensor's path. It is also measured that the transverse strain is 1.18 times of the longitudinal strain.

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Investigation of the Parameters Affecting Castor Oil Transesterification Reaction Kinetics for Biodiesel Production[ ]


Kinetic studies are concerned with the quantitative description of how fast chemical reactions take place and factors affecting them. The study is important to a chemist to understand the fundamental aspects of the reaction pathways to achieve the desired product. It enables us to tailor a chemical reaction so as to produce the desired product in a controlled manner. Castor oil was transesterified with methanol using a molar ratio of methanol to oil (6:1) and sodium hydroxide catalyst (1% wt of oil). The product of the reaction is castor methyl ester (CME) and glycerol with diglyceride and monoglyceride as intermediate products. The experiment was set to determine the effect of temperature, stirring rate and residence time on the rate constants and a second order rate law was used. Four different temperatures (35, 45, 55 and 65oC) and four stirring rates (600, 660, 700 and 800 rpm) were used and the reactions were timed. High temperatures (55 and 65oC) were unfavourable for castor transesterification; both temperatures provided yields of 91%. Low temperatures (35 and 45oC) increased rate constants and produced highest yields (98% and 97% respectively). Increasing stirring rate does not favour conversion rates. The optimum reaction time was 60 minutes. Beyond 90 minutes, the reverse reaction was favoured. The close fit of the data indicates that the selected model was adequate. These results agree well with reports from literature.

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Bianchi type-V string dust cosmological models with bulk viscous magnetic field[ ]


We investigate Bianchi Type-V magnetized bulk viscous sting cosmological model in general theory of relativity. To get determinate solutions, coefficient of bulk viscosity ( ) is inversely proportional to the expansion ( ) is considered. The behavior of the model in presence and absence of magnetic field and bulk viscosity are discussed. The physical and geometrical aspects of the model are also investigated.

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Combined Chemical and Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Treatment of PAHs Contaminated Soil[ ]


The ability of chemicals sodium sulphate (Na2SO4), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), and sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) together with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to decontaminate polluted soil leachate was investigated. Results obtained from analysis using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GC/FID) indicated that using 4 g NaNO3 with E. crassipes, 99.4% of acenaphthrene (pH 2.0) was the overall highest degraded PAH while 90.4% (pH 4.0) of acenaphthrene was the overall least degraded PAH using Na2SO4 with E. crassipes. Applying Na3PO4 with E. crassipes was observed to be the most efficient and effective protocol for PAHs degradation at all pH (2.0, 4.0, 6.0) levels studied in-as-much-as pH 6.0 was also noted as the best pH overall for the contaminant removal, most especially when applied using Na3PO4 plus E. crassipes.

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Secure Visual Cryptography[ ]


An effective and secure protection of sensitive information is the primary concerned in Communication systems or network storage systems. Never the less, it is also important for any information process to ensure data is not being tampered with. Encryption methods are one of the popular approaches to ensure the integrity and confidentiality of the protected information. However one of the critical vulnerabilities of encryption techniques is protecting the information from being exposed. To address these reliability problems, especially for large information content items such as secret images (satellite photos or medical images), an image secret sharing schemes (SSS) is a good alternative to remedy these types of vulnerabilities. With the rapid advancement of network technology, multimedia information is transmitted over the Internet conveniently. While using secret images, security issues should be taken into consideration because hackers may utilize weak link over communication network to steal information that they want. To deal with the security problems of secret images, various image secret sharing schemes have been developed.

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QoS Routing For Mobile Ad Hoc Networks[ ]


The main motivation of this work is to enable QOS based routing protocol and compare its performance with existing normal routing protocol in wireless ad hoc networks. Our results will illustrate how QOS enabled routing improves the consumption of resources, at the same time reducing the unnecessary signals, and avoiding all the irrelevant sessions that fail to satisfy QOS requirements. The performance of both the protocols is compared by using the information obtained from link layer. QOS enabled protocol shows a significant improvement in terms of QOS parameters that we applied such as protocol overhead and packet delay. The results thus achieved helped us to analyze our proposed mechanism, and add link layer information in control routing messages. Measuring bandwidth causes both the routing and QOS routing to react slowly to topology changes. Thus we plan to provide the QOS enabled routing service by employing the standard AODV protocol available under NS2.

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A Commentary on Effectiveness of Performance Management[ ]


Performance management is one of the most researched areas in the domain of human resource management. In spite of all the efforts made by the organizations, the effectiveness of performance management system remains a grey area. The research results are inconsistent as far as the critical success factors of PMS are concerned, and therefore cannot be generalized. The present review attempts to identify the critical success factors of effectiveness of performance management system and will report the inconsistencies in the performance management research results.

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FPGA Based Critical Patient Health Monitoring Using Fuzzy Neural Network[ ]


We have designed FPGA based system and trained a fuzzy neural network for early diagnosis of a patient. The system employs a fuzzy interface cascaded with a feed-forward neural network in order to obtain an optimum decision regarding the future pathology physiological state of a patient,. The neurons that are considered in the proposed network are devoid of self-connections instead of commonly used self-connected neurons. The system has been trained and tested with renal data of patients taken at 10 days interval of time. Applying the methodology, the chance of forecasting of critical renal condition of a patient has been predicted accurately, 30 days ahead of actually attaining the critical condition. The system has also been tested for pathology physiological state prediction of patients at multiple time steps ahead and the prediction at the next instant of time stands out to be the most accurate.

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Red Tacton :a Review[ ]


"REDTACTON" gives a whole new meaning to the term "networking".It makes the human body as a communication network. HAN(Human Area Network). Body sensor networks are currently not very intuitive and not very reliable. In the last couple of years body coupled communications has been rediscovered after a period of disinterest.In this paper an overview of recent research into body coupled communications is given. It is a new personal areas network technology which uses weak electric fields on the surface of the human body, as a safe data transmission path, at speeds up to 10 Mbps. RedTacton involves initiating communication with a touch that could result in a wide range of actions in response. It does not rely on electromagnetic or a light wave to transmit data. Technically, it is completely distinct from wireless and infrared. Using a new super-sensitive photonic electric field sensor, it can achieve duplex communication over human body. In this paper we consider about red tacton, its working, principle ,different applications and future development of red tacton.

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Importance Of Policy Upgradation For Lis Professionals[ ]


The mandate for guidance to the LIS specialists are accruing as the knowledge, communication and technology (ICT) approaches to LIS services and users? desires are altering day by day. The Librarians at numerous levels from various educational institutions, R&D committees and Government of India approaches have to assist their contrary categories of users with many kinds of motivations. In order to meet the guidance demands, there are many LIS institutions from Universities, Colleges and from defined institutions like Research & Development Centre and other National Institutes are operating at contrary locations, by balancing consistent courses and compact courses. There are delegations like SYMBIOSIS and other distance universities have altered their way of offering guidance by providing virtual classes, with assignments and exercised classes. That also assists the staffs who continue training to get information about the upcoming manners. The infrastructure at various categories like IT systems with LAN, Internet facility, existent library (along with departmental library) up gradation, architecture of the course, resource establishments like purchase, mentors to the literature, web means, human resource and others are to be updated.

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Chemometric Analysis Of The Effects Of Initial Concentrations, Contact Time And Temperature On The Adsorption Capacity Of Flamboyant Tree (Delonix Regia) Pod[ ]


The effects of initial concentration (Co), contact time (t) and temperature (T) on the adsorption capacity (qe) of biosorbent, flamboyant tree pod on sorbate, methylene blue (MB) dye solutions have been studied using chemometrics. The experimental data were obtained during biosorption experiment in which different concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg / L) of MB dye solutions were adsorbed on the biosorbent at varying temperature (303, 313 and 323 oK) and the residual MB dye solutions were collected after varying contact time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). Line graphical representations, univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and stepwise regression analysis were used to analyse the experimental data. qe was found to increase as Co, t and T increases. Maximum qe was obtained at 323oK and minimum at 303oK at each t for every Co. Maximum qe was obtained at 60 minutes and minimum at 15 minutes at each T for every Co. qe was greatest at 40 mg /L and least at 10 mg /L at every t and T. The difference in qe was significant when examined among different Co or t or T (p < 0.05). Predictive model built for qe taking Co, t and T as covariates using stepwise regression showed that their inclusion significantly and positively contribute to qe (R2 = 0.989) with the strength of their inclusion on qe being Co > t > T. qe is therefore proved to be significantly influenced by Co, t and T.

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Thrust Measurement of Single Tube Valve less Pulse Detonation Engine[ ]


In this paper we present the result of measurement of thrust of single tube valve less Pulse detonation engine. The thrust generated by the repetitive detonation from a 48 mm inner diameter ,60 mm outer diameter and 70 cm length (various lengths of tube varies from 20 cm to 100 cm in the steps of 20 cm interval ) detonation tube was measured using load cell. Schelkin spiral was used an accelerator for the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) phenomenon. Acetylene / Oxygen mixture was used as a combustible fuel air mixture for the pulse detonation engine. The amount of thrust was measured during the test reaching up to 280N. The test was done for single shot detonation only.

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Performance analysis of third order nonlinearities in optical communication system[ ]


Nonlinear effects play a major role in optical fiber with respect to transmission capacity and performance of the system. This degrades the system performance in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)systems, as many closely spaced channels propagate simultaneously, resulting in high optical intensities. Optical nonlinearities in fibers give rise to wealth of new effects. These new effects can be detrimental for optical communications, especially in WDM systems, where they can result in pulse distortion reffered as self phase modulation (SPM), cross phase modulation (XPM), and crosstalk between channels known as XPM, four wave mixing(FWM). The paper simulates two channel WDM optical communication systems in single mode fiber over long haul of 100 km to investigate the effect of SPM, XPM and FWM. The comparison of nonlinearities is performed using eye pattern with respect to bit error rate & Q factor. It is observed that in FWM effect, high improvement of Q factor is seen at the expense of eye opening, which is due to generation of new signal at a cost of power. It is concluded that FWM nonlinear effect is more advantageous and effective as compared to SPM and XPM.

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Opportunities and Challenges of Muslim Intellectual[ ]


The aims of writing this article is to explain the intellectual challenges of Muslims in building human civilization. The method of analysis used is study of literature and juxtaposed with actual phenomena that happen to people. The analysis and discussion showed that the intellectual is an important part of the planners and executors concept that religious values is a blessing for the entire universe.

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Study of the Genotoxic and Pathological effects of the Domestic Sewage and Agriculture Waste in Blood of the Fish Labeo rohita Applying Micronucleus Assy.[ ]


The present study is to determine the genotoxic and pathological effects of domestic sewage and agriculture waste on the blood parameters of the fish Labeo rohita. For this micronucleus assy were applied. In these studies, I have found formation of micronuclei, binuceated cells, lobed nucleus, as genotoxic effects. Pathological effects are development of many neutrophils, formation of thrombocytes, highly increased number of lymphocytes, and development of macrophages.

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Stochastic Linear Programming[ ]


Operations Research has three major methods called Mathematical Programming Techniques, Stochastic Process Techniques and Statistical Methods. Mathematical Programming plays a vital role among them. This programming has too many branches. Stochastic Programming is one of these branches. Non-linear programming algorithms are classified into two algorithms. They are unconstrained and constrained nonlinear algorithms. In general, there is no algorithm for handling nonlinear models, mainly because of the irregular behaviour of the nonlinear functions. Perhaps the most general result applicable to the problem is the Kuhn Tucker conditions. In constrained non-linear algorithms, stochastic programming techniques solve the non-linear problem by dealing with one or more linear problems that are extracted from the original program. This paper deals with basic concepts in stochastic linear programming. There are two techniques viz. two stage programming and chance constrained programming with an example which is solved in a computer in the Pascal Language.

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Rapid Analytical and Standardization method development for the Proprietary Ayurvedic and Siddha drug formulations[ ]


The present investigation is aimed to forward a new analytical tool for the analysis Ayurvedic and Siddha formulation ( which prepared as per the respective Formulary) to study the quick review of the quality as well as assessment of the efficacy by analyzing the property of the different Polar, Medium Polar and Non Polar constituents which will facilitate to identify the efficacy of the formulation using HPTLC-FTIR / HPTLC -MS chromatographic finger prints as a tool to standardize the individual spots in three polar solvents. This will be sufficient to identify a characteristic substance or mixture of substances present in chromatographic fingerprint to ensure consistent quality of the product.

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Isolation, Characterization of Halotolerant bacteria and its biotechnological potentials[ ]


Marine microbes represent a potential source for commercially important bioactive compounds and their bioremediation capabilities are also remarkable. Hence for the present study the bacterial strains were isolated from salt enriched soils which were collected from the natural saline habitats from Bhitarkanika coastal region of Orissa, India. The phenotypic characters of the isolates conclusively proved that isolates S1-4 belongs to Bacillus spp. and S5 belongs to Micrococcus luteus and S6 could not be identified, it would be a new isolate, which changed their shape to spherical forms when grown in NaCl which is a halotolerant character. The bacteria isolates (S 1-4) produced gummy (except S1) colonies of different shape, size margin and elevation. Bacterias were motile except S5, aerobic, gram +ve except S6, spherical and elliptical spores forming rods and cocci of (2.26 - 4.25) x (0.70-0.85) µm size range and catalase (+)ve. However, the organisms differed in some physiological and biochemical characters among themselves but the less distinguishing characters like oxidase, anaerobic (microaerobic) growth, acid and no gas formation from different sugars, protease, amylase, lipase, chitanse, NO3 reductase production, fermentation of organic carbon sources, antibiotic sensitivity etc. Growth kinetics of the organisms (S1-3) in NB and (S4-6) in HPM showed wide variation having lag phase for 4-12 hours and exponential phases up to about 5-30 hours based on turbidity measurements. Stationary phases of the organisms were variable and results did not show typical declining trend, rather became unstable and the organisms attained the turbidity of about 0.38-0.45. The results obtained from the studies revealed that, the isolates are moderately halotolerant organisms. These organism could be exploited directly or transgenic microbes for environment safety for industrial waste treatment for degradation of toxic compound under saline conditions, leather, food, enzyme and polymer industries for the production of different stress compatible solutes, Oil fields, saline agricultural fields and transgenic plants for stress tolerance and also several other potential applications.

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Gross Beta Radioactivity in Underground Drinking Water from Permanent Site of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto Nigeria[ ]


The conditions to measure the gross beta radioactivity in water samples from the permanent site of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto in Sokoto State Nigeria were established. The gross beta radioactivity of water samples were measured using proportional gas counter. The result show that the gross beta radioactivity in most samples is higher than the maximum contaminant level of 1.0Bq/L set by WHO. The range of the measured activity was found to be between 0.300Bq/L to as high as 78.57Bq/L with a geometric mean of 4.0034Bq/L. The gross beta effective dose was found to be 1.046 mSv/yr.

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