Volume 15, Issue 4, April 2024 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication


Publication for Volume 15, Issue 4, April 2024 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication


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To Evaluate the Role of Genetic Marker rs12979860 for Hepatitis C Virus Therapy Outcomes []


Based on the world health organization reports, about 3% of the world population and more than 10% of the Pakistani population is infected with the Hepatitis C virus which is a major cause of chronic viral Hepatitis. Approximately 50-90% of Hepatitis C virus-infected individuals develop chronic infection, which is associated with variable degrees of hepatic inflammation, fibrosis progression, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the absence of any approved vaccine for the Hepatitis C virus, the widely used treatment options opted to cure Hepatitis C virus infection have variable response rates for different genotypes and the duration of treatment is also genotype-dependent. Hence, the ability to predict treatment outcomes is an important consideration in the management of chronic Hepatitis C virus infection, as the approach to treatment has become more individualized to achieve optimal tolerant-ability, duration of therapy, and virological response. The host genetic factors may influence response to antiviral therapy in patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus infection. A promoter single nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860 which is 3181 bp upstream of the Interleukin 28B gene was strongly associated with the spontaneous clearance of HCV and is associated with a twofold change in response to treatment with PEGylated Interferon alpha or Ribavirin. Currently, there is no approved vaccine for the treatment of HCV and the most common therapeutic drug was PEGylated interferon (PEG-IFN) in combination with Ribavirin till 2013. After, 2013 food and drug administration approved a new therapeutic drug Sofosbuvir in combination with PEGylated interferon or Ribavirin. The study was comprised of interpreting the presence of single nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860 near the Interleukin 28B gene and analyzing the association of this genetic variation with the response to direct-acting antiviral therapy. The twenty patients of genotype 3a who were enrolled in this study were categorized into two treatment types Interferon plus Ribavirin therapy and Sofosbuvir plus Ribavirin therapy. Among the 20 patients in this study, there were nine females (45%) and 11 males (55%). The DNA from the blood of these twenty individuals was extracted and the PCR-RFLP was done. The PCR-RFLP results showed that seven patients showed the C/C and C/T SNP. Five of them showed the C/C SNP and two of them showed the C/T SNP while none of them showed T/T SNP and others were not identified. The C/C SNP was frequent having 71.42% higher frequency than the C/T genotype whose percentage count is 28.57% however no genotype with T/T is identified. The frequency of the C/C allele remained higher in the control group as well which is 66.66% for the C/C allele and for C/T it is 33.33%. Also, the C/C genotype patients showed a reduction in viral loads at the end of the six months of the treatment of Sofosbuvir plus Ribavirin therapy. Thus C/C allele is the dominant allele and it showed a good response with Sofosbuvir plus Ribavirin treatment. As C/C has a better response so, patients will achieve SVR earlier as compared to people having C/T and T/T. Knowing the fact that patients are having C/T and T/T in them better exogenous treatment strategies can be used for them.


Report of case from Saudi Arabia with Infantile systemic hyalinosis suspected initially as Spinal muscular atrophy []


We present a case of infantile systemic hyalinosis (ISH) in a 5-month-old male child born to consanguineous parents via in vitro fertilization (IVF). The child exhibited symptoms such as fever, diarrhea, abdominal distension, and joint contractures, prompting hospital admission. Genetic testing revealed homozygous deletion of exons 7 and 8 in the SMN1 gene, confirming spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Notably, a previous child in the family was diagnosed with SMA type 1. This case underscores the rarity of ISH in Saudi Arabia and highlights the challenges of managing rare genetic disorders in pediatric patients.


Effects of Temperature and Volume Fractions on the Thermophysical properties of Periwinkle Shell Nanofluid. []


In this study, the top-down approach was used to synthesize nanoparticles from periwinkle shell nanoparticles using a ball-milling machine and universal sieving machine. The thermophysical properties investigated in this study are Ph and electrical conductivity. Two step method was used to produce the periwinkle shell bio material nanofluid. The Periwinkle shell nanoparticles with an average size of 100 nm were dispersed in an ethylene glycol (EG)/deionized water (50:50) base fluid up to 1.5% of the volume fraction. The Ph and electrical conductivity of Periwinkle shell nanoparticle–deionised water and EG (50:50) were investigated for temperature ranging from 20 to 700C. The results showed that the pH and the electrical conductivity increased as the volume fraction of the Periwinkle shell nanoparticle was increased from 0.3 to 1.5%. However, the pH decreased with an increase in the temperature while the electrical conductivity increased with an increase in the volume fraction


Public Attitudes Toward Driver Behavior on Nigerian Roads []


As traffic accidents increase, so does that of injured persons, making this a serious public health problem that needs to be addressed immediately. Addressing this crisis is especially important for developing countries. To address this overwhelming challenge, factors affecting driving behavior need to be investigated in this present study. This present research investigates these objectives: one is to assess people’s perceptions when it comes to driver behavior in selected states of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory, and the other focuses on pinpointing specific driver behaviors that contribute to crashes. This research employed a cross-sectional design. A purposive sampling method was used to select the study area, and data collection involved distributing questionnaires to 80 (2000) respondents in all selected states, including the FCT. Participants' comments on their view of driving behavior showed that 38.8% of drivers were generally reckless, 27.5% of drivers were impatient, 10% of drivers were indecent, and 2.5% of drivers were violent. Participants (76.3%) attributed this behavior primarily to driver aggression. The findings also revealed anger as a significant factor influencing driver behavior, suggesting a link between emotions and traffic accidents. Participants identified additional contributors to driver attitude, including impatience, stress, desperation, lack of discipline, irritability, and incompetence in general. To change behavior in the right direction, it is recommended that interventions be developed aimed at improving emotional control. Drivers and technicians can be provided with regular emotional control training within the scope of the driver's license renewal program.


Public Attitudes Toward Driver Behavior on Nigerian Roads []


As traffic accidents increase, so does that of injured persons, making this a serious public health problem that needs to be addressed immediately. Addressing this crisis is especially important for developing countries. To address this overwhelming challenge, factors affecting driving behavior need to be investigated in this present study. This present research investigates these objectives: one is to assess people’s perceptions when it comes to driver behavior in selected states of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory, and the other focuses on pinpointing specific driver behaviors that contribute to crashes. This research employed a cross-sectional design. A purposive sampling method was used to select the study area, and data collection involved distributing questionnaires to 80 (2000) respondents in all selected states, including the FCT. Participants' comments on their view of driving behavior showed that 38.8% of drivers were generally reckless, 27.5% of drivers were impatient, 10% of drivers were indecent, and 2.5% of drivers were violent. Participants (76.3%) attributed this behavior primarily to driver aggression. The findings also revealed anger as a significant factor influencing driver behavior, suggesting a link between emotions and traffic accidents. Participants identified additional contributors to driver attitude, including impatience, stress, desperation, lack of discipline, irritability, and incompetence in general. To change behavior in the right direction, it is recommended that interventions be developed aimed at improving emotional control. Drivers and technicians can be provided with regular emotional control training within the scope of the driver's license renewal program.


Appraisal of Cycling and Walking as an Alternative to Motorized Trips in FCT Abuja Nigeria []


Non-motorized transport modes are those modes that form the urban transport system. The existence and disparity in land use increase the use of non-motorized forms of transport, which is mostly the case in urban areas coupled with scattered opportunities. This research aimed to determine the effect of the pathways used by people on foot or bikes instead of cars in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. Data collection was achieved through a questionnaire (200) and an interview administered; convenience sampling was used in selecting the respondent using the study area. The results of the investigation provided me with the information that 93.3% of respondents are using bikes, the youth with plenty of energy to walk or to cycle made up the bulk of the existing population, 53.3% were trekking in the morning, 52.2% (they) trekked to tone their muscles, and 53% claimed to do so as an alternative for motorized trips. The study recommends that land-use planners incorporate the use of motorized spaces or walkways.


Understanding Traffic Control Devices by Urban Drivers in Lagos Nigeria []


Traffic devices provide road users with information and an environment that helps control and regulate traffic by giving them all the necessary conditions to create safety. The paper will shed light on how traffic control devices play the role of a safety measure in managing traffic issues with accident occurrences. The study aimed to explore the degree of understanding of traffic signal systems by drivers in the city of Lagos. It examines how well drivers in Lagos understand traffic signal systems, considering their demographic components (age, gender, educational level, marital status, etc.). It was found that from the total 32 symbols used in traffic, 8 warning, 10 regulating, and 6 informant sign symbols, the focus of the examination was on five specific road markings and three types of traffic signals. The survey revealed limited understanding among the drivers about the traffic signaling devices. This report analyzes the overall average percentage of drivers who correctly interpreted and responded to the studied traffic control devices, which was 64.5%. According to research, the level of a person’s education plays a very important role in how he or she uses traffic devices. Gender and age do not play any role here, whether they understand this. Statistically speaking, the analysis of confidence levels in a 5% range of significance reveals that education is a prerequisite to comprehending traffic control devices.


Assessment of Traffic Volume in Some Selected States in Nigeria Using Electronic Metro Counter []


The ability to estimate traffic flow is the primary measure that comes with traffic planning and management at the outset of transport planning. In this regard, a tried effort has been put up to study the volume of traffic along some important roads of states like Kogi, Oyo, Niger, Nasarawa, Ondo, Lagos, Abuja, Jos, Cross River, Delta, Kaduna, and Taraba to know the present state of the traffic flow conditions in the states. The encounter of traffic flow as such is strongly related to traffic composition, which is the most significant element of transportation security and effectiveness complexity, bringing together people, passengers, and goods. The following factors in traffic flow must be considered: speed, volume, and capacity. It poses the challenge of fronting and relating to such terms as traffic volume, which is the number of automobiles passing a certain stretch of road or lane in time, to the traffic of such a huge diversity of vehicles that are not similar by dynamic and static characteristics. Purposely, traffic volume studies are needed as they allow planners to devise sound traffic plans and traffic management. They are used in anticipation of when roadworks will be needed. However, the most notable problem occurs during peak passenger flow when roads experience overcrowding. The number of vehicles that encountered the location was measured using an electronic road counter machine.


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Weakly Connected k-Fair Domination in Graphs []


In a connected graph G=(V(G),E(G)), a dominating set D⊆V(G) is a weakly connected k-fair dominating set (kwfd-set) in G if the weakly induced subgraph of D is connected and |N_G (u)∩D|=k for every u∈V(G)∖D for some integer k≥1. The weakly connected k-fair domination number of G, denoted by γ_kwfd (G) is the minimum cardinality of a weakly connected k- fair dominating set. In this paper, we study the weakly connected k- fair domination numbers of some families of graphs such as the complete graphs (K_n), paths 〖(P〗_n) , cycles (C_n ), helm graphs 〖(H〗_n) and complete bipartite graphs (K_(m,n)). We also characterize the weakly connected k- fair dominating sets in join K_1+H, and the vertex corona G∘H. Moreover, sufficient conditions for weakly connected k-fair dominating sets of edge corona G⋄H of graphs are obtained.


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Effect of Modulation Index on Switched Capacitor Based Inverter using PDD PWM []


Power electronics semiconductor devices that are produces a sinusoidal voltage on many levels is called a multilevel inverter. They generate output that is more pristine and has lower harmonic distortion. The number of Switched Capacitor (SC) cells in this architecture determines the number of output levels, based on switched capacitor technology. By adjusting the capacitors in series and parallel, a lower voltage can be converted to a higher output. The circuit employs fewer components than a conventional switched capacitor multilevel inverter with the same architecture. Using Phase Delayed Disposition (PDD) PWM, inverter switching pulses are produced. Effect of frequency and amplitude modulation index are also examined in this paper in PWM techniques. At different modulation indices, the output voltage, Crest Factor, and %THD are assessed. The software used for the simulations is SIMULINK/MATLAB. The control mechanism is a crucial part of the circuit and is employed in conjunction with the PIC16F877A microcontroller to generate switching signals.


Effect of Modulation Index on Switched Capacitor Based Inverter using PDD PWM []


Power electronics semiconductor devices that are produces a sinusoidal voltage on many levels is called a multilevel inverter. They generate output that is more pristine and has lower harmonic distortion. The number of Switched Capacitor (SC) cells in this architecture determines the number of output levels, based on switched capacitor technology. By adjusting the capacitors in series and parallel, a lower voltage can be converted to a higher output. The circuit employs fewer components than a conventional switched capacitor multilevel inverter with the same architecture. Using Phase Delayed Disposition (PDD) PWM, inverter switching pulses are produced. Effect of frequency and amplitude modulation index are also examined in this paper in PWM techniques. At different modulation indices, the output voltage, Crest Factor, and %THD are assessed. The software used for the simulations is SIMULINK/MATLAB. The control mechanism is a crucial part of the circuit and is employed in conjunction with the PIC16F877A microcontroller to generate switching signals.


EFFECT OF Moringa oleifera AND Leucaena leucocephala BIOMASS ON THE GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava) []


Tree crop farming in Ghana is constrained with low soil fertility, increasing cost and unavailability of inorganic fertilizers, and excessive soil erosion leading to low fruit production coupled fruit growers’ inability to meet the demands of fruit juice processing industries in Ghana. This study was conducted at the Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources (FRNR) Research Farm, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana to assess the effect of M. oleifera and L. leucocephala on the germination and early growth performance of guava. Using polypots, the study had four treatments in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a control (no biomass), 4000 kg/ha equivalent of M. oleifera, 5000 kg/ha equivalent of L. leucocephala, and a mixture of 2000 kg/ha and 2500 kg/ha equivalent of M. oleifera and L. leucocephala respectively. Findings from the study revealed that, M. oleifera and L. leucocephala mixture recorded the highest germination, height, diameter, and number of leaves with mean values of 90 %, 6.80 cm, 1.43 mm and 13 respectively compared to the control. The control treatment enhanced germination compared to sole M. oleifera and L. leucocephala treatments but performed poorly morphologically. The study concluded that, the combination of M. oleifera and L. leucocephala leaf biomass significantly stimulated germination, morphological growth of guava seedlings, and improved soil properties compared to sole M. oleifera and L. leucocephala leaf biomass treatments. The study recommends the combination of M. oleifera and L. leucocephala should be applied to soils to improve the early morphological growth in guava and possibly other tree crops. Further research should be carried out on varying combinations of the two leaf biomasses to determine the optimum quantity or combination for best results.


Diabetes Prediction Using Machine Learning Algorithm []


Diabetes is a major public health concern, demanding accurate early warning systems for efficient care. This study diagnoses diabetes using the PIMA Indian database, which includes medical predictor variables as well as lifestyle factors. Five ML algorithms—support vector machine, random forest, logistic regression, decision tree, and K-nearest neighbors—are rigorously evaluated for predictive usefulness using criteria such as accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate the Random Forest (RF) algorithm's extraordinary performance, with a staggering 98% accuracy in diabetes prediction. This study highlights the transformative potential of machine learning in illness management by providing a data-driven method for identifying at-risk patients and implementing preventative actions. The findings add significant insights to the field of diabetes prediction, emphasizing the importance of machine learning in increasing early identification and proactive healthcare measures.


Histopathological Correlation of Breast Carcinoma with Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BIRAD)-King Fahad Medical City-Riyadh City. []


Abstract Background: In Saudi Arabia, breast cancer (BC) affects women more than any other type of cancer. Breast lesions are evaluated from three different perspectives (clinical, radiographic, and histopathological) in a process called "triple assessment." The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) Classification by correlation the histopathology results of patients brought to King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh City، Saudi Arabia, for screening or complaining of any breast manifestation like: breast lump, breast pain, or nipple discharge with the BI-RADS System. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study done at single facility in 2021 among 360 women underwent radiological examination with BI-RADS categories 3, 4 and 5 followed by histopathological examination. Results: Brest malignancy was significantly higher among women above 50 years, those who had a family history of breast cancer and those who were at menopause (p<0.05). The most common malignant breast lesion was invasive ductal carcinoma (70.4%). The PPV for BI-RADS category five lesions malignant was 92.7%, whereas the NPV of BI-RADS Category 3 lesions for malignancy was 78.4%. The sensitivity and specificity for the BIRDS system were found to be 80.25% and 88.03%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of this research, it can be concluded that BIRAD System is an extremely valuable tool, particularly because of its noninvasive nature, which results in less invasive and faster reporting. However, the histopathological study of tissue samples remains the gold standard and should always be re-established prior to any surgical intervention.


Effect of Trace Contaminants on the Process of Crimped Electrical Contacts []


This paper examines the effects of contaminants on the process of crimped electrical contacts focusing on four common contaminants, grease, light oil, terminal lubrication, and natural oil (human sebum). In addition, this study investigates how the presence of certain trace contaminants affects the crimping process, including the ability to detect errors with a forced-based crimp monitoring system. Large and small variants of two contact types (Splice and F-Crimp) were used for the crimp testing, in which the effects on peak crimp force, headroom and relative dispersion were studied. To document the amount of contaminant present, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were used to analyze the samples. The results of this study showed that the contaminants influence the crimping process and the coefficient of friction. A strong linear correlation was observed between crimp force and coefficient of friction. Also, the experimental results showed that all the contaminants cause a statistically significant decrease in peak crimp force for each of the terminals. However, the magnitude of the decrease was much more severe for the Splice terminals.


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Updates on Malware Detection and Analysis []


This paper provides an overview of recent updates and advancements in the field of malware detection and analysis. With the growing threat of malware to computer systems and networks, detecting and analyzing malware has become critical to prevent cyber-attacks. The sophistication of malware has increased over the years, making it more challenging to detect and analyze. Researchers and cybersecurity professionals are constantly exploring new techniques and approaches to address this challenge. The paper begins with a definition of malware detection and analysis and highlights the importance of these techniques in today's cybersecurity landscape. It then discusses various malware detection and analysis approaches, including the traditional signature-based detection, and modern approaches such as behavior-based detection, machine learning-based detection, and cloud-based detection. The paper also explores the challenges associated with detecting and analyzing malware and proposes solutions to overcome them. The aim of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent updates on malware detection and analysis and to serve as a reference for researchers and professionals in the field of cybersecurity.


KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF NURSES REGARDING HIV/AIDS RELATED STIGMA AND DISCRIMINATION REDUCTION AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITALS OF FAISALABAD []


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), is one of the most challenging health issues worldwide. Stigma and discrimination related to HIV/AIDS causes frightening away from seeking care and undermining preventive efforts by limiting access and service utilization thereby, leading to poor health outcomes of people either living with or affected by HIV/AIDS. The objective of this study was to assess the nurses’ knowledge; attitude and practices of strategies for reducing HIV related stigma and discrimination at tertiary care hospitals of Faisalabad. A descriptive, crossectional study was conducted at two public sector tertiary care hospitals of Faisalabad. The duration of study was 4 months from 1st February to 30th May, 2022 and target population was the nurses caring for HIV/AIDS patients. Sample Size was 384 calculated with standard formula given for descriptive studies. Data was collected through self-structured questionnaire and analyzed on SSPS software version 20.Among total of 384 participants, all were females. Majority (54.4%) of the participants did not receive previous training regarding prevention of HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination. Based on the total knowledge scores, majority (68.5%) nurses had satisfactory knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination reduction. Majority (53.6%) had low discriminatory attitude towards people affected. With regards to their practice of strategies for reducing HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination, majority (73%) had good practice. The overall results concluded that nurses have enough knowledge, low discriminatory attitudes and good practices regarding HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination reduction. Keywords: Attitude, Discrimination, Knowledge, Nurses, Practice, and Stigma.




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