IJSER Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2012 Edition
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ICET2012 Conference Papers [on Page 1]

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A Nonlinear Fuzzy PID Controller via Algebraic Product AND - Bounded Sum OR - Algebraic Product Inference[Full-Text[References]
B. M. Mohan, NeethuKuruvilla

This paper reveals a mathematical model of the simplest fuzzy PID controller which employs two fuzzy sets (negative and positive) on each of the three input variables (displacement, velocity and acceleration) and four fuzzy sets (-2, -1, +1, +2) on the output variable (incremental control). L-type, G-type and ??-type membership functions are considered in fuzzification process of input and output variables. Controller modeling is done via algebraic product AND operator-bounded sum OR operator-algebraic product inference method-Center of Sums defuzzificatiion process combination. The model obtained in this manner, turns out to be nonlinear, is analysed finally.

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A Novel Topology for Design and Development of Wireless Electro-oculogram Biopotential Amplifer[Full-Text[References]
P. Swami, T. Gandhi, S.S. Ray, S. Anand

This paper illustrates a novel topology for the conditioning of electro-oculogram signals. The system is composed of a second order amplification chain and assures stability, speed and accuracy. The proposed configuration has been developed in order to make signal acquisition of biological signals such as electro-oculogram simpler and robust with low cost. The filters between the pre-amplification and the amplification stages eliminate the out-of-band frequencies before amplification. This reduces the possibility of interferences from high frequency noises and maximizes the dynamic power consumption. The presented topology holds clinical and rehabilitative control applications.

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A Proposed technique for Brain MRI Using Region Based Segmentation[Full-Text[References]
Harman Kataria, Alka Jindal

The paper presents an efficient brain MRI region based segmentation technique that accurately classifies the abnormal tissue from normal tissue. All methods are used for noisy and blurred images and perform segmentation in improved way. A comparison of three different brain MRI segmentation methods, viz., improved level segmentation method, local region based active contour and variational level set formulation method along with their comparison and their results.These methods are applied on both 2d as well as 3d images

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A Report on Compilation Techniques for Short-Vector Instructions[Full-Text[References]
Ankita Joshi, Aditya Singh, K.S.Pandey

Today Multimedia extensions are prevalent in embedded systems and in general-purpose designs. Short-vector instructions are common in these extensions. This paper presents some approaches for compilation of these instructions. These approaches differ in their work. Vectorization purely depends on the architecture and the software pipelining is compiler based technique which exploits ILP. Selective vectorization is a mixture of above two techniques and results in better resource utilization.

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An Optimal Soft Computing Based AHP-QFD Model Using Goal Programming for Decision Support System[Full-Text[References]
Tuli Bakshi, B. Sarkar, S. K. Sanyal

In this paper the current researchers address the quantitative methodology for determining possible implement able optimal solution to project selection problem. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of goal programming as an aid of decision making tool in project selection. The model outputs most advantageous projects to pursue with limited resource keeping in mind multiple constraints to attend the multiple objectives. Here in this paper Quality Function Deployment (QFD) has been used in combination with AHP under fuzziness to select the rank of the project as per customer's requirement primarily. Then the GP model has been considered determines which program to pursue with an effort to maximize the profit under limited budget. The authors have proposed this integrated framework which will help the manager or appropriate decision making authorities to take proper project not only from economic point of view but also can identify technical requirements followed by customer's requirements.

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Avert E-mail Hacking System with Face Recognition[Full-Text[References]
Infant Vinoth .T, Rosario D'souza .B, T.Sudalai Muthu, M. Roberts Masillamani

Now-a-days E-mail system acts as a major role in industry, business, educational institutes etc. Even though many encryption software's and methods trying to prevent the hacking, but still there are possibilities of hacking the user information. This paper tells or explores the new security measures to mail system with the help of Biometric concept called Face Recognition. Face recognition is one of the largely elastic systems. It works effective than others even when the subject or person is unaware of being scanned. It also illustrate assure as a way to search through a lot of people who spent only seconds in front of a scanner. DSCP Algorithm (Depth Surface Closest Point) with e-mail system solves the previous problem and provides effective accuracy. Avert e-mail hacking system shields the user information from hackers, unauthorized users and other hacking techniques so user information will be safe.

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Biodiesel Production and its Emissions and Performance: A Review[Full-Text[References]
Ambarish Datta and Bijan Kumar Mandal

This paper presents a brief review on the current status of biodiesel production and its performance and emission characteristics as compression ignition engine fuel. This study is based on the reports on biodiesel fuel published in the current literature by different researchers. Biodiesel can be produced from crude vegetable oil, non-edible oil, waste frying oil, animal tallow and also from algae by a chemical process called transesterification. Biodiesel is also called methyl or ethyl ester of the corresponding feedstocks from which it has been produced. Biodiesel is completely miscible with diesel oil, thus allowing the use of blends of petro-diesel and biodiesel in any percentage. Presently, biodiesel is blended with mineral diesel and used as fuel. Biodiesel fueled CI engines perform more or less in the same way as that fueled with the mineral fuel. Exhaust emissions are significantly improved due the use of biodiesel or blends of biodiesel and mineral diesel

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Cloud Data Security while using Third Party Auditor[Full-Text[References]
Abhishek Mohta and Lalit Kumar Awasthi

The Cloud is a plateform where all users not only store their data but also used the software and services provided by Cloud Service Provider (CSP). The service provided by the cloud is very economical. The user pay only for what he used.This is a platform where data owner remotely store their data in the cloud to enjoy the high quality applications and services. The user can access the data, use the data and store the data. In a Corporate world there are large number of client who accessing their data and modifying a data. In Cloud, application software and services are move to the centralized large data center and management of this data and services may not be trustworthy. To manage this data we use third party auditor (TPA).It will check the reliabilty of data but it increases the data integrity risk of data owner. Since TPA not only read the data but also he can modify the data, therefore a mechanism should be provided who solved this problem. We first examine the problem and new potential security scheme used to solve this problem. Our algorithm encrypt the content of file at user level which ensure the data owner and client that there data are intact. Side by side it also preserves the data dynamics and consistency of n number of client and server

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Comb Line Notch Filter Design on Silicon Coplanar Transmission Line [Full-Text[References]
Buddhadev Pradhan, Bhaskar Gupta

A comb line notch filter is presented, in which two quarter wave length resonators are placed face to face on the signal line of a CPW. The CPW is designed on silicon substrate enabling compatibility with planar IC technology. The comb line notch filter rejection frequency is 12.75GHz, where the return loss -1.7dB and insertion loss is -3.8dB.This proposed structure is simulated using ANSOFT HFSS v13.

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Convergence of Technologies[Full-Text[References]
Anuroop Banerjee

Science has to go through a lot of ordeals and perseverance. The scientific inventions lead to economic viability and dominance in myriad arenas. The growth of technology has been nonlinear. It acquires newer zeniths with admirable surges from time to time that led technology flow through various meandering avenues and the imminent prognosis unveils the renaissance in technology is knocking at our doorsteps. The tech-utopians consider that the convergence of Nanotechnology, biotechnology, Information Technology, electronics, aerospace and cognitive sciences would possibly intermingle resulting in the most anticipated realignment of interdisciplinary boundaries. Convergence of technology will aggravate the fiefdoms of sciences and may re-define the realm of technology; the 'insurmountable' will perhaps turn into 'accolades' in the forthcoming years, who knows? Communication Technology has already merged with the embellished Information technology leading to Information Communication and Technology. With the advent of Nanotechnology, the privileges for the confluence of Bio-Nanotech-IT seem pre-emptive, which might give birth to Nano Robots. In the future, the fields of micro electronics, material sciences and electronics may give way to integrated Silicon electronics and photonics. The infusion of ICT with Biotechnology can lead to the development of Intelligent Biosciences which might cause 'elixirs' in the lives of human beings. Probabilities of revolutions in the aerospace industry would suffice with the convergence of the ICT, Nanotechnology and aerospace. Convergence of technologies may have several hind sides like all other developments in the technical arena. Such renaissances in the fields of technology will help moping out the gnawing plague that causes jitters and crisis of human life, ameliorate the incidences of chances of inter planetary transportation with the devising of highly reliable and intelligent aerospace systems, induce cost effectiveness in the technical parlances and thus cause multitude of improvements humans can contemplate only in their dreams. Convergence of technology is a magical wand which can enforce societal transformation for the better.

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Coordinated Voltage Control with Reactive Power of the Distributed Generators using Genetic Algorithm[Full-Text[References]
R.Shivarudraswamy, D, N.Gaonkar

This paper presents a genetic algorithm-based method to determine coordinated voltage control in the unbalanced distribution radial system distributed generators. The coordinated voltage control has been done with DGs reactive power control and OLTC operation. The result indicates that involving DGs reactive powers in the voltage control will result in a reduction of number of OLTC operations and the reduction of the voltage level in the distribution system. Further, the results also indicate that the from the coordinated voltage control, the losses can be decreased.

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Cryopreservation of Human Sperm: Effect of Cooling Rate on Intracellular Ice Formation[Full-Text[References]
D.Devismita, A.Kumar, R.KrishnaKumar

The effect of cooling rate on the intracellular ice formation for human spermatozoa have been studied and a correlation formula is established in this study. It is found that after a certain cooling rate, termed as optimal cooling rate in this study, the volume of intracellular ice increases exponentially with increase in the cooling rate. The cellular response of human sperm cells to different cooling rates, varying between 5°C/min and 300°C/min, is studied using the diffusion limited transport model. The membrane permeability parameters are taken from the published literature. For a cooling rate lower than the optimal value, almost all intracellular water flows out to the extracellular compartment through the cell membrane leaving behind only the osmotically inactive cell volume inside the cell. For the calculation of the amount of intracellular ice formation, it has been assumed that the amount of water trapped inside the human sperm at -19°C will finally form intracellular ice with sufficient super-cooling

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Design and Analysis of Monolithic Microgripper[Full-Text[References]
R.Bharanidaran, T.Ramesh

Precision industries require high precision and controlled motion of microgripper. For this purpose compliant mechanism based monolithic microgrippers are used. In this study, a monolithic microgripper is designed adopting topological optimization method. MATLab code has been developed to derive the optimized shape of the monolithic microgripper. Post optimization process was carried out to overcome the manufacturing difficulties. Thickness of the microgripper was then designed using finite element method (FEM) to avoid out of plane sagging caused by the self-weight of the microgripper. The structural analysis using FEM was performed to obtain the Geometrical Advantage (GA) of the design. The proposed design of the microgripper proves that the out of plane motion is completely controlled as the thickness of the gripper is optimized and provides a better GA compared to the earlier designs found in the literature. This kind of design may be helpful to the designers who expect the gripping devices to be used in the situation where a minimum out of plane motion is required.

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Design and Simulation of a Novel Self Supported Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) for Power Quality Improvement[Full-Text[References]
Himadri Ghosh, Pradip Kumar Saha, Goutam Kumar Panda

Power quality is one of the major concerns in the present era. The problem of voltage sags and swells and its major impact on sensitive loads are well known. To solve this problem, custom power devices are used. One of those devices is the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), which is one of the most efficient and effective modern custom power devices used in power distribution networks. A new control algorithm for the DVR is proposed in this paper to regulate the load terminal voltage during sag, swell in the voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC).

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Design and Analysis of MEMS Based Microheater Array on SOI Wafer for Low Power Gas Sensor Applications[Full-Text[References]
Avigyan Datta Gupta,Chirashree Roy Chaudhuri

In this paper a design and analysis of an array of 100nm thin film MEMS based microheater on SOI wafer is presented. The microheater is constructed on a SOI wafer where temperature rise of 2000C is achieved with minimum power consumption of 20mW.Also there is minimum heat loss through the substrate. The temperature rise is concentrated in only the microheater region and there is excellent uniformity in the temperature distribution in both the microheaters.Stress and displacement analysis is also carried out for the structure and the result is satisfactory.

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Development of Stearic Acid Coated Fly Ash Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Matrix Composites and their Thermal Analysis[Full-Text[References]
Shubhalakshmi Sengupta, Pulakesh Maity, Dipa Ray, Anirudhha Mukhopadhyay

The industrial wastes fly ash (FA) and polypropylene (PP) were used to develop novel green composites using a renewable, cheap coupling agent i.e. stearic acid. The fly ash (FA) particles were coated with stearic acid (SA) in different weight % like 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5. The SA coated fly ash particles were incorporated as filler in recycled polypropylene (RPP) matrix which was obtained from post-consumer plastic products by melt mixing in 1:1 weight ratio. The composites were tested for dynamic mechanical properties (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The DMA results showed enhancement in mechanical properties indicated by the shift in the glass transition temperature to a higher value. In 1wt% SA coated FA/RPP (RFASA1) composites highest improvement in the dynamic mechanical properties were observed. Increase in thermal stability in the stearic acid treated composites was also witnessed. The RFASA1 composites showed a highest rise in the onset of thermal degradation temperature. The SA treated composites also showed a considerable increase in the activation energy values from that of 0 wt % SA treated FA/RPP (RFASA0) indicating their enhancement in thermal properties in presence of the coupling agent. Thus, an unconventional coupling agent stearic acid could be used in place of commonly used silane coupling agents to develop composite materials FA and RPP with tailor made properties.

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Development strategy of eye movement controlled rehabilitation aid using Electro-oculogram[Full-Text[References]
Anwesha Banerjee, Shounak Datta, Amit Konar, D. N. Tibarewala

This paper proposes a strategy to develop an eye movement controlled rehabilitation aid using Electro-oculogram (EOG) to help severely paralyzed persons. Here, acquisition of EOG is done with a designed circuit. From EOG, eye movements in left and right directions are classified using radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network (ANN). For classification wavelet coefficients are used as signal feature. This offline training of the neural network can be used afterwards to generate real time control signals for the implementation of the EOG controlled rehabilitation aids. The approach and challenges concerned with the same have also been discussed in this paper.

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Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Adding Di Methyl Carbonate to Gasoline in a SI Engine Performance [Full-Text[References]
D.Gopinath, E.Ganapathy Sundaram

Di methyl carbonate (DMC) has a lot of good properties to be used as a blend with gasoline. In order to improve the efficiency, combustion stability and emission performance of a spark ignition engine, oxygenated fuel (DMC) is added to a gasoline. In this experimental work, the effect of using 100% gasoline and gasoline-DMC blends (D5, D10, D15 and D20) on four cylinder engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated for different engine speeds. The investigation was conducted on a multi cylinder, four stroke spark ignition engine. The emissions were measured using exhaust gas analyzer. The experimental results show that the blending of DMC with gasoline increases the thermal efficiency of engine as compared to 100% gasoline as a fuel. The study also found that decrease of CO and HC with the blending of DMC with gasoline.

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Fuzzy-Neuro based Navigational Strategy for Mobile Robot[Full-Text[References]
Shubhasri Kundu, Dayal R. Parhi, B.B.V.L Deepak

A new paradigm of intelligent navigation system for mobile robot has been enriched with some common features like: criteria for optimal performance and ways to optimize design, structure and control of robot. With the growing need for the deployment of intelligent and highly autonomous systems, it would be beneficial to flawlessly combine robust learning capabilities of artificial neural networks with a high level of knowledge interpretability provided by fuzzy-logic. Fuzzy-neural network is able to build comprehensive knowledge bases considering sensor-rich system with real time constraints by adaptive learning, rule extraction and insertion, and neural/fuzzy reasoning. This technique is simulated and also compared with other simulation studies by previous researcher. The training for back propagation algorithm and its navigational performances analysis has been done in real experimental setup. As experimental result matches well with the simulation result, the realism of method is verified.

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Global Catastrophic Alert System[Full-Text[References]
Silica Kole

Global Catastrophic Alert System is a pre-alert system for disasters like Earthquake and Tsunamis consisting of a heterogeneous network of Sensor chips. This is a sensor network which can be laid out in an Earthquake prone area and can be used to predict approaching Earthquakes. The sensor chips used in this system would vary in their processing prowess, storage capacity and power consumption. The sensor chips would be spread along a circular perimeter over the Earthquake or Tsunami prone area in such a way that the peripheral sensor chips would be of the most basic quality consuming very less power. As we move towards the centre of this circular perimeter the sensor chips would become more sophisticated. The centre of this perimeter would consist of a base station or a mother server controlling the received signals of all the surrounding chips and takes decisions in spreading out alerts.

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Grid Scheduling using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with Digital Pheromones[Full-Text[References]
SarathChandar A P, Priyesh V, Doreen Hephzibah Miriam D

Scheduling is one of the core steps to efficiently exploit the capabilities of emergent computational systems such as grid computing. Grid environment is a dynamic, heterogenous and unpredictable computing system which shares different services among various users. Because of heterogenous and dynamic nature of the grid, the methods used in traditional systems could not be applied to grid scheduling and therefore new methods should be designed to address this research problem. This paper represents the technique of particle swarm optimization with digital pheromones which hasimproved solution characteristics. The main objective of the proposed algorithm is to find a solution that generates an optimal schedule which minimizes the flowtime in grid environment.Simulations have been carried out using GridSim for the improved PSO algorithm. Experimental studies illustrates that the proposed methodology, Improved PSO with digital pheromones is more efficient and surpasses those of PSO algorithms for the grid scheduling problem.

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Investigation in to Tribo Potential of Biomass Based Carbon Black Filler in Epoxy Composite[Full-Text[References]
S.K.Acharya , S.P.Samantarai

Particulate fillers of which carbon black is notable example are widely used as reinforcing fillers in polymer industry. These fillers are added to polymers to achieve desirable and enhance the product service qualities. Commercially available carbon blacks are obtained from thermal cracking of natural gas and furnace black produced by incomplete combustion of oil filled stocks. This carbon black is relatively expensive due to its dependence on dwindling supply of crude oil. It is therefore essential to develop viable alternative source of fillers from renewable resources such as agricultural waste, bamboo stem, oil palm empty fruit bunches and coconut shells which are carbonaceous in nature and rich in organic materials. These biomass can be converted into carbon black thereby reducing unwanted, low value agricultural reduces and underutilized crop into useful, high value materials. In the present work the tribo potential of epoxy composite filled with carbon black derived from bio based filler,rice husk has been studied using a pin on disc machine.

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Maximum Power Extraction Schemes & Power Control in Wind Energy Conversion System[Full-Text[References]
Rishabh Dev Shukla, Dr. R. K. Tripathi

Nowadays research focus is towards the Variable speed power generation in instead fixed speed power generation in wind energy conversion system. With variable speed, there will be 20-30% increase in the energy capture compared to the fixed-speed operation. For Variable speed wind energy conversion system the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a very important requirement in order to maximize the efficiency. Every year a number of publications appear in various journals and conferences/seminars claiming to offer better and faster MPPT techniques for wind energy conversion system (WECS). On the other hand, wind turbines are designed to give maximum output at wind speeds around 15 m/s (30 knots or 33 mph). For stronger winds it is necessary to dissipate part of the excess energy of the wind to avoid damaging the wind turbine. So all wind turbines are designed with some power control mechanism. This paper provides the brief idea about the power control techniques on modern wind turbines and a comprehensive review and critical analysis of MPPT techniques, which is very helpful for present researcher and students working in this area.

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Measurement of Lipschitz Exponent (LE) using Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM)[Full-Text[References]
Dr.P.Venkatakrishnan,S.Sangeetha, M.Sundar

Singularity and dynamical behavior are two important aspects in signal processing that carries most of signal information. A remarkable property of the wavelet transform is its ability to characterize the local regularity of functions. In mathematics, this local regularity is often measured with Lipschitz exponents (LE). The singularity, by means of a Lipschitz exponent of a function, is measured by taking a slope of a log-log plot of scales and wavelet coefficients along modulus maxima lines of a wavelet transform [1]. At present, most of the existing methods of measuring LE using wavelet transform are derived from the previous work of Mallat and Hwang in [1], which equals LE to the maximum slope of straight lines that remain above the wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) curve in the log-log plot of scale s versus WTMM. However this method is not always robust and precise especially in noise environment, because it is only the particular case of the equation (25) in [1]. In this paper we present the measurements of lipschitz exponent using wavelet transform with a new area based objective function. The results of experiment demonstrate that this method is more precise and robust.

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Observation of the Nonlinear Behaviour of PFC Boost Converter and Control of Bifurcation[Full-Text[References]
Arnab Ghosh, Abhisek Pal, Dr. Pradip Kumar Saha, Dr. Gautam Kumar Panda

With rapid development in power semiconductor devices, the usage of power electronic systems has expanded to new and wide application range that include residential, commercial, aerospace and many others. However, their non-linear behavior puts a question mark on their high efficiency. This paper aims to develop a circuit for PFC boost converter to observe chaos and bifurcation diagrams. It is clear that the output storage capacitor is a main contributing parameter on the system stability, therefore, bifurcation maps are developed to determine the accurate minimum output capacitance value that assures the system stability under all operating conditions

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Performance Analysis of Fractional Order PID Controller with the Conventional PID Controller for Bioreactor Control[Full-Text[References]
Shivaji Karad, Dr. S. Chatterji, Prasheel Suryawanshi

Despite the dramatic advancement of process control in recent decades, the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller contin-ues to be the most frequently used feedback controller today. PID control mechanism, the ubiquitous availability of reliable and cost effective commercial PID modules, and pervasive operator acceptance are among the reasons for the success of PID controllers. An elegant way of enhancing the performance of PID controllers is to use fractional-order controllers where I and D-actions have, in general, non-integer orders. In a PI?Dd controller, besides the proportional, integral and derivative constants, denoted by Kp, Ti and Td respectively, we have two more adjustable parameters: the powers of s in integral and derivative actions, viz. ? and d respectively. This paper compares the performance of conventional PID and fractional PID controllers used for bio-reactor control.

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Performance analysis of life time efficiency of Machines using Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima [Full-Text[References]
Dr.P.Venkatakrishnan, S.Sangeetha, M.Muthukumaran

Machinery health monitoring is a key step in the implementation of maintenance in industry. A remarkable property of the wavelet transform is its ability to characterize the local regularity of machines. In mathematics, this local regularity is often measured with Lipschitz exponents (LE). The singularity, by means of a Lipschitz exponent of a function, is measured by taking a slope of a log-log plot of scales and wavelet coefficients along modulus maxima lines of a wavelet transform [1]. In this paper, we applied singularity analysis with wavelet for data processing and a new concept, Lipschitz exponent function, was proposed based on wavelet transform. The results show that objective based LE demonstrates excellent performance.

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Reduced SCEs in Fully Depleted Dual-Material Double-Gate (DMDG) SON MOSFET: Analytical Modeling and Simulation[Full-Text[References]
Saheli Sarkhel, Sounak Naha, Subir Kumar Sarkar

In this paper, a two dimensional analytical model of a fully depleted nano-scale dual material double gate (DMDG) SON MOSFET has been developed and performance comparison is made with single material double gate SON MOSFET. An expression for the electric field has also been developed. It is found that the introduction of the DMDG structure in a fully depleted SON MOSFET leads to reduction of short channel effects due to a step-function in the surface potential profile thereby improving device performance and enhances devices scalability some steps further with the extreme exploitation of the idea, threshold control by means of multiple material gate electrode

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Relay Based Identification of Systems[Full-Text[References]
Bajarangbali and Somanath Majhi

In this paper, describing functions (DF) of relay with hysteresis is used for identification of systems. Describing function analysis is widely adopted in relay feedback-based identification methods because of the ease of computation involved and the general usefulness of the method. In process control systems, the noises come from measuring devices, control valves or the process itself. During the relay feedback experiments, amplitude of the limit cycle output is often corrupted with noises which may even fail the test. To overcome the possible failure, a relay with hysteresis is considered in the proposed identification method. Both off-line and on-line identification methods are presented to show the advantages of the online identification. The identification method is developed for a first order plus time delay (FOPDT) system although the method can be extended for higher order systems in a straightforward manner. A Simulation example is included to illustrate the use of the proposed method for both off-line and on-line identification

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SCIFI-A Project Proposal - Soft Computing for Identification of Fingerprint Image[Full-Text[References]
Samayita Bhattacharya, Kalyani Mali

To uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits is called as Biometrics. Biometrics is one of the biggest tendencies in human identification. The fingerprint is the most widely used biometric. However considering the automatic fingerprint recognition a completely solved problem is a common mistake. The most popular and extensively used method is the minutiae-based method (minutia are specific points in a finger image. It is the unique, measurable physical characteristics scanned as input and stored for matching by biometric systems. For fingerprints, minutiae include the starting and ending points of ridges, bifurcations and ridge junctions among other features). There are many different algorithms being used to get this accomplished. Here we have discussed soft computing tools namely fuzzy logic and neural network and how they can be used in fingerprint recognition.

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Simulation of a Swarm Based Painting Algorithm[Full-Text[References]
Animesh Kundu, Praneeth Talluri, Deepanwita Das

This paper presents the simulation of a distributed algorithm for painting a priori known rectangular region [9] by swarm of mobile robots. The algorithm divides the whole region into some horizontal strips and each strip is assigned to a particular robot for painting. The simulation is done with Player/Stage Robotic Simulation software. We have simulated an artificial environment that resembles the algorithm and studied the performance of the algorithm. The simulated result proves the correctness of the algorithm.

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Stabilization of Networked Control System with Packet Dropouts[Full-Text[References]
SathyamBonala, BidyadharSubudhi and SandipGhosh

Time delays in exchange of information and packet dropoutsare very common in NCS (Feedback control systems with communications networks for data exchange). Owing to the occurrence of such time delays and packet dropouts, the NCS systems are uncertain and time-varying. Also these time dealys and packet dropouts may result in degartion of the NCS performance and instability.This paper presents a new design of a state-feedback controller usingLyapunov stability criterion in terms of LMI conditions for the time varying uncertain NCS. Further, the LMI condition is used to guarantee the stability of the NCS. Results are included to demonstrate this presented approach to stabilization of NCS.

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The Performance and Emission Characteristics of SI Engine Running on Different Ethanol-Gasoline Blends[Full-Text[References]
Achinta Sarkar, Achin Kumar Chowdhuri, Arup Jyoti Bhowal and Bijan Kumar Mandal

This paper presents a review of the use of ethanol in SI engine, its performance and emission characteristics based on the works of different researchers and scientist available in the literature. The advantages of using ethanol as SI engine fuel include its greenness, renewability, higher availability and usability in near future, higher octane number, higher volumetric efficiency, higher compression ratio and biodegradability. Ethanol can be produced biologically from sugarcane, crop residues, cellulose, agricultural biomass, municipal waste etc. The experiment conducted by different researchers and their experimental results shows that brake specific fuel consumption, brake torque, indicated power, thermal efficiency increases or decreases depending upon the operating condition of the engine and ethanol percentage in the ethanol-gasoline blends. However, the compression ratio always increases due to enhancement of the octane number of the blend. On the other hand volumetric efficiency increases with the increase in ethanol percentage in the blends. Also there is a significant reduction in the emission of unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide with ethanol and ethanol gasoline blend. But the CO2 emission is more with ethanol and NOx emission increases or decreases depending upon the engine operating conditions.

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Torque Analysis of Perpendicular Magnetic Gear with High Gear Ratio[Full-Text[References]
Prof.G.Muruganandam, Dr.K.S.Jayakumar, Mr.Hariharan.S, Mr.Joshua.E

This paper presents design and analysis of torque and flux density in perpendicular magnetic gear with different magnetic materials, dimensions and air gap. The results were compared to each other. This type of gear offers both high gear ratio and high torque. Moreover the low speed side is connected to prime mover and high speed side is connected to load after analysis, which is suitable for wind power, industrial (Group Drives) applications etc. Finally, it is concluded that the result in this paper may help to initiate a shift from mechanical gears to magnetic gears. (Selection of magnetic gear for suitable applications).

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Tribological Behavior of Modified Rice Husk Filled Epoxy Composite[Full-Text[References]
Sudhakar Majhi, S.P.Samantarai, S.K.Acharya

Rice husk (RH) is an agricultural waste material abundantly available in rice-producing countries. They are the natural sheaths that form on rice grains during their growth and removed during the refining of rice, these husks have no commercial interest. Rice husk is a fibrous material and has a varied range of aspect ratio. Thus it can be used as filler for making light weight polymer composites. Keeping this in view the present work has been under taken to develop a polymer matrix composite (epoxy resin) using modified and unmodified rice husk as reinforcement and to study their tribological properties by using pin-on. disc machine. The modified RH composite is found to give better tribologycal properties than unmodified RH composite.

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Improvement of Commutation Time in Matrix Converter[Full-Text[References]
Indrajit Sarkar, Sumanta Kumar Show, Prasid Syam

Matrix Converter is a near ideal static frequency changer which provides solution to the problem of converting ac from one frequency and one magnitude to variable frequency and variable magnitude ac, without any bulky energy storing components like capacitors or inductors. One of the major obstacles towards commercial acceptance of this topology has been the commutation of the bidirectional switches. An attempt has been made here to find a very fast and simple but safe current commutation technique. It has been found that with simple modification of the Input Current Filtering circuit and Diode Clamp circuit; the Stepless current commutation can be achieved giving the fastest, safe and simplest commutation technique without any voltage & current sensors and complex commutation steps. The different aspects of this realization are verified through simulation in PSPICE and Hardware implementation. The challenges still unresolved are also mentioned.

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Current measurement using Ferroelectrics like Lead Bismuth Niobate and PZT[Full-Text[References]
Parnashi Chakraborty

This paper states the application of a ferroelectric substances in measurement of current using the property that their dielectric constant increases with temperature. Since the change in dielectric constant with temperature is very steep, the resolution of the current measuring device will be very high. Binary and ternary oxides have been used based on perovskite systems. The compounds have been synthesised, characterised with respect to their crystal structure and their dielectric constants have been measured

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Data Encryption with Linear Feedback Shift Register[Full-Text[References]
Subhra Mazumdar , Tannishtha Som

A data encryption technology which ensures secrecy of the data while being transferred over a long distance. It can provide about 80-85% data security as decoding of data involves inverting the feedback function or generating the binary sequence which will help in retrieving the data after some recombination operation.

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Effects of Shannon entropy and J-Measurement for making rules by using decision list method[Full-Text[References]
Debaprasad Misra, Arindam Giri

Expert system makes lot of changes in our daily life. For making an expert system we need perfect, efficient and concise knowledge base system (KBS). The backbone of any KBS is the finest, optimum and exact 'rules' for any particular application that makes the success of the expert system. In this paper, we generate a few rules that come from a Soybean data set with different effect of Shannon entropy and J measurement by using as the rule evaluation parameter. The dissimilar out comes makes differentiate of the effect by using rule evaluation parameter. The experimental results are also focused the different error rate from Shannon entropy and J measurement and other effects that make the changes in the output. After that, we compare and evaluate the results and outputs from two cases, that represent in graph based layout and tabular representation. More over, a short review of KBS, entropy, decision list are also paying attention in this paper.

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Handoff Implementation with Finite Bounce for Load Balance in Clustered Mobile Networks[Full-Text[References]
Rahul Shome, Saksham Manchanda , Parag Kumar Guha Thakurta

Previous work on load balance has focused on the single handoff from a congested base station to a neighboring base station, within the range of possible single handoff. However, with the view of congestion in mobile networks which is liable to make the neighboring base stations congested as well, conventional methods fail to balance the load optimally and hence results in call blocking and degradation of quality of service. The proposed technique looks to implement intelligent heuristics in successive handoffs post clustering of the differently congested regions of multiple base stations. The new method promises to greatly reduce the probability of call blocking and failure to balance the load in congested mobile networks by managing to implement handoffs beyond the immediate possibly congested vicinity of the congested base station. The selection of this path of successive handoffs has been proposed in a computationally inexpensive manner.

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Heat Transfer Enhancement by Nano Structured Carbon Nanotube Coating[Full-Text[References]
Sujith Kumar C. S, S. Suresh, Rajiv K

The present work deals on the experimental investigation on the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of CNT coating on a stainless steel substrate in a rectangular macro channel with water as the working fluid. The experiments were conducted under both laminar and turbulent flow conditions with Reynolds number varying from 500-2600. The experimental results using an uncoated stainless steel plate were compared with that of the coated plate results. All the tests were carried out under constant heat flux condition. Experimental results showed that the heat transfer rate in the plate with the coating were significantly higher than those with the uncoated plate. The enhancement in Nusselt number in the turbulent flow was less compared to that in the laminar region. The coating increased the roughness on the surface and caused and adverse effect on the pressure drop especially in the case of turbulent flow region. The experimental heat transfer coefficient has increased significantly in the case of coated plate. Even if a small increase in pressure drop with the coated substrate, when the enhancement in heat transfer achieved is take into consideration, the increase in pumping power due to coating can be neglected.

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Move An Artificial Arm by Motor Imagery Data[Full-Text[References]
Rinku Roy, Amit Konar, Prof. D. N. Tibarewala, R. Janarthanan

Some diseases or spinal cord injury completely destruct the sensory, motor and autonomous function for the limb movement. BCI (Brain computer Interface) provides a new communication pathway for those patients. Imagination of limb movements is used to operate a BCI. With analysis of acquired EEG signal due to motor imagery controlling of an artificial limb is possible. For this technique motor imagery EEG signal is classified and the classified part is fed to a controller to execute exactly that movement. State feedback PI controller can be used to control an artificial limb. With help of this controller not only position but also velocity can be controlled. In this paper, a simulated model of EEG driven artificial limb control using state feedback PI controller is presented. For this study, EEG data for motor imagery was taken from five healthy subjects. The wavelet coefficients are calculated from that EEG signals as features and the obtained features are classified by SVM classifier to determine the part of the limb the user wants to move. The initial and target position are fed to the controller and the controller move the artificial limb to reach the target position at the classified direction. The overall control procedure is done using Matlab 7.6.

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