IJSER Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2012 Edition
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Analytical Modelling of Supercharging Diesel Radial Centrifugal Compressor with Vanes-based Diffuser[Full-Text[References]
Waleed F. Faris, Hesham A. Rakha, Raed M. Kafafy, Moumen Idres, Salah Elmoselhy

Supercharging diesel radial centrifugal compressor with vanes-based diffuser is a key element in diesel powertrains. This paper presents and validates an analytical model of this type of compressors. This developed model serves as a widely valid model that is based entirely on the principles of physics and with explainable mathematical trends. It can help in accurately analyzing the performance of the supercharging diesel radial centrifugal compressors with vanes-based diffuser with respect to steady state response. Having addressed flaws in corresponding models presented in key references in this research area, this research can help as well in developing and assessing supercharging diesel radial centrifugal compressors technologies as well as diesel powertrain technologies.

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Analytical Method For Calculation of Temperature of The Produced Water In Geothermal Wells[Full-Text[References]
F.P. Codo, A. Adomou and V. Adanhounmè

As fluids move through a wellbore, there is a transfer of heat between the fluids and the earth due to the difference between the fluids and the geothermal temperatures. This type of heat transmission is involved in drilling and all producing operations. H. J. Ramey developed in 1962 an approach of solution which investigated the wellbore heat transmission to provide engineering methods useful in production and injection operations. Nowadays the energy production in the case of the renewable energies particularly in the case of the geothermal energy, which has generated a considerable interest the past few years , we need not only quantitative but qualitative knowledge of wellbore heat transfer too with the invention of computer technologies. This study, which presents a simple mathematical estimation of the temperature of produced geothermal hot water, is the refinements of the so-called Ramey-theory. The solution supposes that the heat transfer in the wellbore is steady-state, while the transfer to the earth is unsteady radial conduction. Fields and calculated results of Hungarian production wells of Zsori-4 and Bogács (4-17) , are presented and analyzed to establish the appropriateness and the usefulness of the study.

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Ubiquitous Computing: The Technology for Boundless Surveillance[Full-Text[References]
Edem Williams and Bassey Eyo

Mainstream and advanced surveillance technologies are limited in terms of their reach in monitoring and tracking people and objects despite the dearth of spatial boundaries. This limitation could possibly be eliminated with the advent of ubiquitous computing. The application of ubiquitous computing in surveillance is such as could take advantage of spatial boundlessness to effect a real time boundless surveillance. This paper suggests that the reach of ubiquitous computing in surveillance cannot be hindered except humans step in to define its delimiters of operation.

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Growth response, carcass quality, some haematological and biochemical parameters of broiler chickens fed on diets supplemented with lanthanum salts[Full-Text[References]
Igbasan, F. A. and Adebayo, O. S

An experiment was conducted with 180 one week old Arbor Acre broiler chickens to evaluate their growth response, carcass quality, haematological and biochemical variables when fed lanthanum supplemented diets. After a 7 d pre-trial period, the birds were randomly assigned to 9 dietary treatments. Dietary treatments included the unsupplemented basal diets and the basal diets supplemented with 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg of either lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) or lanthanum oxide (La2O3). A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement of treatments was used with 4 replicate pens of 5 chicks assigned to each dietary treatment. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the 8 wk trial period. At the end of the experiment, 2 birds per replicate, representing 8 birds per treatment were randomly selected, weighed and slaughtered for carcass quality, haematological and biochemical measurements. There was no significant (P = 0.05) difference in the final live weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the birds fed the control diet and those fed lanthanum supplemented diets. Birds fed supplemental Lanthanum salts had higher (P = 0.05) daily feed intake than those fed the unsupplemented diet. Feeding diets containing lanthanum salts did not significantly (P = 0.05) alter the concentrations all the haematological and serum biochemical variables determined. It can be concluded that the inclusion of lanthanum salts in broiler diets did not improve performance parameters.

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Performance Evaluation of Procedural Cognitive Complexity Metric and Other Code Based Complexity Metrics[Full-Text[References]
Olabiyisi Stephen O., Omidiora Elijah O., and Isola Esther O.

Software metrics are widely accepted tools to control and assure software quality. A large number of software metrics with a variety of content can be found in the literature. In this paper, different software complexity metrics are applied to a set of sorting algorithms Our intention is to study what kind of new information about the algorithms the complexity metrics (Procedural Cognitive Complexity Metric, lines-of-code, Halstead's volume, and Cyclomatic number) are able to give, to study which software complexity measures are the most useful ones in algorithm comparison, and to analyze when the software complexity comparisons are appropriate. The results explicitly revealed that the complexity metrics compare well with one another. Unfortunately, for meaningful results, all the algorithms have to be developed in the same fashion which makes the comparison of independent implementations difficult.

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Load Estimation and Supporting Energy Efficiency in Smart Grids[Full-Text[References]
Hossein Shahinzadeh , Hajar Ghotb

Today, the smart grids has gain a special interest in the area of distribution system, so the role of accountability programs in operation and development of distributed systems and also, the optimum benefits of these programs are of special importance. Now more power companies around the world tend to provide more infrastructure which is needed for smart grid as a convenient way to appropriate and effective use of network and solve network problems.The present study first, the structure of the smart grid and the way it engages in smart grid environment is reviewed, then the role of smart grid programs in reducing load and load management is examined. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the role of smart grid, optimization problem on a distributed network of 33 feeders IEEE with 384 subscribers in different modes of operation, by MATLAB software has been investigated.

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The Importance of Firm Ownership on CEO Compensation: An Empirical Study on New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) Companies[Full-Text[References]
Nulla, Yusuf Mohammed, D.Phil. & Ph.D. Student, MSc, MBA, B.Comm.

This important study in Executive Compensation topic investigated the importance of Firm Ownership on the CEO Compensation system in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) companies. This research had compared the CEO Compensation System of the Owner-Managed and the Management-Controlled companies from 2005 to 2010. The research question for this study was: is there a relationship between the CEO Cash Compensation, the Firm Size, the Accounting Firm Performance, and the Corporate Governance, among the Owner-Managed and the Management-Controlled companies?. It was found that, there was a relationship between the CEO Salary, the CEO Bonus, the Total Compensation, the Firm Size, the Accounting Firm Performance, and the Corporate Governance, among the Owner-Managed and the Management-Controlled companies.

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F-chart Method For Designing Solar Thermal Water Heating Systems [Full-Text[References]
I. F. Okafor and G. Akubue

Solar energy systems convert solar energy into useful energy. But the performance of these systems depends on weather and exhibit a nonlinear dependence. This makes it difficult to accurately analyze their performance by simply observing their response to short-term or average weather conditions. Thus this work analyzes the use of f-chart method in designing liquid solar heating systems due to its simplicity and ability to estimate the fraction of total heating load supplied by solar heating system. This method is widely used in designing both active and passive solar heating systems, especially in selecting the sizes and type of solar collectors that provide the hot water and heating loads. It designs solar water heating system for a family of six in Nsukka community using f-chart method and the annual fraction of the load supplied is 0.44, indicating that 44% of the annual load is supplied by solar energy. It also presented the design considerations for long-term performance for the solar water heating system, f-chart validation and its limitations. Keywords: Solar energy, f-chart method, water heater.

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Comparison of some Classical PID and Fuzzy Logic Controllers[Full-Text[References]
Eisa Bashier M. Tayeb and A. Taifour Ali

The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is tuned to find its parameters values. Generally most of the tuning methods depend mainly on the experimental approach of open-loop unit step response. The controller parameters can be found if the system truly can be approximated by First Order Plus-Dead Time (FOPDT). The performance of most of them deteriorates as the ratio of approximated equivalent delay L to the overall time constant T changes. On the other hand fuzzy PID controller is not tuned through the same conventional tuning procedures. It's constructed as a set of control rules and the control signal is directly deduced from the knowledge base and the fuzzy inference. Fuzzy controller parameters tuned by starting from the equivalent values obtained for optimum controller. The performances of different PID tuning techniques are simulated for different order systems and compared with fuzzy-PD+I controller. MATLAB simulation results show that Fuzzy PD+I have better performances over other conventional PID controllers.

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Wind Power: An Untapped Renewable Energy Resource in Nigeria[Full-Text[References]
Amina I. Saddik, Nafi'u Tijjani and Bilyaminu Alhassan

Wind power is one of the untapped renewable energy resources in Nigeriawhich requires government, private and individual's participation to harness it, the utilization of this type of energy has been minimal in the country despite the abundance of its enormous resources in different part of the country. The wind speed in the southern and northern Nigeria ranges from 1.4 to 3.0 m/s and 4.0 to 5.12 m/s respectively. Apart from its environmental friendliness, it's also one of the lowest priced renewable energy technologies available today costing between 4-6 cent/KWh depending upon the wind resource and project finance. Windmills were used in Nigeria as early as the mid 1960s, in Sokoto and Garo over 20 homes and schools used windmills to pump water. The following decades saw the prices of fossil fuels drop and therefore with cheap energy, wind power was not an appealing alternative, investment in windmills ceased and the infrastructure deteriorated. Research into the feasibility of wind power in certain regions has suggested the potential for this type of energy sources for power generation, this paper review the situation of wind power in Nigeria and world in general, prospects of wind power and existing wind power project in Nigeria, their location, year of installation, capacity and current situation of the projects. From the review, only four existing project were found in the whole country A 5.0 KW/hWind Power Project in Sayya Gidan-Gada Sokoto, 0.75 KW/h Danjawa Village, 1KW/h, Hybrid Wind-Solar in NCCE, Benin, and finally A 10 MW Wind farm under construction in katsina state.

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L-subshell Ionization Cross Sections of Ag By Proton Impact of Enegry Range 1 Mev. � 5 Mev.[Full-Text[References]
Anajni Nandan Pandey, Dr. Samir Sinha

In the present work, we have calculated the L-subshell ionization cross section of Ag by proton impact in the energy range of 1 Mev. - 5 Mev. Using Semi classical approximation (SCA) model. It is seen that there is good agreement between theory and experiment for Ag for all three -sub-shells. It is therefore concluded that the SCA model provides a reasonably good and reliable estimates of the L-sub-shell ionization cross-section to start with in order to understand the ionization process occurring in the collisions between proton and the heavy atoms in the considered impact energy range.

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A Novel Class Imbalance Learning Method using Subset Filtering[Full-Text[References]
K. Nageswara Rao, Prof. T. Venkateswara rao, Dr. D. Rajya Lakshmi

In many real-world applications, the problem of learning from imbalanced data (the imbalanced learningproblem) is a relatively new challenge that has attracted growing attention from both academia and industry. The imbalanced learning problem is concerned with the performance of learning algorithms in the presence of underrepresented data and severe class distribution skews. Due to the inherent complex characteristics of imbalanced data sets, learning from such data requires new understandings, principles, algorithms, and tools to transform vast amounts of raw data efficiently into information and knowledgerepresentation.In this paper, we present a new hybrid subset filtering approach for learning from skewed trainingdata. This algorithm provides a simpler and faster alternative by using C4.5 as base algorithm. We conduct experiments usingeleven UCI data sets from various application domains using f0ur base learners,and five evaluation metrics. Experimentalresults show that our method has higher Area under the ROC Curve, F-measure, precision, TP rate and TN rate val-ues than many existing class imbalance learning methods.

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Mechanical Properties of Concrete Composites With Replacement of Class C Fly Ash And Silicafume [Full-Text[References]
K. Sivalingam, Dr S Jayanthi, Dr K Jagadeesan and Dr S Samson

The results of experimental investigations on the study of concrete with partial replacement of cement are presented in this paper. The concrete grade of M30 has been selected and designed as per Indian Standard method. The specimens based on control mix have been cast without fly ash and silica fume. Cement was replaced by 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% of fly ash by the weight. 20 % of silica fume was added to all those mixes and further replacement of cement was tried. Necessary tests were carried out in fresh and hardened concrete. Workability was found from slump test. Tests for compressive strength were carried out on specimens at the age of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. The split tensile strength and bond strength tests were also carried out at the age of 28 days. The test results were compared with the results of specimen prepared after control mix. The results showed that the strength development of fly ash concrete was less in early ages and increased at higher ages when compared with control specimens. From this study it was concluded that 50% replacement of cement by fly ash contribute reasonable strength along with 20% of silica fume.

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A simple method for calculation of the bulk modulus of boron-doped diamond[Full-Text[References]
Dr. V. Katsika-Tsigourakou

Boron-doped diamond undergoes an insulator-metal transition at some critical value (around 2.21 at %) of the dopand concentration. Here, we report a simple method for the calculation of its bulk modulus, based on the thermodynamical model, by Varotsos and Alexopoulos, that has been originally suggested for the interconnection between the defect formation parameters in solids and bulk properties. The results obtained at the doping level of 2.6 at %, which was later improved at the level 0.5 at %, are in agreement wi th the experimental values.

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Recent Trends and Techniques in Textile Industry Mining - A Study in Karur District[Full-Text[References]
A. Senthil Kumar, Dr.V.Murali Bhaskaran

The Indian textile industry is structurally flawed and its efficiency and growth depends upon the corrective measures and their effectiveness. This process of improving the structural aspects of the industry was initiated in the 1985 Textile Policy, which for the first time took a sectoral view of the industry. The government is spelling out the need for an integrated approach whereby all sectors will be modernized synchronously. This integrated approach is felt to help the textile industry to achieve a reasonable level of upgraded production technology and make it strong enough to face the changed competitive global scenario from the year 2005. In order to meet the changed competitive conditions due to globalization and liberalization of the economy, there is an urgent need for upgrading the technology levels currently prevailing in the weaving segment, particularly the power loom sector. All these call for the preparation and implementation of proper action plan in which all the stakeholders i.e., the government, the weavers and the other interest groups get fully involved. In order to prepare an effective perspective plan spread over 3-5 years of modernization for this important sector, this study on the status of the power loom sector in Tamil Nadu with focus on modernization has been carried out during August- December 2002.

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Engineering wireless mesh networks: Joint scheduling, Routing, power control and rate adaptation networks with bottleneck algorithm[Full-Text[References]
Dr.B.Padmaja Rani, Mohammad Khalaf Rahim

The main objective function for our paper is to maximize the minimum throughput among all flows in wireless mesh networks. For this, we first develop new system that add three different module first is bottleneck algorithm to avoid dropping the packet during routing, and distributed algorithm to enhance the scheduling of packet via channels with different bandwidth and choose the optimal path according to the highest bandwidth, along with that we add maintenance procedure to manage the power control and rate adaptation in wireless mesh networks. We also develop very fast approximations that compute nearly optimal solutions for even larger cases. Finally, we adapt our tools to the case of proportional fairness and show that the engineering insights are very similar.

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Scientific And Efficient Use of Surface Water In The Basin Or Sub Basin[Full-Text[References]
Sanjay D Bonkile, Prof. Dr. P. S. Pajgade

The water resources in the country are limited considering the future demand. Moreover rainfall is confined to monsoon season and unevenly distributed both in space and time. At present various storages have been constructed to store water for various purposes. In case of heavy rainfall water gets spill over or in case of less rainfall there may be drought situation. Most of cases due to uneven rainfall in the basin or sub basin some storages/dams attain its maximum capacity, while some do not. On the other hand some basin has excess water available and some have deficit, while some basin/sub basin have exhausted the use of available water.

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How critical is the Sponge-iron feeding rate in Electric steel making?[Full-Text[References]
Aishwarya S, Adarsh S, Leeju P, Sureshkumar PR

Most of the steel plants were facing the problem of feeding the Sponge-iron continuously as sponge berg formation in the EAF posed lot of problems. The sponge berg, once formed makes the operation very unsteady. It increases the electrode consumption due to the open arcing instead of closed one. It also increases electricity consumption due to the same reason. Refractory consumption too goes up. These are the three major critical parameters in electric steel making.

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Conventional Software Testing Vs. Cloud Testing[Full-Text[References]
Mrs.A.Vanitha Katherine, Dr. K. Alagarsamy

Software Testing is one of the important activities in software development process. Depending on the testing method employed, software testing can be implemented at any time in the development process. Traditionally most of the test effort occurs after the requirements have been defined and the coding process has been completed, but in the agile approaches most of the test effort is on-going. Conventional testing requires expensive dedicated infrastructure and resources that are only used sporadically. The growing complexity of business applications, it is harder to build and maintain in-house testing facilities that mimic real-time environments. Cloud computing has opened up new opportunities for software testing, which provides unlimited resources with scalability, flexibility and availability of distributed testing environment. It reduces the execution time of testing of large applications and lead to cost-effective solutions. However, it also explores challenges such as data security and a lack of standards. In this paper we present a comparative study on conventional software testing with cloud testing. We also highlight the challenges of these testing paradigms.

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Novel Feature Fusion Method of Object Recognition Using Wavelet Transform[Full-Text[References]
V.Subbaroyan, Dr.Selvakumar Raja

In this paper we propose a novel approach to recognize multiple view objects, considering features from frequency as well as spatial domains. A colour descriptor based on HSV histogram is used to obtain the spatial features using the colour moments. The frequency features are obtained using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The two features are then combined to get a feature set that describes the object more accurately. The extracted features are used as an input to the K Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) for classification. The evaluation of the system is carried on using COIL database and the performance of the proposed system is studied by varying the training set sizes. The study also includes the effect of noise and occlusion. Experimental results show that the proposed method of object identification is more accurate.

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Decision Support System for Industrial Estates using Geo Spatial Technology[Full-Text[References]
Krunal Patel, 1Manoj Pandya, Dr. N.N. Jani

To meet the need of various administrative operations such as estate infrastructure planning and management, allotment and regulation of the industrial plots, establishing new estates at various locations, Geo Spatial Technology is the key solution. Geo spatial technology covers spatial dimension which facilitates to visualize outlook of industrial estates at dynamic geographical scale. The integration of domain Knowledge with Geo-spatial datasets and technology leads to successful implementation of the system. System should have capability to process and render enterprise level decisions and provide aid to plan, regulate and control land use.

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Make a Secure Connection Using Elliptic Curve Digital Signature[Full-Text[References]
H. Modares, M. T. Shahgoli, H. Keshavarz, A. Moravejosharieh, R. Salleh

It is generally accepted that data encryption is the key role in current and future technologies. Many Public key cryptography schemes were presented, divided into different classes depending on a specific mathematical problem. Cryptography plays an important task in accomplishing information security. It is used for encrypting or signing data at the source before transmission, and then decrypting or validating the signature of the received message at the destination. Since the introduction of public-key cryptography by Dif?e and Hellman in 1976, the potential for using the discrete logarithm problem in public-key cryptosystems has been recognized. There are several public key cryptography, such as RSA and El-Gamal and Elliptic curve cryptography. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is considered more suitable than other public key cryptography algorithms because of its small key size. ECC is chosen in this work because of its advantages over other public key cryptography. Generally, to produce private keys and elliptic curve cryptography domain parameters, a random generator is used.

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Strength of Concrete Containing Different Types of Fine Aggregate[Full-Text[References]
Sachin Balkrishna Kandekar, Amol Jagannath Mehetre, Vijayshree A. Auti

Common river sand is expensive due to excessive cost of transportation from natural sources. Also large-scale depletion of these sources creates environmental problems. As environmental transportation and other constraints make the availability and use of river sand less attractive, a substitute or replacement product for concrete industry needs to be found. River sand is most commonly used fine aggregate in the production of concrete poses the problem of acute shortage in many areas. Whose continued use has started posing serious problems with respect to its availability, cost and environmental impact? An attempt has also been made for strength studies on concrete made up of grit when compared with the concrete made up of Artificial Sand and Natural Sand. Use of grit as a fine aggregate in concrete draws serious attention of researchers and investigators.

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Review of Multipath Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network -A Survey [Full-Text[References]
Jayashree A, G. S. Biradar, V. D. Mytri

Various applications like automated information gathering in military, industrial, environmental and surveillance applications requires improved QoS guarantee as well as high reliability in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs). In this paper, we have exhaustly reviewed various multi-path routing schemes and classified them accordingly to be suitable for multimedia-traffic. Benefits of using Multipath routing protocols are represented. In general detailed study has been made on multipath routing scheme with Qos requirement for transmission of multimedia data in Wireless multimedia sensor networks.

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Simulation Approach for Quantifying the Homogeneity of In-cylinder Mixture Formation for Port Injected Diesel Fuel for PCCI/HCCI[Full-Text[References]
B S Deshmukh, M K G Babu, M N Kumar, L M Das, Y V Aghav

This paper analyzes the port injected diesel fuel mixture formation for advance combustion strtegies like homogeneous charge compression ignition or premixed charge compression ignition system. The analysis combines the experimentl as well as simulation approach.

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Efforts Towards Popularisation and Public Understanding of Science: A Literature Review of 30 publications[Full-Text[References]
Wafia Masih

This article reviews different approaches taken by scholars and researchers in popularizing science for the common people. The review considers a wide spectrum of popularization methods for bringing Scientists, Industry, Government Organizations, R&D laboratories together for creating a scientific temper by encouraging science communication and popularizing the same, on a larger portfolio.

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A Novel Design and Simulation of 2 Digit BCD Adders Using Reversible Gates[Full-Text[References]
Ankur Saxena, Mohd. Tauheed Khan

Reversible quantum computer is gaining interest for the future computer system. With the advent of quantum computer and reversible logic, design and implementation of all devices has received more attention. BCD digit adder is the basic unit of the more precise decimal computer arithmetic. The research objective is to increase speed of operation for addition of BCD numbers while minimizing the power dissipation by using reversible gates. This paper proposes one new reversible logic gate MAS. The MAS gate can be used as full adder and also reduces the number of garbage outputs. It can also be used as "Copying Circuit" to increase fan-out because fan-out is not allowed in reversible circuits. This paper also proposes a novel reversible design of 2 digit BCD full adder. The simulation result of 2 digit BCD adder on ModelSim are also included.

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Influence of Home Pressure on the Psychosomatic disorders among Adolescents[Full-Text[References]
Jyothula Luciana Sandhya Rani

Home is where the heart is a common adage. It is probably true that the heart is molded the home. At present, owing to the liberalization, privatization and globalization, education has become a gold mine for those who have made it the most profitable business and a golden goose for parents, for, courses have become career-oriented that are seen in apartment schools and colleges. Parents, because of limited children, are developing high aspirations of their children, ignoring their abilities. They are dictating goals to become doctor or engineer of their wards. Home pressure is always been found to play a significant role in all types of Psychosomatic disorders. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of Home Pressure on the psychosomatic disorders among Adolescents and to find out the difference between the rural and urban students with respect to psychosomatic disorders. A representative sample of 1714, IX standard pupils selected from Srikakulam, Visakhapasam, Guntur, Prakasam District. In tact class rooms of IX standard will be randomly selected from the randomly chosen schools. A check list on psychosomatic disorders was prepared by investigator. The 'F' test was applied for analyzing the data. There is a significant influence of Pressure at home on the psychosomatic disorders of IX standard pupils. Highly home pressured pupils have significantly more respiratory, gastro-intestinal, endocrine disorders, emotional and behavioral problems. The high home pressured rural pupils had significantly more of respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders, emotional problem, cardio vascular disorders and behavioral problems. Both moderate and low home pressured pupils had significantly less disorders than highly pressured pupils. There is a significant difference among the high, moderate and low home pressured rural pupils in their Psycho Somatic Disorders. The highly pressured urban pupils had significantly more Cardiovascular, gastro intestinal, emotional, behavioral problems and endocrine disorders.

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Effects of Some Meteorological Variables on the Performance of Single Slope Solar Stills in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria[Full-Text[References]
Kaisan Muhammad Usman and Sabi'u Bala Muhammad

In this research, water sample was collected from Kwalkwalawa river, in Kwalkwalawa village, Sokoto State, North Western Nigeria. 25L of the water samlpe was used to fill a sinlge slope solar still, and the whole set up exposed to the solar energy. The distillate yields of the sample were recorded at one hour intervals between the hours of 8.00am and 18.00pm. The corresponding values were measured for some meteorological variables like: solar radiation, ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed during each inerval. The results were tabulated and picturesque using bar charts. It was oberved that the maximum yield recorded was obtained by 15.00pm. which also corresponds to the highiest value of wind speed which accounts for condensation of the evaporated distillate. The relative humidity varied inversely with the yield. It has been observed that solar radiation varies parabolically with time, with its maximum value at 13.00pm. Solar radiation also varies linearly with yield only that, radiation reached its peak at around 13.00pm while the yield reached its maximum value around 15.00pm. Finally the yield of the distilled water incresed as the ambient temperature increased, with the maximum yield recorded at the maximum value of the ambient temperature ie at 15.00pm. When the ambient temperature started to decline, the yield also started to decline equally.

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The Effect of Time on Volume Flow Rate of the Distillate Output of Single Slope and Double Slope Insulated Solar Stills[Full-Text[References]
Sabi'u Bala Muhammad and Kaisan Muhammad Usman

The experiment was conducted using both single slope and double slope insulated solar stills both filled with same sample of water to the capacity of 25l and 50l respectively. The distillate yields of the two different solar stills were measured in ml and the corresponding volume flow rates were calculated and tabulated. The graphical representations of the results were presented in form of bar charts. The highest yields of the solar stills were observed between the hours of 15.00-16.00 as 210.00ml and 490.00ml respectively with volume flow rates of 3500mm3/s and 8166.67mm3/s correspondingly. The lowest yields as recorded between the hours of 8.00 and 9.00 were 0.40 ml and 30.00 ml with the corresponding volume flow rates of 6.67mm3/s and 500.00mm3/s for both single and double slope solar stills accordingly. There was a remarkable increase in the output of the two different solar stills from 8.00am to 4.00pm on hourly basis and then a sudden decline in the output was observed between 4.00pm and 6.00pm.

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