Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2016 Edition


Publication for Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2016.


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Visual Servoing of a Switched System with Supervisory Control[ ]


Sensory information provided by the camera mounted on robotic end effector can be used for visual guidance and feedback. Interaction of more than one camera in a large workspace can ensure that image based visual servoing (IBVS) does not fail. A master camera monitors the scene and helps the system overcome the chances of failure of IBVS. Asymtotic stability of is assured by identifying a region around the target where IBVS will not fail is identified and a robot end effector with an eye in hand camera is guided to this region. Simulation studies are carried out and the efficiency of the system is ensured. The supervisory control scheme proposed in this paper works satisfactorily for targets which are initially not visible for the robot in a large workspace.

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Thermal Decomposition Studies of Clays From Odukpani, South-south Nigeria by Differential Thermal and Thermogravimetric Analytical Techniques[ ]


Thermal decomposition pattern of clays obtained form Odukpani, South-South Nigeria were investigated on the temperature range of 100-1000oC by simultaneous thermoanalytical methods, DTA and TGA. Occasionally, they were completed by energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) as well as by methods of chemical analysis. The decomposition processes of the clay samples were carried out on nitrogen atmosphere. The thermo-analytical data obtained from this study yielded thermograms that provided valuable informations on the purity of the clay materials and mode of the reactions.

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Population stabilization and Demographic dividend in India[ ]


India is the second most populous country in the world with 1277 million population (in 2015). It is projected that India will surpass China by 2022. Population of China currently grows about 7 million per year while India’s about 18 million. Population growth rate of India is 1.2%, ranking 94th in the world in 2013. In India, 31.2% population is below the age of 14 years, 50% population is below the age of 25 years and more than 65%, below the age of 35 years. It is expected that in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan by 2030.

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Android App for a Site Engineer[ ]


The main objective here is to establish a communication between the various engineers and managers concerned with a construction company. Site Engineer is concerned with the construction that takes place at the site location, so any task performed by him has to be brought to the notice of the managers. The Site Engineers can file a request for any material required at the site location, they can also be aware of the various materials requested by them and also by other engineers for that site location. The request made by the site engineer for any material has to be accepted by the General Manager, Finance Manager and the Project Manager. Once the materials are delivered, the SE also updates the details of the delivered materials so that the delivered quantity can be compared with that of the request.

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Business Administration in the Health Department[ ]


The importance of Business administration in Healthcare department has grown in contemporary times. The principles of professional business administration that are applied in most other departments are steadily working their way into day-to-day running of healthcare departments and organisations. Those businesses that embrace these concepts will reap the benefits sooner. Business administration examines the ways in which Management, marketing and finance principles are used in the health and medical department.

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Possible application of CLT in Saudi Arabia While Teaching English[ ]


This paper is about Communicative Language Teaching method application in Saudi Arabia.

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Right to Life vs. Capital Punishment in Extradition Proceedings: a Legal Aspect[ ]


Many states that have abolished capital punishment domestically also prohibit extradition when the fugitive may face the death penalty, unless the requesting State undertake not to imposed this penalty or at least gives enough assurances that this penalty will not be imposed on the fugitive. This article deals with the “battle” that exists between the human rights from one side and the capital punishment and extradition from the other side. Nowadays it is a fact that states are willing to respect the basic and inviolable human rights, so they refuse extradition in cases where the fugitive can be faced the “death row phenomenon”, especially because the courts have an opinion that the requested state is responsible if the fugitive will be imposed with death penalty or if there is a substantial ground that he will be subjected to torture or other ill-treatment. The major question on which one single answer cannot be given is: in which situations institutions and courts must look on the human rights of the fugitive with a purpose and duty to protect those rights and when the punishment that is given represents an equal response to the committed ofence by the fugitive offender.

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Dependability of Bursting Strength on Sulphate Reducing Bacteria Promoted Corrosion of Natural Gas Pipelines[ ]


The aim of the present work was to calculate the bursting pressure of natural gas pipelines. The external corrosion was due to sulphate reducing bacteria. The failure of the pipes was evaluated based on the Tresca, von Mises criteria, Weibull criteria and finite element analysis. The significance of crack dimensions was recognized using Taguchi techniques. The highly influencing crack dimension was crack depth. The results obtained by the modified ASME B31G have been more realistic to the actual burst of pipes.

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Online Payment System at Saudi Arabia[ ]


Technology has changed the ways of doing businesses and discharging business obligations. Technology has strongly impacted on professional as well as personal lives of people. Saudi Arabia has established centralized system of online payment that has enabled individuals and corporations to send or receive payments via electronic channels. Such system of payment has given birth to new era of business opportunities with the empowerment of ecommerce technologies. Organizations can deliver products and services at door step of customer on-demand basis whereby generating electronic invoicing and receiving electronic payments at the click of buttons. SADAD is online payment system whereas government and private sector organizations have attached to centralized system of SADAD. Customers can make online shopping, payment of utility bills, government service payment, tuition fees of universities, and discharging other obligations.

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Wind Energy[ ]


The project demands Texas as deployment place where wind energy farm would establish and have chances of success ratio. The Wind energy has potentials and these can lower greenhouse gas emission from the environment. The potentials that can create benefit for population surely until 2020 and most probably until 2050. The climate is consistently devastating due to human activities. There is a consensus in U.S. department of energy about energy efficiency. Such energy can obtain by exploiting renewable energy sources mostly Wind. Wind energy is considered as more important as compared to other resources because wind energy is clean, vastly available, reliable and affordable. There are many projects under the consideration of the U.S. Department of energy including low, moderate and high wind speed areas. Further, onshore Wind energy projects are common and in action, now the concept of offshore Wind energy farms is getting pace in the U.S. as well.

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Selection and ranking of perceived risk associated with mobile banking in West Africa. An AHP Approach from customers’ perspective.[ ]


Mobile Banking acceptance and usage has grown in recent times in most economies; however the risk and loss of privacy in the security system are part of the main issue discussed so far. Furthermore, in the high risk nation where there is the need to use mobile phone for banking transaction. The use of M-Banking and the benefit derive from it may be quiet perceived differently. Previous research that analyzed adoption of M-banking focused on specific area or particular point of analysis not really the current situation of the countries and the service providers. Many countries in West Africa are facing war and vulnerability by terrorism attack. Thus, how the risk related to the adoption of M-Banking might be perceived and evaluated needs to be examined.

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Case study on ONGC Commercial Center BKC, Mumbai[ ]


Though term "Green Buildings" is becoming popular these days in various events of Social awareness campaigns of Save Environment but people are still bit skeptical to invest in the Green Buildings due to the fact that it costs more than regular buildings but however they fail to understand that extra cost invested would be returned in one eighth to one fifth of building life through energy savings and also it would give long term benefits in terms of maintenance also it would give an insurance to volatile fluctuations in prices of fossil fuels. This paper is intending to show exactly same with a help of case study about the Green Building and environmental friendly technologies used in the building. This case study is aimed at creating awareness by reflecting the reduction in energy usage, carbon emissions and a savings by using green technologies in the building.

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Literature Survey on Different Techniques of Image Encryption[ ]


Encryption is used to transmit data securely in open networks. Information contents may be textual data or image data. En-cryption of text or images, which cover the highest percentage of the multimedia, is most important during secure transmission of information. There are so many different techniques that should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, literature review of different image encryption and description techniques from 2013 to 2015 have been discussed from which researchers can efficient techniques to be used. Moreover, it provides the various aspects used for the image security.

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Use of Computerized Tomography with Thin Slice Thickness in Liver Volumetry: Review Article[ ]


Liver volumetry is becoming essential for increased liver transplantation need. Different modalities of scanning are used to obtain liver volumetry. Although ultrasound scanning is the safest non invasive method but it is totally operator dependent hence low reliability. Computerized tomography scanning was used more than other modalities of imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging also used but delineation of the liver from nearby structures is not easily reproducible. Moreover, 3D image acquisition in MRI takes longer time during scanning and so patients with claustrophobia may not be compliant. This study aimed to review which modality of scanning had been commonly applied and reported in the period 2000 – 2015.

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Measurement of the Bit Error Rate (BER) and Eye Diagram of Interconnections through FDTD Algorithm[ ]


The main objective of this paper is to assess the quality of signals transmitted at the output of interconnections in high speed circuits, subjected to Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). We propose a numerical approach based on the technique of Finite Differences centered in the Time Domain (FDTD), to translate the behavior of voltages and currents along the line. The method deals with the variation of several parameters such as transmission rate, and losses. The impact of each of these parameters on the received signal is assessed. We use measurement tools like the bit error rate (BER) and the eye diagram obtained by means of both the FDTD based code and the Advanced Design System (ADS) software platform. This study allows predicting the effect of noise at early stages of the design.

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OHRID LAKE - IMPORTANT RESOURCE FOR COOPERATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT BETWEEN MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA[ ]


The aim of this paper is cooperation of local government between Macedonia and Albania. There are three cities on the lake's shores: Ohrid and Struga on the Macedonian side; Pogradec in Albania. There are also several fishing villages, although tourism is now a more significant part of their income.

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Effect of Laser Irradiation on structure, Morphology and gas Sensor Properties of Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Deposited Nanostructured In2O3 Films[ ]


In this study, Indium oxide nanocrystalline In2O3 films have been successfully deposited on glass substrates by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) technique at substrate temperature of (300ОC) It was irradiated by pulses N2 laser at different power average (0.85, 1.70, 2.125 and 2.55mW). The structural and sensitivity properties of these films have been investigated using XRD, AFM and the sensitivity to NO2 gas in air ambient has been measured in gas sensing system. The XRD results showed that all films are polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure and preferred orientation along (321) plane. The crystallite size was calculated using scherrer formula. The crystallite size of the samples was maximum (17.5nm) before irradiation, and it was minimum (8.04nm) at power average (2.55mw), prepared at the same films. AFM results showed homogenous and smooth Indium oxide thin films. The average grain size, average roughness and root mean square (RMS) roughness for nanocrystalline In2O3 films were estimated from AFM. The sensitivity of nanocrystalline In2O3 films to NO2 gas in air ambient has been measured in gas sensing system. All samples were tested at different power average, and bias voltage (6 volt). The optimal operating temperature is found to be 300oC for In2O3 films for the maximum sensitivity is (64.12%) at power average (1.70mw), with fast response time (5.85s) and recovery time of (9.0s) at power average (0.85mw).

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DFT Study of 3-[2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-2-oxo-ethyl]-5-(2,4-dichloro-thiazole-5-yl-methylenyl)thiazolidine-2,4-dione as antifungal agent[ ]


The molecular structure of 3-[2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-2-oxo-ethyl]-5-(2,4-dichloro-thiazole-5-yl-methylenyl)thiazolidine-2,4-dione as an antifungal agent against Candida albicans in the ground state was optimized by density functional using Becke’s three-parameter hybrid method with the Lee, Yang, and Parr correlation functional method with 3-21G(d,p) basis sets. The calculated geometric parameters were compared with obtained experimental results.

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How E-commerce Is Changing American Business[ ]


In this paper, we will introduce the history and evolution of E-commerce. Then we are going to see how E-commerce affects supply chain. Last but not least, based on history of E-commerce, it is important to go over the future of it. Finally, being in a fast paced business environment in the U.S, it is reasonable to mention a real life example, which is Amazon and how its impact American businesses.

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Food and Non-Food Expenditure Differential across Poor and Non-Poor Households in South-East Nigeria[ ]


This paper examined the expenditure differential patterns of food and non-food items in rural and urban South-East Nigeria with emphasis on poor and non-poor households as subdivided by the Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics’ Household Expenditure Survey Data of 2009/2010 (NBS_HhExp_2009/2010). Descriptive statistics and Econometric models were used to profile the pattern of household expenditure on food and non food items, expenditure patterns of food and non-food items across poverty status and an estimation of the effects of household characteristics on food and non-food expenditures. Household characteristics included age, sex, sector (rural/urban), living status of spouse. Mean per-capita expenditure for the non-poor in the urban area is greater than that of the non-poor in the rural area; mean per-capital expenditure for the non-poor was greater in relation to non food items than food items. The mean per-capita food and non-food expenditures in the urban area was ₦77, 181.27 while the mean per-capita expenditure of households in the rural area was ₦67, 621.61. Disaggregating the data into core/moderately/non-poor, the mean per-capita food and non-food expenditures was ₦21, 866.55k; ₦38, 949.09k and ₦1,100, 88.00k respectively. There is need to up scale the living standards of the rural poor and enhance the productive capacities of the able bodied age groups to reduce the disparity observed as in relation to food and non-food expenditure differences among poor and non-poor households of south-eastern Nigeria.

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Optimization in Audio Steganography[ ]


As communication is being done by electronic means in open air generally, security of data is highly desirable. One such technique of doing this is steganography. The requirement of a system that ensures high capacity, robustness and security of embedded data there have been so many variants in existing steganography technique. Due to this diversity it needs some technique to optimize the existing traditional substitution technique. The audio file is chosen as cover file due to its practical availability and “Masking Effect”.

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Compositional Features and Industrial Application of Afuze Clay, Southsouth Nigeria[ ]


Afuze clay deposits in Owan East L.G.A of Edo State, Nigeria were characterized for refractory and other applications. The characteristics investigated were chemical composition, plasticity index, liquid limit, plastic limit, particle size distribution, surface characteristics, water absorption, dry shrinkage, fired shrinkage, total shrinkage, Firing colour, compressive strength, void ratio, linear shrinkage, bulk density, cold crushing strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal conductivity, and refractoriness (softening point) . Chemical analysis was conducted using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The physical property tests were done following ASTM standards. Results obtained showed that the Afuze clay is largely kaolinite and chemically composed of mainly silica (46.09%) and alumina (35.35% respectively). These oxides appreciated to 45.09% and 33.35% (silica), 31.8% and 21.30% (alumina) respectively in the fired product. The physical/refractory characteristics examined confirmed that the clays belong to the fireclay class and are useful for refractory and ceramic applications.

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Application of Clue Model for Analysis and Quantification of Changing Land Use Pattern-A Case Study of Kankuram Basin, Ghatshila[ ]


The present research paper is concerned about the changing nature of land use and application of CLUE Models for reviewing the pattern. Land-use change models should represent part of the complexity of land use systems. The present paper also bespeak about the utility of RS and GIS technique for the preparation of Land Use changing Modelling. The source of the river is near Netrabera and meets Subarnarekha river near Moubhandar. This quantitative method is put forwarded by using the satellite data and with the help of correlation co-efficient, the relation land use, land cover changes is being calculated. Regarding the sensitivity analysis this model has defined how much this model is applicable in small basin area and it is based on some calculations and mathematical modeling and mapping to find the post land use changing probability.

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Assessment of Research Utilization for Development in field of Environment[ ]


This article focuses on assessment of academic research utilization produced by highly qualified academicians working in the universities offering degrees in field of Environmental Sciences and Environmental Engineering. The article presents five stage model for assessment of academic research utilization for development based on various criteria including purpose of research, funding bodies of research, relevancy of research with environmental issues, development mode of research, end users of research, mediator source for research utilization and intellectual property rights for research. This research is based on case study approach. Findings show that research have been disseminated in the form of research papers at larger number but very few of academic research have been utilized for development. Academic research has been utilized by different national & international organizations. The research is utilized in form of PhD thesis reports and other project reports funded by HEC, Universities and other national and international organizations. The outcomes of research utilization are either in form of new developed processes, services or policy guidelines under protection of copyrights. The findings also revealed co-operation of academicians with other stakeholders. However, none of the research has been utilized in the development of new Product or new technology under protection of industrial designs or patents. Though effective research work has been done related to solve different environment issues such as; Alternative Energy production, Air Pollution, Road Transportation, Coastal Management, Energy Crises, Global Warming, Renewable Energy Production, Biodiversity, Waste Management, Water Purification.

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Social Work Development in Africa: Encouraging Best Practice[ ]


Since Social work practice has a professional approach to ameliorating social problems its compelling responsibility centres on supporting the vulnerable in our society on a daily basis. It is a general understanding however that social work profession utilizes professionally qualified personnel who use its knowledge base to help people tackle their social problems. Nevertheless, in developing countries, social work is a relatively young profession that was influenced by colonialism in its formation, and therefore mirrors to a large extent, similar social work practices that is operational in countries like Britain, France and Portugal among others. Indicating the continent of Africa as a case study, this article argues that social work practice in Africa tends to be curative or remedial in nature thereby failing in adequacy and proficiency in terms of addressing people’s problems. This paper therefore proposes a paradigm shift from remedial to a social development paradigm that must, in the 21st century create positive impact.

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A Survey & Applications of Various Image Steganography Techniques[ ]


Due to research is the ever-increasing need for harder-to-break encryption and decryption algorithms as the computer and network technologies evolve. We believe that by proposing the block-based encryption and decryption algorithm, it will help to reduce the relationship among image elements by increasing the entropy value of the encrypted images as well as lowering the correlation. Here in this paper a survey of all the existing Image Steganography techniques are discussed with their various advantages and limitations. Hence on the basis of their various advantages and limitations a new and efficient Image Steganography is implemented in future.

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A Generic Scenario of a Load Flow Study in SAARC Countries Super Grid Using High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) and High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC)[ ]


The effective solution for the bulk power transmission to a larger distance is only possible with the utilization of the two technologies. Firstly, High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) which gives us fewer losses in order to cover larger distances. Secondly High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Voltage Source Convertor (VSC) which converts the AC Power into DC power and which provide better active and reactive power compensations during transmission of an electrical power to a large distance. The main idea behind this research is the Load Flow model implementation of the future SAARC Countries Super grid technology, using High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) and High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) using voltage source convertors (VSC), and then analyzed different factors, which will lead us to the conclusion than instead of using Ultra-High Voltage AC as an interconnection between different SAARC Countries Grid Stations, we can utilized Ultra-High Voltage DC as an effective solution for bulk power transmission (Active Power) especially of Renewable energy for Covering larger distances, and so in order to interconnect different SAARC Countries Grid Stations with one another for the exchange of Electrical Energy. This Research work also Summarizes an overall picture of the SAARC Countries Super Grid Technology which is not implemented so far, and which will used these above technologies in order to provide a secure and sustainable Electrical Energy to different SAARC Countries.

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Detecting Failures in HPC Storage Nodes[ ]


Future High-Performance Computing (HPC) systems are expected to include more components than current HPC systems. This increase in components, decreases the reliability of the system. Recovering from failure is one of the hardest problem in future HPC. In this research, storage node failures will be considered, as they are the least reliable hardware components due to their mechanical aspects. Ensemble Learning was proposed as a prediction algorithm to predict the failure in these nodes. According to our evaluation, acceptable prediction could be obtained with sufficient lead time window.

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A Review On Collaborative Decision Technique For Blackhole Attack Prevention In MANET[ ]


Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are collections of mobile nodes that can communicate with one another using multihop wireless links. MANETs are often deployed in the environments, where there is no fixed infrastructure and centralized management. The nodes of mobile ad hoc networks are susceptible to compromise. In such a scenario, designing an efficient, trustworthy and secure routing protocol has been a major challenge over the last many years. In this paper, we propose a Trust Based Secure On Demand Routing Protocol called “TSDRP”. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol has been modified to implement TSDRP for making it secure to thwart attacks like Blackhole attack and DoS attack. To evaluate the performances, we have considered Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF), Average Throughput (AT) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL).

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Women in the Middle East: Princess Jasmine[ ]


This paper is about the role women in the middle east in Film Aladdin:Princess Jasmine

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