Technomanthan 2013

IJSER, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2013 Edition


Cover Page Cover Page IJSER Research Group http://www.ijser.org/forum/index.php Register for IJSER Research Forum      IJSER Xplore IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database

Pages   [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]
 



Design of Low Phase Noise Ring VCO in 45NM Technology[ ]


"CMOS" refers to both particular style of digital circuitry design, and the family of processes used to implement that circuitry on integrated circuits. CMOS circuitry in VLSI dissipates less power when static, and is denser than other implementations having same functionality. This paper presents a framework for modeling the phase noise in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) ring oscillators and is brief study of high performance VCO on 45 nm technology to achieve the desired objectives such as both non linear and linear operations. Maximum frequency limitations and associated noise performance levels of Ringoscillator are explored. The circuit used is a modified design of high performance VCO. In the estimated design more emphasis is given on power consumption, layout design and many more.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Digital Watermarking Scheme For Secret Images Using Visual Cryptography[ ]


The extreme development of internet has made the transmission, distribution and access to digital media very convenient. So, media producers are more frequently dealing with illegal and unauthorized usage of their productions.Over the last two decades, digital watermarking has been addressed as an effective solution to safeguard copyright laws and an extensive effort has been made to design robust watermarking algorithms. Basically, a digital watermark is an invisible mark that is inserted into a digital media such as audio, image, or video to identify illegal distributions of copyright protected digital media and also law breaking customers. A digital watermark must have special features to achieve functionalities desired. The embedded mark should be robust enough against various watermarking attacks, while keeping the perceived quality of the host signal unchanged (the imperceptibility requirement). Watermarking attacks consist of deliberate attacks made maliciously to remove or change the mark sequence by lawbreakers, unintentional modifications caused by coding and compression that are made to the digital media prior to transmission and/or storage, and errors occurred during the transmission of the media through the networks.Digital watermarking using visual cryptography provides improved security for encrypting secret images.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
An Efficient Directional Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network[ ]


This report addresses the issue of routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) using directional antennas. Existing directional routing schemes either assume a complete network topology or simply use omni-directional routing schemes to forward packets in underlying directional environment. In this report a Directional Routing Protocol (DRP) for MANETs is proposed. DRP is an on-demand directional routing protocol which assumes a cross layer interaction between routing and MAC layer and is inspired by Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol. The main features of DRP include an efficient route discovery mechanism, establishment and maintenance of directional routing and directional neighbor tables and novel directional route recovery mechanisms. Implementation of DRP on top of MDA, a MAC protocol for directional antennas and have compared its performance with the DSR protocol over both omni-directional and directional antenna models. DRP considerably improves the packet delivery ratio, decreases the end to end packet latency, has lesser routing overhead and is robust to link failures.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Improvement in Voltage Profile using FACT Device[ ]


The management of power system has become more difficult than earlier because power system are operated closer to the security limit, environmental constraints restrict the expansion of transmission network, the need for long distance power transfer has increased and fewer operator are engaged in the supervision and operation of power system. Voltage instability has become major concern in many power systems. The voltage levels of the system changes when there is change in load and the drop in the load voltage leads to an increased demand for the reactive power that, if not provided by the power system leads to a further decline in the bus voltage. This decline eventually leads to a progressive rapid decline of voltage at that location, which may have a cascading effect on neighboring regions that causes voltage collapse. In this paper, a FACTS controller such as Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is used to maintain the voltage within the limits. STATCOM will either supply the reactive power or extract the reactive power.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Design analysis of Controller to improve Transient response of 2nd order system & tuning rule for the same[ ]


This paper presents effect of ? on the transient response of the second order systems. Designed a simple RLC series circuit in our laboratory and applying the step input. The value of ? is derived by using this series circuit. By deriving the formula, verified the effect of the value of ? ?? as PID controller. Observe the various waveforms on CRO. Simulation and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the findings. And also discussed about the PID tuning rules for 2nd order system with example.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Survey Of Topology Based Reactive Routing Protocols in Vanet[ ]


Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) offer a vast number of applications without any support from fixed infrastructure. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. These applications forward messages in a multi-hop fashion. Designing an efficient routing protocol for all VANET applications is very hard. Vehicular networking has various prospects and opportunity to facilitate various functions connected with traffic safety, traffic Effectiveness system infotainment and on their improvement.Hence a survey on routing protocols based on various parameters of VANET is a necessary issue in vehicle-to- vehicle (V2V) and infrastructure-to- vehicle (IVC) communication.In this paper we have studied about VANET and also have given a brief overview of different topology based reactive routing protocols in VANET along with major classifications.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A Novel Approach For Security Aware Topological Based Routing Protocol In Vehicular Adhoc Network[ ]


Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have attracted a lot of attention over the last few years. They have become a fundamental component of many intelligent transportation systems and VANETs are being used to improve road safety and enable a wide variety of value-added services. Many forms of attacks against VANETs have emerged recently that attempt to compromise the security of such networks. Such security attacks on VANETs may lead to catastrophic results such as the loss of lives or loss of revenue for those value-added services. Therefore making VANETs secure has become a key objective for VANET designers. To develop and deploy secure VANET infrastructures remains a significant challenge. In the proposed research work likely focus on the latest research areas in Vehicular Adhoc network. With the help of recent tools and technologies .This research develops and evaluates some of the main security threats and attacks that can be exploited in VANETs and present the corresponding security solutions that can be implemented to thwart those attacks on reactive routing protocol under topological based routing protocol for improving security under possible attacks of VANETs relying on broadcast for sharing safety and road information among vehicles and related attacks. communication characteristics will be developed and evaluated.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Design and Implementation of High- performance MAC Unit[ ]


In real-life, embedded devices like mobile phone, notebook computers are made use of RISC processor and DSP .In Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications the critical operations usually involve many multiplications and/or accumulations. So, for real time signal processing, the high speed multiplier accumulator (MAC) unit is always a key element to achieve a high-performance digital signal processing. The goal of this project is to design and implement the MAC unit for high-speed DSP applications. For designing the MAC unit various multipliers and adders are required. The MAC unit is implemented using VHDL, synthesized and simulated using Xilinx ISE 12.1.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Modeling of Non-Conventional Energy Sources-Solar and Wind Hybrid Model[ ]


In parallel to developing technology, demand for more energy makes us seek new energy sources. The most important application field of this search is renewable energy resources.Wind and solar energy havebeen popular ones owing to abundant, ease of availability and convertibility to the electric energy. Matlab based hybrid model of solar and wind is developed.In this model two different power systems i.e, Solar and Wind are combined to supply a single phase load. Initially the elements of solar and wind turbine is studied and the main component of both systems is identified. After that, a hybrid system which consists of the two systems is determined. The data that is used for this simulation is solar irradiance, wind speed and temperature. After the entire element has been determined, the hybrid system is modeled using MATLAB/Simulink. Furthermore, the power output using the data is analysed. With increasing power demand and shortage of fossil fuel, non-conventional energy sources will be more popular in near future.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Reduction of Switching Over Voltages in H.V. Transmission Line[ ]


This synopsis presents the development of a knowledge base for reduction of switching transient over voltages in HV Transmission Lines. From this knowledge base, we can derive some practical rules for switching surge transients. These practical rules will be used in the proposed intelligent support system. These rules will be extracted by studying the switching transient phenomena in more detail. The knowledge base for switching surge studies solves the problem of selecting the proper models for representing power system components in the Electromagnetic transient program. It helps in checking the validity of the data used to represent the simulated transient phenomena, and gives some suggestions to the user to correct his case data before simulation.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A GUI (Graphical User Interface) framework For distribution automation through CAN (Control Area Network) Protocol [ ]


Distribution automation is a sector having vast possibilities for major improvements. The system described in this paper consists of a console master computer (CMC) which will monitor various physical nodes usually found in a large industry. The proposed work analyzes the capability of CAN networking which includes data traffic management. The CMC is designed using Matlab 7.12, the CAN networking is supported using the Vehicular Network Toolbox. The proposed system using CAN has the advantages of being simple in its design which contributes to the overall low cost. The novelty of the work lies in the low cost approach , and fail safe methodology of CAN communication. The proposed system is capable of sending and receiving signals with the additional benefit of feedback mechanism .The proposed work is implementable in any industry with the cost advantage of CAN interface. The prposed work can be used as a cheaper and robust alternative to native tecnologies like PLC( Programmable Logic Controller) . Moreover, the CAN network system is immune from the electrical interferences.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A Survey paper on Secure AODV protocol in MANAET using RSA algorithm and Diffie-hellman algorithm [ ]


Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANTEs) are temporary networks that are built up momentarily in order to satisfy a certain emergency, for example, suppose that in an area of zero connectivity if there is a bomb blast then the local police would set up an ad-hoc network for communicating this emergency to the higher officials. Hence, this could save many lives. Ad-hoc networks are in a great demand now a days and have a lot of advantages like emergency control, short term connections for roaming subscribers, etc.But with this advantages there are disadvantages also, one such disadvantage is the security of MANETs which is very low as compared to the other permanent networks which is due to absence of central network database and due to absence of full network temporarily would also increase the cost of the system.We have designed the Ad Hoc On Demand Routing Protocol (AODV) using RSA algorithm and diffie-hellman algorithm on platform NS. Which is efficient as well as we have implemented the security technique so the we can prevent the data loss at the time of transmission and prevent from malicious node. We also provide the security to public key and private key in network with the help of the diffie-hellman algorithm. This technique is help at the time of sending the private key to the destination node. After that the destination node create the secret key with the help of sender key and sender and destination node use the same key (secret key).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Implicit Password Authentication System[ ]


Authentication is an important process which assures the basic security goals, viz. confidentiality and integrity. Also, adequate authentication is the first line of defense for protecting any resource. It is important that the same authentication technique may not be used in every scenario. Though traditional login/password based schemes are easy to implement, they have been subjected to several attacks. As an alternative, token and biometric based authentication systems were introduced. However, they have not improved substantially to justify the investment. Thus, a variation to the login/password scheme, viz. graphical scheme was introduced. But it also suffered due to shoulder-surfing and screen dump attacks. We introduce a framework of our proposed (IPAS) Implicit Password Authentication System, which is immune to the common attacks suffered by other authentication schemes.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Implementing Distributed Computing System For Parallel Processing[ ]


In this paper we are using threshold algorithm for performance improvement, this is the part of the Load balancing algorithm, for implementing distributed computing system for parallel processing. Distributed computing is a form of parallel computing, but parallel computing is most commonly used to describe program parts running concurrently on multiple processors in the same computer. Both types of processing require dividing a program into parts that can run simultaneously, in distributed computing a program is dividing into parts that run simultaneously on multiple computers communicating over a network. In order to ensure good overall performance, Load balancing algorithm tries to balance the total system load by transparently transferring the workload from heavily loaded nodes to lightly loaded nodes.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Digital Image Processing[ ]


Image enhancement techniques are used to emphasize and sharpen image featuresfor display and analysis. Image enhancement is the process of applying these techniquesto facilitate the development of a solution to a computer imaging problem. Consequently,the enhancement methods are application specific and are often developed empirically.The type of techniques includes point operations, where each pixel is modifiedaccording to a particular equation that is not dependent on other pixel values; maskoperations, where each pixel is modified according to the values of the pixel's neighbors or global operations, where all the pixel values in the imageare taken into consideration. Spatial domain processing methods includeall three types, but frequency domain operations, by nature of the frequency transforms, are global operations. Of course, frequency domain operations canbecome "mask operations," based only on a local neighborhood, by performing thetransform on small image blocks instead of the entire imageEnhancement is used as a preprocessing step in some computer visionapplications to ease the vision task, for example, to enhance the edges of an object tofacilitate guidance of a robotic gripper. Enhancement is also used as a preprocessing stepin applications where human viewing of an image is required before further processing.Image enhancement is used for post processing to generate a visually desirable image. Overall, image enhancement methods are used to make images look better. So"Image Enhancement Is As Much An Art As It Is A Science."

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Increasing Efficiency Of Solar Cooker By Using Co2 Gas[ ]


A local survey was made to find whether people are not using solar cooker because it is time consuming even after receiving enough sunlight. To de-crease the time of cooking of solar cooker temperature of cooking box should be increased for that a greenhouse gas - CO2 is used. The easiest and economical way of producing CO2 - adding lemon juice to baking soda was used. To verify this fact a comparative study was done which concluded that the temperature can be increased. Also the expenditure for this was calculated which shows that use of this technique will be economical than using conventional way.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Automatic Solar Tracker System[ ]


This paper presents the hardware design and implementation of a system that ensures a perpendicular profile of the solar panel with the sun in order to extract maximum energy falling on it renewable energy is rapidly gaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuel prices fluctuate. The unique feature of the proposed system is that instead of taking the earth as its reference, it takes the sun as a guiding source. Its active sensor constantly monitors the sunlight and rotates the panel towards the direction where the intensity of sunlight is maximum. The light dependent resistor's do the job of sensing the change in the position of the sun which is dealt by the respective change in the solar panel's position by switching on and off the geared motor the control circuit does the job of fetching the input from the sensor and gives command to the motor to run in order to tackle the change in the position of the sun. With the implementation the proposed system the additional energy generated is around 25% to 30% with very less consumption by the system itself. In this paper, an improvement in the hardware design of the existing solar energy collector system has been implemented in order to provide higher efficiency at lower cost.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Novel Algorithms of HVDC and FACTS in future Power Systems[ ]


A new approach to HVDC and FACTS transient/dynamic simulation based on an interactive execution of an ac transient stability program (TSP) and the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program(EMTP) is described. Through the integration of the detailed transient model of FACTS with the transient stability program, authentic simulation is achieved without simplifications. Both HVDC and Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) systems are used to validate the approach, under different coupling situations between both TSP arid EMTP. From the first small DC and AC "mini networks", there are now systems transmitting 3 - 4 GW over large distances with only one bipolar DC transmission: 1.000 - 2.000 km or more are feasible with overhead lines. With submarine cables, transmission levels of up to 600 - 800 MW over distances of nearly 300 km have already been attained, and cable transmission lengths of up to 1.300 km are in the planning stage. As a multiterminal system, HVDC can also be con-nected at several points with the surrounding three-phase network. FACTS are applicable in parallel connection or in series or in a combination of both. The rating of shunt connected FACTS controllers is up to 800 Mvar, series FACTS devices are implemented on 550 and 735 kV level to increase the line transmission capacity up to several GW.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Study of Optimal Classifiers based on Computational Intelligence techniques for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer[ ]


In this paper a new classification algorithm is proposed for the diagnosis of Lung cancer. In order to develop algorithm 39 CT scan images of patients have been considered consisting of Benign Tumor , Malignant Tumor and Normal Lung CT Scan iimage.With a view to extract features from the CT scan images after image processing , an algorithm is developed which proposes two-dimensional discrete cosine Transform domain coefficients in addition to Average, Standard Deviation, Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, Energy, Homogeneity. The suitability of classifiers based on Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network is explored with the optimization of their respective parameters in view of reduction in time as well as space complexity. A separate Cross-Validation dataset is used for proper evaluation of the proposed classification algorithm with respect to important performance measures, such as MSE and classification accuracy. The Average Classification Accuracy of MLP Neural Network comprising of one hidden layers with 7 PE's organized in a typical topology is found to be superior (100 %) for Training . Finally, optimal algorithm has been developed on the basis of the best classifier performance. The algorithm will provide an effective alternative to traditional method of Lung CT image analysis for deciding the tumor in lung is Benign or Malignant.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Overview Of Motion Estimation in Video Compression[ ]


Motion Estimation is one of the most critical modules in a typical digital video encoder. many implementation tradeoffs should be considered while designing such a module. It can define ME as a part of inter coding technique inter-coding refers to a mechanism of finding co-relation between two frames (still images), which are not far away from each other as far as the order of occurrence is concerned, one frame is called the reference frame and the other frame called the current frame, and then encoding the information which is a function of this co-relation? instead of the frame itself. This paper focuses more on block matching algorithms which comes under feature/region matching. Block motion estimation algorithms are widely adopted by video coding standards, mainly due to their simplicity and good distortion performance In FS every candidate points will be evaluated and more time will be taken for predicting the suitable motion vectors. based on the above noted drawback, the above said adaptive pattern is proposed Optimization is proposed at algorithm/code-level for both encoder and decoder to make it feasible to perform real-time H.264/AVC video encoding/decoding on mobile device for mobile multimedia applications. For encoder an improved motion estimation algorithm based on hexagonal pattern search is proposed exploiting the temporal redundancy of a video sequence. For decoder, at code level memory access minimization scheme is proposed and at algorithm level a fast interpolation scheme is proposed.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Efficient Content Based Image Retrieval Using Color and Texture[ ]


Image classification is perhaps the most important part of digital image analysis. Retrieval pattern-based learning is the most effective that aim to establish the relationship between the current and previous query sessions by analyzing image retrieval patterns. We propose a new feedback based and content based image retrieval system. Content based image retrieval from large resources has become an area of wide interest nowadays in many applications. In this paper we present content-based image retrieval system that uses color and texture as visual features to describe the content of an image region. Our contribution are we use Gabor filters to extract texture features from arbitrary shaped regions separated from an image after segmentation to increase the system effectiveness. In our simulation analysis, we provide a comparison between retrieval results based on features extracted from color the whole image, and features extracted from Texture some image regions. That approach is more effective and efficient way for image retrieval.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Analysis of Simple CORDIC Algorithm Using MATLAB[ ]


This paper presents the phenomenal work of Volder [1] who while solving the problem of navigation system evolved an algorithm named CORDIC. Since its invention, many researchers have modified and have implemented CORDIC in almost all spheres of engineering whether calculation of trigonometric functions, square root, logarithmic functions in Robotics, 3-D graphics or communication.In this paper an attempt has been made to present MATLAB implementation of simple CORDIC technique. First of all the introduction to CORDIC is presented with its basic algorithm, followed by a MATLAB code and simulation results.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Prefluxing Technique to Mitigate Inrush Current of Three-Phase Power Transformer[ ]


At the time of transformer energization, a high current will be drawn by the transformer. This current is called transient inrush current and it may rise to ten times the nominal full load current of transformer during operation. Energization transient can produce mechanical stress in the transformer causes protection system mal-function. This current often affects the power system quality and may disrupt the operation of sensitive electrical loads such as computer and medical equipment connected to the system. Reduction and the way to control energization transient currents have become important concerns to the power industry. Conventionally, controlled switching or point on wave switching was the method being used to counter the problem, but this method requires the knowledge of residual fluxes of transformer before energization, which was quite tedious to get. Hence, this paper proposes a technique to mitigate inrush current in three phase transformers which involves injecting some amount of DC flux in the primary of transformer, the process known as prefluxing. After setting the initial fluxes of the transformer it is energized by conventional controlled switching. To verify the efficientness of the proposed prefluxing method to mitigate inrush current for power transformer, a MATLAB simulation model is designed and developed. The results are verified using the sample in which transformer is connect with a supply source, which have conformed the efficient inrush current control.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wireless Transmission of Electricity[ ]


The various technologies available so far for wireless transmission of electricity and the need for a Wireless System of Energy Transmission is being discussed to find its possibility in actual practices, their advantages, disadvantages and economical consideration. The technology used for wireless power transmission is known as witricity. Wireless power transmission is not a new idea; Nikola Tesla proposed theories of wireless power transmission in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Tesla's work was impressive, but it did not immediately lead to wide spread practical methods for wireless power transmission. Since then many researchers have developed several techniques for moving electricity over long distances without wires. Some exist only as theories or prototypes, but others are already in use. In 2007 researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Marine Soijacic discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. They have dubbed this technology as witricity. Witricity is based upon coupled resonant objects. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while not interchanging the surroundings. The researchers demonstrate the ability to transfer 60W with approximately 40% efficiency over distance in excess of 2 meters. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100watts. As witricity is in the development stage, lots of work is to be done in improving the range of power transmission and efficiency.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Pages   [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]