IJSER Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2011 Edition
Download Index File/Journal Page No. Detail Download Index File/Journal Page No. Detail       IJSER Research Group http://www.ijser.org/forum/index.php Register for IJSER Research Forum      IJSER Xplore IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database
Drop Call Probability Factors in Cellular Networks[Full-Text] [References]
Nathaniel S. Tarkaa, Joseph M. Mom, Cosmas I. Ani

Of the numerous performance metrics applied to cellular telephone systems, probably none is more important for customer satisfaction than the system drop call rate. Customers are more sensitive to call dropping than to call blocking at initiation. Proper system design and operation involve keeping the drop call rate as low as possible. Call/packet dropping refers to the event described as the termination of calls in progress before either involved party intentionally ends the call. There are numerous drop call causes in cellular networks with majority of them occurring in the Um interfaces mainly due to lack of radio resources created by electromagnetic causes and user mobility (i.e. handover). Another important contributor of drop call rate is the traffic load in which, the call arrival rate and holding time play significant roles. Drop call probability is defined as the probability that a call is terminated due to one or all of the above-mentioned causes and is basically estimated from drop call rate by applying the Poisson probability distribution function. Drop-call probability has been the subject of several network performance studies and a major contributor to service optimization in established cellular networks. In this paper, we present an overview of drop-call probability factors in cellular networks. Moreover, some of the factors have been analyzed to study the trends in relation to an operative GSM network and the results are discussed.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

AHDR Technique for OBS Networks[Full-Text] [References]
Wael Hosny Fouad Aly, Martin Levesque, Halima ElBiaze

One of the major problems in Optical Burst Switching (OBS) networks is burst contention. Deflection routing is used to resolve the contention problem. Burst Loss ratio (BLR) is the ratio of the lost bursts to the total sent bursts from the transmitter to the receiver. Burst retransmission is used to reduce the BLR by retransmitting dropped bursts. Previous research papers show that combining deflection and retransmission outperforms both pure deflection and pure retransmission approaches. This paper proposes a novel approach called Adaptive Hybrid Deflection and Retransmission (AHDR) approach that combines deflection and retransmission techniques dynamically based on network conditions. Network conditions taken into account in this research paper are BLR and link utilization. Network Simulator-2 (ns-2) tool is used to simulate the proposed approach on different network topologies. Simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms static approaches in terms of BLR and goodput.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Novel Defect Segmentation Technique in Random Textured Tiles[Full-Text] [References]
Aborisade, D.O and Ojo, J. A

In this paper problem of detecting different type of defects on random textured tiles surfaces is addressed. Since Gabor filters allows optimal localization both in the spatial domain and in the spatial-frequency domain it is been utilized in the proposed technique to extract texture features which are useful for detecting defect edges on the tile. Kohonen's Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) is used for reducing the feature vectors to obtain 1-dimensional feature map (scalar image). The output of the SOM is smoothed with Gaussian filtering mask and Canny's edge edge-detection method is applied to the smoothed feature map image to obtain the edge map of the detected defect from the tile surface. The results obtained when the proposed technique is tested on various random texture tiles confirm its efficiency.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Indexing Relational Databases for Efficient Keyword Search[Full-Text] [References]
Phyo Thu Thu Khine, Htwe Pa Pa Win, Khin Nwe Ni Tun

Keyword search is a widely accepted mechanism for querying in Information Retrieval (IR) systems and Internet search engines on the Web. They offer convenient keyword-based search interfaces. But searching in relational database systems the user needs to learn SQL and to know the schema of the underlying data even to pose simple searches. A system that can eliminate these requirements is needed. Therefore we proposed an efficient keyword-based search system for relational databases. The proposed system provides online search and offline indexing method to do efficient keyword based search. Firstly, a relational database is indexed in advance using the proposed indexing algorithm. At searching time, the index supports keyword-based searches with interactive response. The index size is manageable and database updates do not significantly hinder query performance. As long as the database table records can be extended, this system can be easily extendable for further searching records from tables. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides less storage space and short offline indexing time and also reduces query processing time significantly compared to previous approaches.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bilingual OCR System for Myanmar and English Scripts with Simultaneous Recognition[Full-Text] [References]
Htwe Pa Pa Win, Phyo Thu Thu Khine, Khin Nwe Ni Tun

The increasing amount of development of the digital libraries worldwide raises many new challenges for document image analysis research and development. Storing wide variety of document images in Digital library, for example, for cultural, technical or historical, that are written in many languages, also create many advancement for present day digital image analysis systems. And when the Digital Library is concerned with Science and Technology documents, it needs to advance the OCR system to bilingual nature as most of them are written in Myanmar in combination with English letters. In this paper a bilingual OCR to simultaneously recognize the printed English and Myanmar texts is proposed including segmentation mechanism for the overlapping nature of Myanmar scripts. The effectiveness of the proposed mechanism is proved with the experimental results of segmentation accuracy rates, comparisons of feature extraction methods and overall accuracy rates.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Verification and Validation in GERAM Framework for Modeling of Information Systems[Full-Text] [References]
Majid Aarabi, Misam Kashefi, M.R. Khoei, Muhamad Zameri Mat Saman, Hooshang M. Beheshti

The main aim of this article is to propose a methodology for using verification and validation tools in a framework for modeling of an Industrial Enterprise Information Systems. The first part of this paper introduces the Generalized Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology (GERAM) framework and its parts that are used for modeling of industrial enterprise information systems. The second part introduces the verification and validation concepts and tools. The third part of this article proposes the use of the verification and validation tools in GERAM framework to improve the coherency, correctness, error-free, qualitative aspects and efficiency of an enterprise information system.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Achieving Zero Common Mode Voltage and Improved Linearity Relationship by a Novel Modulation Method[Full-Text] [References]
Nasim Rashidirad, Abdolreza Rahmati, Adib Abrishamifar

This paper proposed a new modulation strategy to eliminate common mode voltages in multilevel inverters. In this scheme which is explained for a 5-level modular inverter, all voltage vectors with zero common mode voltages can be classified into four categories and each two adjacent categories composed a segment. Synthesized voltage vectors that are an approximation to the reference vector belong to the segment in which the reference vector lies. Dwell times of these voltage vectors, depend on the distance between reference vector and the voltage vectors. This scheme leads to a good linearity relationship and low total harmonic distortion.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Common Fixed Point Theorems For Multivalued Compatible Maps in IFMS[Full-Text] [References]
Anil Rajput , Namrata Tripathi, Sheel Kant Gour, Seema Chouhan, Rajamani S

The aim of this paper is to obtain the notion of multivalued weakly compatible (mwc) maps and prove common fixed point theorems for single and multi valued maps by using a contractive condition of integral type in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Road Network Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Images based on LSE _ LBF Model[Full-Text] [References]
T Rajani Mangala, S G Bhirud

Road information extraction from high resolution satellite images plays an important role because roads affect urban and rural land cover and usage. It is difficult and computationally intensive and expensive to extract roads due to presence of their road like features with straight edges. In this paper we have used the level segment evolution and local binary fitting based model for the extraction of roads. This algorithm followed by morphological operations gives satisfactory results.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Implementation of a Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks[Full-Text] [References]
Dr. Anubhuti Khare, Manish Saxena ,Roshan Singh Thakur , Khyati Chourasia

This paper explore the ways to deploy the network so that the workload is evenly distributed, thus the network overall behavior degrades in a smooth fashion. The sensors should be evenly deployed within the monitored area, we look at the approach where a set of more powerful nodes (routers) are designated for data relaying. We look at the approach to deploy these relaying nodes that are easy to implement in practice. In particular, we select sub-regions to deploy them at calculated density. We propose a simple method where the density is simply based on the size of the area whose data will be relayed by these nodes. Our experimental results verify the theoretical estimation of the routers' density.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Fault Modeling of Sequential Circuits at Register Transfer Level[Full-Text] [References]
Suma M.S,K.S.Gurumurthy

As the complexity of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) is growing, testing becomes tedious and tougher. As of now fault models are used to test digital circuits at the gate level or below that level. By using fault models at the lower levels, testing becomes cumbersome and will lead to delays in the design cycle. Thus there is a need to look for a new approach of testing the circuits at higher levels to speed up the design cycle. This paper proposes on Register Transfer Level (RTL) modeling for digital circuits and computing the fault coverage. The result obtained through this work establishes that the fault coverage with the RTL fault model is comparable to the gate level fault coverage.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Free Trade Agreement's economic aspects and impacts with special reference to Albania[Full-Text] [References]
Oltjana Zoto

Free Trade agreement has a cruciall role in the openness of Albania economy. They had a positive and a negative impact on economic indicators such as unemployment rate, inflation, trade balance. Despite the inconveniences Albania shows also positives signs regarding FTAs, such as higher trade volume as a consequence of increasing exports and imports. This means that the country has forced its cooperation with partner countries.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The effect of two realistic Radio Propagation Models for Mobile Ad hoc NETworks in Urban Area Environment Supported with stations[Full-Text] [References]
Dr.Ibrahim khider, Prof.Wang Furong,Amna Saad

In the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networking, most current results have been achieved using simulators. Network simulation tools are frequently used to analyze performance of MANET protocols and applications. The need for reproducible results and easy to observe environments limits the use of real world measurements for those kind of networks. They commonly offer only simple radio propagation models that neglect obstacles of a propagation environment .The radio wave propagation model has a strong impact on the results of the simulation run. It is stated here that the two more realistic radio propagation models has a strong impact on the results of the simulation run. The model is based on data of the simulation area in urban area. Consequently, we obtain different performance evaluation results. This paper gives insights on the effect of these propagation models for MANETs in indoor and outdoor environments and presents the parameters and the results of simulating

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Survey Of Databases Used In Image Processing And Their Applications[Full-Text] [References]
Shubhpreet Kaur, Gagandeep Jindal

This paper gives review of Medical image database (MIDB) systems which have been developed in the past few years for research for medical fraternity and students. In this paper, I have surveyed all available medical image databases relevant for research and their use.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Power Exchanges a Boon or Bane: A Case- Study of Indian Power Sector[Full-Text] [References]
Vebhav Gupta

Electricity brought about during the last few years in various power markets around the world have revolutionized the way in which the markets have typically viewed electricity. Electricity sector reforms have enabled a transition from a vertically integrated private or public monopoly market structure to one of competitive wholesale and retail mechanism with market places like power exchange. The instantaneous and perishable nature of electricity and the sporadic demand -supply mismatch at geographical level calls for a market place where surpluses can be disposed off efficiently or a real time basis to optimize resource allocation on short term bases. This short-term trading shall be organized on a transparent, equitable and efficient platform, Power exchanges .Energy is crucial to any country, especially a rapidly developing one such as India. Regulatory changes has led to creation of Indian Energy Exchange (IEX) &Power Exchange of India Ltd. (PXIL), a vibrant, transparent market on which buyers and sellers can trade electricity contracts and meet the diverse needs of their consumers nationwide.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Performance Comparison of Semifragile Watermarking Methods for Image Au-thentication[Full-Text] [References]
Archana Tiwari , Dr. Manisha Sharma

Data authentication is one of the primary requisites in present day communication systems. In image processing, data authentication is implemented by using watermarking techniques. The specific interest in semifragile watermarking algorithms arises from the multitude of practical and commercial applications, where content needs to be strictly protected, but the exact representation during exchange and storage need not be guaranteed. The alterations on the documents can occur unintentionally or can be implanted intentionally. Semifragile watermarks are more robust and less sensitive to classical user modifications such as JPEG compression, content-preserving operations and content altering manipulations while sensitive to content integrity verification. In present paper the performance of seven semifragile watermarking methods are compared in terms of their PSNR, robustness and temper sensitivity properties.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

'Women's Education a Tool of Social Transformation'-A Historical Study Based on Kerala Society[Full-Text] [References]
Beena Dominic

All the historical studies regarding to societies inevitably have been determined, or at least motivated by historical process. The core issue of this paper is srutinizing the particular historical trends under which the concept of 'Social Transformation' has grown among women in Kerala. The theoretical and analytical approaches help us to prove its facts authentically. Here the researcher tries to go through the study of women in Kerala before 19th cetuary and analyse their actual conditions of that age and generated hoe education stood as the tool of social transformation among women society. Then assess how they achieved their esteemed status in the society on the historical point of view. This paper can be considered a theoretical framework focussing on social transformation as defined through the examination of its principal ideologies and the study of the concept's reproduction through institutional organizations

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

'Women's Education and Social Transformation' with Th Special Reference to the Role of Christian Missionaries in Kerala[Full-Text] [References]
Beena Dominic , Dr.C.Amritha Jothi

Social Transformation is the process of change or the formation of value system in the fullest sence. Globilization has presented new challenges in the realization of the goal of transforming women and now women transformation has become the sloganand motto of many social reformers, governmental agencies and voluntary organization. There is a long cherished wish among all the women to have better avenues in life in order to lead the life in a more fruitful way. The paper deeply goes through the historical trends on women's education in Kerala and analyzes how we can transform women to applying education. The study tries to explore the theoretical approach of women's education and social transformation and assess the role of missionaries in women's education. The prime aim of this review is to provide a historical framework of women's education and social transformation and to generate new approach about education on the histoirical point of view. The analytical and theoretical techniques are used for preparing this work. The review throws light in analyzing the concept 'Social Transformation'through education by incorporating all divergent views with suffient logical reasoning. It also explains the problems faced and the possibilities ahead on achieving women's transformation.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Comparison Of Different Planar Monopole UWB Antenna Using HFSS[Full-Text] [References]
Ria Kalra , Sukhdeep Kaur

Since the release by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of a bandwidth of 7.5GHz (from 3.1GHz to 10.6GHz) for ultra wideband (UWB) wireless communications, UWB is rapidly advancing as a high data rate wireless communication technology. As is the case in conventional wireless communication systems, an antenna also plays a very crucial role in UWB systems. However, there are more challenges in designing a UWB antenna than a narrow band one. A suitable UWB antenna should be capable of operating over an ultra wide bandwidth as allocated by the FCC. At the same time, satisfactory radiation properties over the entire frequency range are also necessary. This paper focuses on UWB antenna design and analysis. Extensive investigations were also carried out on different types of Planar Monopole UWB antennas .The first type of antenna studied in this paper is circular disc monopole antenna. The disc monopole originates from conventional straight wire monopole by replacing the wire element with a disc plate to enhance the operating bandwidth substantially .Based on the understanding of circular disc monopole, different compact versions featuring low-profile and compatibility to printed circuit board are proposed and studied. All of them are printed disc monopoles, fed by a micro-strip line .Investigations have also been carried out in this thesis to analyze the design parameters of different monopole antenna such as planar circular monopole antenna, planar ring monopole antenna, modified planar rectangular antenna with and without notch. It has been demonstrated that these antennas are suitable for UWB applications.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Offshore Steel Structures Corrosion Damage Model[Full-Text] [References]
Salau M. A, Esezobor D. E, Omotoso Matthew Folorunso

This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art modeling for marine steel structures chloride-induced corrosion. To investigate the effect of ocean wave on chloride accumulation in the neighborhood of offshore crude oil production platform. The model demonstrates that the period required for the steel structures built in marine environment to experience corrosion losses depends on chlorine ion diffusion rate, accumulation rate and time for corrosion to occur and generate enough rusting to fall off from the steel component surface. The work revealed that chlorine ion concentration in surrounding of offshore platform was higher than the open seawater due to crude oil production activities. The work provides estimation method for chloride accumulation rate in the neighbourhood of offshore production platform based on chlorine ion concentration, wave velocity and the age of platform.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Influence of Dopants (Cd AND Al ) on The Physical Properties of ZnO[Full-Text] [References]
Ali Fatima.A, Suganthi Devadason

Zinc oxide and doped (Cadmium,Aluminium) zinc oxide thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by simple sol-gel spin coating technique. The structure of the deposited ZnO films was determined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it exhibits wurtzite structure along c-axis orientation. The surface morphology of the undoped and doped ZnO thin films has been examined by SEM. The optical absorbance of the deposited films was recorded using UV-Vis-NIR spectrometry. The optical band gap of deposited films was found to be 3.13 eV for pure ZnO, 3.21 eV and 3.22 eV for 1% cadmium (Cd) and 1% Aluminium (Al) doped ZnO respectively. The photoluminescence spectra of the films show prominent peaks between 382 to 385nm.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic Response Of Jospephson Resistive Logic (Jaws) Gate[Full-Text] [References]
K.SRINIVAS and J. C. BISWAS

In this paper a thorough investigation of resistive logic gate, JAWS (Josephson Auto-Weber System) has been made. The current equations of this gate at each stage have been deduced. The dynamic response of this gate has been obtained by the computer-simulation. Our concept of turn-on delay of Josephson junction has been introduced. The effect of overdrive current on turn-on delay for JAWS resistive logic gate has been shown. This will provide a better understanding of switching dynamics of the JAWS logic gate. Further, we have shown the effect of overdrive current on this logic gate.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Fixed Point Theorem in Hausdorff Space[Full-Text] [References]
Rajesh Shrivastava, Manavi Kohli

The aim of the present paper is to prove the existence of fixed point for any continuous mapping in Hausdorff spaces.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

On subgroups of a finite p-groups[Full-Text] [References]
A. D. Akinola

In this paper we proved some theorems on normal subgroups, on-normal subgroup, minimal nonmetacyclic and maximal class of a p-group G

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Direct Torque Control Of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor[Full-Text] [References]
Simhadri Amarendra Babu

Permanent Magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are used in many applications that require rapid torque response and high-performance operation. The PMSM is very similar to the standard wound rotor synchronous machine except that the PMSM has no damper windings and excitation is provided by a permanent magnet instead of a field winding. The elimination of field coil, dc supply and slip rings reduce the motor loss and complexity. For the same frame size, permanent magnet motors have higher pull out torque. It is mathematically proven that the increase of electromagnetic torque in a permanent magnet motor is proportional to the increase of the angle between the stator and rotor flux linkages, and, therefore, the fast torque response can be obtained by adjusting the rotating speed of the stator flux linkage as fast as possible. This is achieved by using direct torque control (DTC) technique.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

X-ray Satellites spectra in core level 2p peaks of transition metal oxides[Full-Text] [References]
Dr. Sameer Sinha, Vinay Kumar Pandey, Ajay Vikram Singh

We have used Plasmon theory to explain the Energy Satellites and relative intensity of transition metal oxides based on their core level peaks. In the photoelectron spectrum, these regions are usually complicated and therefore the choice of the analysis methods can significantly affect the quantification results. In this work, we studied the chemical state quantification of iron and chromium oxides the analysis was based on the 2p region of the photoelectron spectrum and estimated values are in agreement with the calculated values of M. Aronniemi *, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mobile Phone Usage Survey Among Students And Staffs Of Universities Using Data Mining Technique[Full-Text] [References]
Babu Santhalingam, K. Revathi, J. Devi

Data mining refers to extracting knowledge from large amount of data. Real life data mining approaches are interesting because they often present a different set of problems for data miners. Here the Study explored the extent of various mobile phone model and service providers usage among Students and staffs of various colleges and Universities in Kanchipuram. The analysis had been carried out by using a survey dataset and using the J48 decision tree algorithm implemented in Weka. The WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) system provides a Comprehensive suite of facilities for applying data mining techniques to large data sets. Additionally, the study determined Gender differences in Mobile Phone usage and duration details, Purpose of Mobile Phone usage, problems dealing with MP (Mobile Phone), Satisfaction of the service provider, Type of service in terms of prepaid and post paid and General opinion of the respondents about MP. The data has collected from various colleges and universities in Kanchipuram, from the huge dataset the sample of (N= 158) Including Students and Staffs chosen randomly from SCSVMV university in 2011(Nov-Mar) for this study. The Method of Data collection was a questionnaire developed by the researcher.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Polling System Using GSM Facility[Full-Text] [References]
Hemlata Sahu, Anupam Choudhray

Voting is the foundation of a democratic system of government, whether the system uses direct or representative governance. In democratic societies, voting is an important tool to collect and reflect people's opinions.In the existing voting method to select a candidate in the election such as presidential election, the assembly election, or local election, electorates go to the designated polling places and have to be identified to cast their votes, and finally voters cast their ballot. Voters should registered on a poll book, this procedure takes the long amount of time consumed on voting and counting of votes. In this paper, an electronic voting scheme using GSM mobile technology is presented. By integrating an electronic voting scheme with the GSM infrastructure, we are able to exploit existing GSM authentication mechanisms and provide enhanced voter authentication and mobility while maintaining voter privacy.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

M-CMTS & DOCSIS 3.0 Standards at High Speed[Full-Text] [References]
Sadhana Pal, Gyan Prakash, Aradhana Jyotsana, Vivek Birla

There are many challenges to cable operators. The main challenge that operators face to provide a Connected Life experience is lack of available bandwidth. Operators need to deliver more downstream and upstream band width to provide a fat pipe to and from the home. DOCSIS 3.0 is one of the best solutions to deliver higher band width. DOCSIS 3.0 addresses the bandwidth crunch in both the upstream and downstream directions. Another challenge is to deliver Higher Bandwidth at a Reduced Cost per Bit. While the need for bandwidth is enormous, operators have to be able to deliver next generation, high-bandwidth services at a reduced cost in order to stay competitive in the marketplace. The modular M-CMTS and I-CMTS solutions provide the building blocks to enable operators to offer highly competitive, high-bandwidth services at a reduced cost per bit. By using M-CMTS and deploying U-EQAM modulators, operators now can easily migrate to a high-bandwidth service to the home and enjoy greatly reduced capital expenditures (CapEx).

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Decomposition of formula into sunlet graphs[Full-Text] [References]
A. D. Akinola

In this paper,it has been proved that formula (which is the wreath product of cycle and complement of a complete graph Kn can be decompose into sunlet graph Ln , n = rm if and only if n|rm² and m is even.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Effective Utilization Of Library Books Among University Students Using Data Mining Tool[Full-Text] [References]
Babu Santhalingam, J. Devi, K. Revathi

Data mining is the process of discovering previously unknown and potentially interesting patterns in large datasets. University Library is an excellent example of knowledge creation, application and utilization. "A library is a growing organism". This study examines the effective use of library books by the students of SCSVMV University, Kanchipuram. The analysis had been carried out by using a library books dataset and using the J48 decision tree algorithm implemented in Weka. WEKA is a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks. The objectives of this study are to provide an approximate estimation of existing computerized records of library books population and to evaluate how books are used. The results revealed that maximum use of the library books were made and which particular department books are highly borrowed from the library. A Sample of 460 volumes of 2010 year borrowed books is used for this study.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic Response Of Jospephson Resistive Logic (DCI) Gate[Full-Text] [References]
K.SRINIVAS and J. C. BISWAS

In this paper a thorough investigation of resistive logic gate DCI has been made. The current equations of this gate at each stage have been deduced. The dynamic response of this DCI gate has been obtained by the computer-simulation. Our concept of turn-on delay has been introduced. The effect of overdrive current on turn-on delay for resistive logic gate has been shown. This will provide a better understanding of switching dynamics of the DCI logic gate. Further, we have shown the effect of overdrive current on this logic gate.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Determinism and Authority in Sanaie Ghaznavy's Hadighat- Aalhaghighe[Full-Text] [References]
Dr. Ahmad Reza Keikhay Farzaneh

The extremism of determinism and authority range of the human vis-a-vis the will of God is one of the controversial issues concerning the difference among the divine religions. In Islam, the factions such as Motazeleh, Zeydieh, Esmailieh, Emaieh, Matridieh, Ashaereh and Jabarieh assumed most amount of authority to least amount, respectively. In this paper, by considering the poems of Sanaie's Hadighe, this issue is going to be proved that whether Sanaie was an Ashary sect or authoritarian?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Fuzzy logic DC-Link Voltage Controller for Three-Phase DSTATCOM to Compensate AC and DC Loads[Full-Text] [References]
Kranthi Kumar Kora

A fuzzy Logic controls the transient response of the distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) is very important while compensating rapidly varying unbalanced and nonlinear loads. Any change in the load affects the dc-link voltage directly. The sudden removal of load would result in an increase in the dc-link voltage above the reference value, whereas a sudden increase in load would reduce the dc-link voltage below its reference value. The proper operation of DSTATCOM requires variation of the dc-link voltage within the prescribed limits. Conventionally, a proportional-integral (PI) controller and Fast-acting controller is used to maintain the dc-link voltage to the reference value. It uses deviation of the capacitor voltage from its reference value as its input. However, the transient response of the conventional PI dc-link voltage controller is slow,the transient response of the Fast-Acting DC link voltage is moderate. In this paper, a fuzzy logic dc-link voltage controller based on the energy of a dc-link capacitor is proposed. Mathematical equations are given to compute the gains of the conventional controller based on fast-acting dc-link voltage and fuzzy logic dc-link voltage controllers to achieve similar fast transient response. The detailed simulation and experimental studies are carried out to validate the proposed controller.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Availability Analysis of A System Having Two Units In Series Configuration With Controllar And Human Failure Under Different Repair Policies[Full-Text] [References]
V.V.Singh, Dilip KumarRawal

This paper deals with the availability analysis of a complex system that consists of two subsystems namely subsystem 1 and subsystem 2.Subsystem 1 is working under k-out of -n good policy and subsystem 2 has two identical units in parallel configuration. Controller for proper functioning controls the subsystems 1. All failure rates are constant and follow exponential distribution but repairs follow general and Gumbel-Houggard family copula distribution. The system is analyze by supplementary technique by evaluating varies measures of reliability such as state transition probability, MTTF, etc. Some computations are taken as special cases by evaluating availability of system and profit analysis.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Different Pattern Recognition in Re-Ranking Process Using Image Based Retrieval[Full-Text] [References]
Ravi Kumar Kallakunta, Dr. Balaji Savadam, Mahidhar Chowdary Mullapudi

We propose a location geometric similarity scoring method that is invariant to rotation, scale, and translation, and can be easily incorporated in mobile visual search and augmented reality systems. We present a fast and efficient geometric re-ranking method that can be incorporated in a feature based image-based retrieval system that utilizes a Vocabulary Tree (VT). We form feature pairs by comparing descriptor classification paths in the VT and calculate geometric similarity score of these pairs. We compare the performance of the location geometric scoring scheme to orientation and scale geometric scoring schemes. We show in our experiments that re-ranking schemes can substantially improve recognition accuracy. We can also reduce the worst case server latency up to 1 sec and still improve the recognition performance

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Performance Comparison of Semifragile Watermarking Methods for Image Au-thentication[Full-Text] [References]
Mrs. Swati V. Sankpal, Dr. Vishram Bapat

Environmental sensor networks have been a topic of significant research in recent years. Sensor network enables researchers to do continuous long term, autonomous sensing of many different aspects of environmental systems. They must be so energy efficient that they can remain in same situation with little human interaction and be maintenance-free for years together. Habitat monitoring, with its focus on dynamic interactions within and between a variety of scales is an ideal application of sensor network. Many protocols have been proposed for WSNs and have focused on extending the lifetime of sensor networks, WSNs powered by ambient energy harvesting are more useful and economical in the long-term because ambient energy may be harvested from the environment at all times. To improve the life time of WSN this work evaluate the performance of new proposed scheme-Solar Energy Harvesting Energy Efficient MAC (SEHEE-MAC). The SEHEE-MAC protocol controls the activities of Radio by using slotted preamble technique and obtains significant energy savings by allowing nodes to sleep for extended periods of time. The results are compared with ZigBee and Preamble protocols for solar harvesting sensor networks.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The m-deficient number of complete bigraphs[Full-Text] [References]
Sanjay Roy, Dr. Danappa G.Akka

An open problem posed by Aaron and Lewinter in [2] asks whether the m-deficient number interpolates or not. A negative answer of this problem is established in [5]. The counter example in [5] was obtained by characterizing the m-deficient number of complete graph. In this note another counter example was obtained by characterizing the m-deficient number of complete bipartite graphs Kn1, n2, n1? n2 in a similar way.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ultra wide band slot dipole antenna performance measurements effected by male and female body[Full-Text] [References]
S. Mahmood

A one-sided directional ultra wide band slot dipole antenna with floating metal layer on the bottom side was presented and used for a body area network (BAN) measurements and influence of male and female bodies on the antenna performance was compared and discussed, The return loss (S11) curves are presented and discussed on various locations on the male and female body to clarify the difference of male and female body effect on the antenna performance

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Optimization of Capacitive MEMS Pressure Sensor for RF Telemetry[Full-Text] [References]
Prince Nagpal, Manish Mehta, Kamaljeet Rangra, Ravinder Aggarwal

This paper describes the capacitive pressure sensor design for biomedical applications like blood pressure measurement. The described pressure sensors provide high sensitivity even at low pressure range suitable for biomedical applications. Effects of varying different parameters on the pressure sensor performance have been studied. From the results, the pressure sensors with compatible parameters can be selected for specific requirements. These compact pressure sensors are made up of biocompatible materials and can be implanted easily inside body to be used for RF telemetry purpose

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Phonocardiography-the future of cardiac auscultation[Full-Text] [References]
M.VishwanathShervegar,Ganesh.V.Bhat,Raghavendra M Shetty K

This paper presents a novel method of phonocardiogram acquisition, recording and analysis. The PC/laptop is a host of software that provide complete analysis of heart sounds. Different signal processing techniques such as filtering, wavelet analysis, and spectrum are used to analyse the various components of heart sound.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Optimized Fuzzy Logic Training of Neural Networks for Autonomous Robotics Applications[Full-Text] [References]
Ammar A. Alzaydi, Kartik Vamaraju, Prasenjit Mukherjee, Jeffrey Gorchynski

Many different neural network and fuzzy logic related solutions have been proposed for the problem of autonomous vehicle navigation in an unknown environment. One central problem impacting the success of neural network based solutions is the problem of properly training neural networks. In this paper, an autonomous vehicle controlled by a feed-forward neural network is trained in real time using a fuzzy logic based trainer and the standard back-propagation learning algorithm. The experimental results presented demonstrate the feasibility of real time training using a constrained hardware platform. They also show the impact of racetrack complexity on the training process as well as the impact of the neural network size on the learning speed and error convergence during the training process. The results are then used to develop an optimization procedure that is used to determine the optimal neural network size for the given problem domain and experimental platform.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Macroeconomic Determinants of Remittances in Bangladesh: An Empirical Analysis[Full-Text] [References]
Md. Mahmud Hasan Shah, Md. Zobayer Bin Amir

Conventional wisdom in the economics of migration holds that remittance receipts may be a more stable source of capital for developing countries than official Development Assistance or private financial capital. We use national accounts data to analyze movements in remittance flow to Bangladesh from 1975- 2010 against these series, as well as GDP at current price, Remittances, Oil Price, Foreign Exchange Rate and Number of Migrant. The paper applied Augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillips-Perron to check the stationarity of the time series, and then we find the long run stable relationship by Granger Residual Based and Johansen's coingegration test. Applying the error correction mechanism has stable relationship in Bangladesh in the short as well as in the long run.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SEDs and Age Estimates of MYSOs: Study of Galactic Massive Star Forming Regions[Full-Text] [References]
Kamal Kumar Tanti, Jayashree Roy, Dr. Kalpana Duorah

In this paper, we present the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of six massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) detected from the NIR imaging survey carried out by Varricatt et al. (2010) and estimated their ages and masses. The SEDs of YSOs in six massive star forming regions has been reconstructed using 2MASS, MSX, IRAS, IRAC & MIPS, SCUBA, WISE, SPIRE and IRAM data partly available from previous works using the on-line SED Fitting tool (SED Fitter) developed by Robitaille et al. (2006, 2007). Apart from IRAS catalogue fluxes, the fluxes in the Mid-IR and sub-mm/mm were derived directly from the images. With the help of the analysis of spectral energy distributions, we have extracted important physical and structural parameters for each of the massive young stellar objects, along with the associated circumstellar disk and envelope. The cumulative distribution of stellar ages and masses of the massive YSOs indicates to a scenario for the formation history of massive stars in their respective star forming regions.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Implementation of Cascade Multilevel Inverter in Distribution Systems as Power Line Conditioner[Full-Text] [References]
Rajasekhar.G.G, N.Sambasiva Rao, T.Vijay Muni

This paper deals with the implementation of cascade multilevel inverter-based STATCOM, which employs H-bridge inverter. The STATCOM system is modeled using the d-q transform, which calculates the instantaneous reactive power. In this paper, a power line conditioner using a cascade multilevel inverter is presented for voltage regulation, harmonic filtering and reactive power compensation (var). 11 level STATCOM is selected as demonstration. The cascade multilevel converter consists of five single-phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own DC source. This new inverter can: 1) It can eliminate transformers of multilevel inverters used in conventional static var compensators; 2) make possible to direct connect to power distribution system in parallel and series without any transformer; 3) generate almost sinusoidal voltage. This paper focuses on feasibility and control schemes of the cascade inverter foe voltage regulation and harmonic filtering in distribution systems. The results are analyzed and discussed.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Wavelet based multiresolution analysis for real time condition monitoring of AC machine using vibration analysis[Full-Text] [References]
Subhra Debdas, M.F.Qureshi, A.Reddy, D.Chandrakar, D.Pansari

Wavelet is a powerful tool used for non stationary signal analysis. It does not change the time information content present in the signal hence it provides a time-frequency representation of the signal. Using the wavelet technique, transients can be decomposed into series of wavelet components, in which each is a time-domain signal that covers a specific frequency band. Disturbances of small intervals are amplified frequency band. In this paper a multi-resolution based pattern recognition technique is used for vibration analysis of angle grinder machine by which different frequencies are analyzed with different resolutions. This method is more reliable as compared to other FFT based techniquesrelative to the rest of the signal when projected to similar size wavelet bases and, thus, they can be easily detected in the corresponding

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

An Innovative Method of Measuring Semiconductors Resistivity Using Van der Pauw Technique[Full-Text] [References]
Amir J. Majid

Van der Pauw technique for measuring semiconductors resistivity is adopted to remove contacts and isolation effects on high resistance materials. An innovative digital method is proposed using, analog-to-digital (ADC) and digital-to-analog (DAC) circuits to reduce voltage coefficient, temperature coefficient and geometrical errors. With the aid of an N-bit timer and N-bit ADC and DAC, a set of 2N values of different values of current sources are applied and consequent voltage measurements are used in the calculation of resistivity. Consequently, a more accurate average is obtained with less voltage coefficient and temperature effects. This can be implemented by the use of embedded computers and microcontrollers.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic Response Of Jospephson Resistive Logic (RCJL) Gate[Full-Text] [References]
K.SRINIVAS and J. C. BISWAS

In this paper a thorough investigation of resistive logic RCJL gate has been made. The current equations of this gate at each stage have been deduced. The dynamic response of this gate has been obtained by the computer-simulation. Our concept of turn-on delay has been introduced. The effect of overdrive current on turn-on delay for resistive logic gate has been shown. This will provide a better understanding of switching dynamics of the RCJL logic gate. Further, we have shown the effect of overdrive current on this logic gate.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Analysis of A Population Of Cataract Patients Databases In Weka Tool[Full-Text] [References]
C.sugandhi, P.Yasodha, M.Kannan

Data mining refers to extracting knowledge from large amount of data. Real life data mining approaches are interesting because they often present a different set of problems for data miners. The process of designing a model helps to identify the different Cataract Diseases. A cataract can cause a decrease in visual function, which in turn can be classified as a visual disability. Thus, cataract can be defined in three ways. The first definition is an objective lens change. The second is a lens opacity that is associated with a defined level of visual acuity loss. The third relates to the functional consequences of lens opacification. This guideline focuses on the last definition. It deals with care of the patient with functional impairment due to cataract and improvement in function as a result of treatment for the condition. Taking into account the prevalence of cataract among men and women the study is aimed at finding out the characteristics that determine the presence of cataract and to track the maximum number of men and women suffering from cataract with 790 population using weka tool. In this paper the data classification is cataract patients data set is developed by collecting data from hospital repository consists of 790 instances with 11 different attributes. The instances in the Dataset are pertaining to the categories of Kerato meter reading (RE), Kerato meter reading (LE), Axil Length(RE), Axil Length(LE), Power(RE), Power(LE), Cataract Disease . WEKA tool is used to classify the data and the data is evaluated using 10-fold cross validation and the results are compared.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Alkaline Phosphatase Activity during Homogenisation of Hepatopancreatic Tissues of Shrimps using Sodium acetate, KCl solution, Tris-HCl and Glycine-NaOH buffer.[Full-Text] [References]
Kathyayani Puttige, Krishna Prasad Nooralabettu

Hepatopancreatic tissues of shrimps, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus indicus, Metapenaeus monocerus, Solenocera Choprai and Parapenaeopsis stylifera was homogenized at 3000 rpm/10 min using various buffers such as 0.5M Sodium acetate buffer, 2M KCl solution, Deionised water, 0.1M Tris-HCl buffer and 0.1M Glycine-NaOH buffer of pH 5.5, 7.0, 7.4, 8.4 and 9.5, respectively. Alkaline phosphatase activities in each of these tissue homogenates were assayed using p-nitrophenylphosphate either as a substrate in respective homogenisation buffer or 2-amino 2-methyl 1-propanol buffer, as the liberation of p-nitrophenol/min at 37 oC/L of homogenate. Enzyme activity increased by more than 1.5 folds as the assay buffer changed from respective homogenisation buffer to AMP-buffer. Lowest activity was observed in 0.5M Sodium acetate and highest activity was observed in 0.1M Tris-HCl buffer. Increase in pH of the buffer increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, but Glycine-NaOH buffer even at pH 9.5 did not favour the activity compared to Tris-HCl buffer

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Control and System Identification via Swarm and Evolutionary Algorithms[Full-Text] [References]
Tayebeh Mostajabi, Javad Poshtan

A central topic of swarm intelligence is the investigation of different types of emergent collective behaviors in swarms. This article focus on the swarm intelligence applications in control and system identification. Particle swarm optimization (PSO), a novel population based stochastic optimizer with fast convergence speed and simple implementation and genetic algorithm, have been successfully applied to solve system identification optimization problems. In addition, PSO and ant colony optimization (ACO) have been applied as a navigation algorithm in swarm robots. Some of the recently proposed swarm based metaheuristics such as bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA), wasp optimization algorithm (WOA), bee optimization algorithm (BOA) and Physarum Solver will need further investigation to assess their potential for generating state-of-the-art algorithms that are useful for this area

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Real Time Hi-Speed Tracker for Chain Snatcher[Full-Text] [References]
B S Manusudhan and S Sowmyasudhan

The word that is rampant in newspaper, television channel and in all our lives is "Chain snatching". This is one of the crimes which are increasing as the river flows downstream. Back -to- Back chain snatching in the city put the cops on their toes. Even as chain snatchers go about their job with the spirit catch-me-if-you-can, police are working over-time to dent that spirit, but to no avail. Observing that the robberies have increased over the years, there is also a raise in chain snatching incidents. Thus chain snatching has become an urban phenomenon. Even though many cases have being lodged in the police station, but a very few cases have been solved, and many of the cases are still under investigation. In day-today newspaper by default front page reads "again a chain snatcher strikes the city", a serious threat that scares the public to walk in and around city is "Chain snatching", and has become a challenge for the Police Department in capturing the culprits. We being an engineers, there is no other Nobel way to thank our society, than giving helping hands to the society. So we came with an innovative idea of implementing a smart electronic gadget, so called, "ARM IMPLEMENTATION FOR REAL-TIME HI-SPEED TRACKER FOR CHAIN SNATCHER". This innovation also pulls down the anti-social activities in public places.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Energy Conservation of Heat, Ventilation & Air-Conditioning System with the help of Fuzzy Controller[Full-Text] [References]
Harkamaljeet Singh Bhullar, Vikram Kumar Kamboj

The Management and Automation of a Commercial building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (H.V.A.C) System has got enormous benefits from the use of all the available information sources. The modern H.V.A.C using direct digital control methods have provided useful performance data from the building occupants. The untapped data can be cultivated with the help of modern maintenance management databases. This research work has got the integration and application of these fundamental sources of information, using some modern and novel techniques. The cost and scalability of these techniques can be positively influenced by the recent technological advancement in computing power, sensors and databases. The important theme of this research paper is to increase the computational efficiency and practical usefulness of techniques, via some clever approximations

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Generation of Electric Power, Harnessing Atmospheric Pressure[Full-Text] [References]
Raj Kumar Parashari

This paper reports a metod / technique to produce huge amount of electricity by harnessing atmospheric pressure .It also discusses unique features and further scope of the project .Calculations suggests that power generated is large enough to meet the need of electric power for the globe .It should also reduce effect of global worming

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Performance Evaluation of ROI-based Image Compression Techniques[Full-Text] [References]
Gunpreet Kaur, Mandeep Kaur

Medical diagnostic data produced by hospitals has increased exponentially. The coming era of digitized medical information and film-less imaging, has made it a challenge to deal with the storage and transmission requirement of enormous data. With this, selective medical image compression, a technique where explicitly defined regions of interest are compressed in a lossless way whereas image regions containing unimportant information are compressed in a lossy manner are in demand, day by day. Such techniques are of great interest in telemedicine which is a rapidly developing application of clinical medicine, where medical information is transferred through interactive audiovisual media. Archiving and retaining these data for at least more than two years is expensive, difficult and requires sophisticated data compression techniques. In the current research work, the focus has been solely on the performance evaluation on the ROI-based compression of medical images, but in a different prospective. The Mammogram images are used for the study. The image is divided into regions; ROI and the background. Then the arbitrary shape ROI breast region is compressed losslessly using losses image compression algorithms like SPIHT, JPEG2000 and Adaptive SPIHT. The background can be discarded or compressed as user's will. The work also introduces an ROI medical image compression technique that is able to assign priorities in case of multiple ROIs. Experimental results show that the proposed method offer potential advantages like extraction and integration of arbitrary shaped ROI, energy efficiency, ROI priority etc. in medical applications of digital mammography applications

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Flash Package for Coordinating Practical Examinations[Full-Text] [References]
B S Manusudhan

The developed package is end-user software that handles multiple inputs. The respective colleges send number of students appearing for the particular laboratory exams, along with respective subject codes. This forms the Student database. They also send faculty available for the particular subject together with number of years of experience which constitutes the Faculty database. The total data received is to be maintained as a database. The case study here is with respect to one particular branch. The same can be extended for all other branches of any university which conducts practical examinations. Two faculties are to be allocated per batch of the practical exam of a subject, generally one internal from same college and other as external from other college (sometimes both externals). This is done considering their years of experience in that particular subject. The database related to different colleges are to be correlated and a final individual duty allotment list is created. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is created to get the inputs from the user. The main objective is to maintain and relate database from different colleges and perform faster allocation

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Combating Problems with Solar Power: A cost Effective Improvement on the Conversion Efficiency of Solar Panels[Full-Text] [References]
Engr. C.O. Osueke (Ph.D), Engr. E.M. Onyekachi, Engr. I.O. Nwabueze

There is no point harnessing an energy resource that has no economic value. Solar energy poses a strong threat to other forms of energy due to its purity and availability. The problem associated with harnessing solar power mainly comes from the cost and efficiency of the photovoltaic (P-V) panels. This work proffers a solution to this problem by combining the effect of colours and lenses based on the principle of white light spectrum and its behavior with lenses. A 0.9m by 0.3m mono-crystalline solar panel with a manufacturer specification of 18% efficiency, 50W maximum output power, 18V maximum voltage output & 2.77A maximum current output was used for experiments in combination with a sheet of convex lens, glass panes dyed with various colours of the light spectrum, a battery operated portable multi-meter, a meter rule, and a mount frame. Experiments were conducted for different time schedules for three days of assumed equal intensity. The results of the experiments are presented in stages and it was discovered that at stage 3, the system which is a combination of solar panel, violet colour filter and convex lens yielded a productivity of over 96% with power output of 47.67W.A. This is almost a total extortion of white light energy as provided by the solar panel

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

How to make N2 listen to you in steel making[Full-Text] [References]
P R Sureshkumar, D R Pawar and V Krishnamoorthy

All steels contain some amount of dissolved gases such as oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen of which nitrogen is effective in improving the mechanical and corrosion properties of stainless steels if it remains in solid solution or precipitates as very fine and coherent nitrides or carbo-nitrides with iron or alloying elements. When nitrogen is added to austenitic steels it can simultaneously improve fatigue life, strength, work hardening rate, wear and localized corrosion resistance. High nitrogen Martensitic stainless steels show improved resistance to localized corrosion (pitting, crevice and intergranular corrosion) over their carbon containing counterparts. Because of this, the high nitrogen steels are being considered a new promising class of engineering materials.However, in carbon or low alloy steels, dissolved nitrogen is not desirable. In this paper, methods attempted to either increase or decrease the nitrogen content in various alloy steels are described.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Harmonic Analysis Of 6-pulse Converter In Dtc Induction Drives Using UPQC[Full-Text] [References]
R.KAMESWARA RAO, G.RAVI KUMAR, and S.S.TULASI RAM

In this paper the control technique that used is direct torque control technique. This one is suitable and favourable among the available controls because it is less sensitive to the motor parameters, minimal torque response time, absence of controllers such as PID for motor flux and torque. Along with DTC it is necessary to have an inverter in order to control the torque and speed by means of varying the inverter states. A six Pulse AC-DC Converter provides dc supply to the inverter. Here it involves harmonics in supply currents due to this six pulse rectifier. In this paper a simulink model of DTC with an induction motor has been designed and implemented for six pulse converters. It involves harmonics in supply currents due to this six pulse rectifier. To minimize the harmonics on six pulse converter in DTC Induction motor drive using three phase Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is used. The Dynamic model of the UPQC is developed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and the simulation results demonstrating the power quality improvement in the system are presented through FFT analysis

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Photovoltaic Cell as Power Quality conditioner for Grid connected system[Full-Text] [References]
Mr.A.Hari Prasad,Mr. Y.Rajasekhar Reddy, Dr. P.V. Kishore

A computer simulation -derived study of photovoltaic cells/ modules, utilizing MATLAB, is demonstrated. The MATLAB is an analogue/digital simulator which estimates voltage and current in a circuit under a variety of distinctive situations. This aspect of MATLAB is used to simulate a circuit based model for PV cells/ modules and then to conduct a behavioral analysis under altering conditions of solar insolation, including blending effect, temperature, diode model variables, series and shunt resistance. In future, the supporting services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could speed up their penetration in to power systems. Furthermore, low power PV systems can be used effectively to enhance the power quality using MPPT algorithm. This paper presents a single-phase photovoltaic system that furnishes grid voltage support and compensation of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling (PCC).Simulation results validate the proposed solution.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Temperature and Deposition Time Dependence of the Geometrical Properties of Tin Oxide Nanostructures[Full-Text] [References]
Gil Nonato C. Santos, Arnel A. Salvador, Reuben V. Quiroga

Tin Oxide nanomaterial was synthesized using the horizontal vapor phase growth (HVPG) technique. The study investi-gated the optimum growth parameters by varying the growth temperature from 900?C to 1200?C and growth time of 1 hour to 5 hours. The SnO2 bulk powder with purity rate of 99.99% were placed in a sealed quartz tube with a vacuum pressure of ? 10-5 Torr and baked with the desired growth parameters. The resulting nanocrystals displayed different structures ranging from nanobelts to nanorods as confirmed by the SEM. Results from EDX and DTA showed that indeed the grown samples were congruent based on the atomic composition and thermal property of the nanomaterials. The XRD also verified that the crystal structure was rutile but with low indexed peaks. Using the same growth technique, samples were grown on Silicon (100) substrate and exhibited nanorods and nanobelts. The SnO2 nanomaterial also displayed fluorescence and photoluminescence signals. The photoluminescence spectrum has a broad emission in the visible region with peaks at 558 nm and 666 nm. The visible light emission was known to be related to defect levels within the band gap of SnO2, associated with O vacancies or Sn interstitials that have formed during the synthesis process.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Effect of Varying Furnace Angle in the Synthesis of CdS Nanomaterials using Vapor Phase Crystal Growth Technique[Full-Text] [References]
Eduardo B. Tibayan Jr.,Gil Nonato C. Santos

CdS nanomaterials were successfully synthesized at varying furnace angle of 0°, 45°, and 90° with a growth temperature of 8000C and dwell time of 8 hours using the vapor phase crystal growth technique. The synthesized product was a yellow-orange material and was characterized using the SEM, EDX, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The SEM photomicrographs revealed various nanostructures in a form of nanowires. Energy dispersive X-ray analyses confirmed that CdS nanomaterials showed a uniform composition of Cd and S with a minimal presence of impurities. The PL spectra of the samples revealed intense peaks in the range of 477 nm to 548 nm wavelengths where the energy band gap was obtained at 2.44 eV which is approximately that of CdS

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Resistivity Measurements of Conductors and Semiconductors of Different Geometrical Shapes Using Van der Pauw Technique[Full-Text] [References]
Amir J. Majid

The resistivity of conductive and semi-conductive materials, are determined using an algorithmic computation approach of Van der Pauw technique. Different geometrical shapes, such as bulk, surface, bars, wafers, are used are implemented. The four-point method has been extended to multi-point measurement of surface and volume geometrical shapes, with consequently rearranging the equations derived in Van der Pauw technique. It is proposed that the multi-point measurements derivations can be applied using a multiplexer (MUX) and a de-multiplexer (de-MUX) digital circuits, and further on, embedded microprocessors and microcontrollers.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Direct - Drive Wind Turbines[Full-Text] [References]
Zoran Ivanovski Msc

The objective of this paper is to identify suitable generator concepts for direct-drive wind turbines by reviewing direct-drive and geared generator systems. Usually, in literature, comparison of different generator systems is discussed with the criteria based on the energy yield, cost, and weight. Because direct-drive permanent-magnet machines are more superior in terms of the energy yield, reliability and maintenance problem, different promising permanent-magnet machines proposed in literature are also discussed to find suitable generator type. Finally, suitable concepts to overcome the disadvantages of direct-drive are suggested considering both electromagnetic and mechanical structure

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The relationship between emotional intelligence and personality traits with the thrill- seeking and self- efficacy in students of TAU Tonekabon Branch in the academic year 2010-2011[Full-Text] [References]
Dr. Javad Khalatbari, Masoumeh Hasani, Dr.Mohammad Ali Rahmani, Dr.Shohreh Ghorbanshiroudi, Mohammad Mojtaba Keikhayfarzaneh

The goal of this research is to analyze the relationship between emotional intelligence and personality traits with the thrill-seeking and self-efficacy in the Islamic Azad University of Tonekabon Branch. The research is a descriptive correlation study. The statistical community is all male and female students studying MD degree in Islamic Azad University of Tonekabon Branch which are the number of 985 peoples

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Analysis of Denial of Service Attack[Full-Text] [References]
Rakesh Rathi, Udai Nag

Proxy network-based defense has recently emerged to address an open research challenge. protecting Internet service applications from Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. Such schemes use a proxy network as a mediator for a hidden application to prevent direct attacks on the application's physical infrastructure, while maintaining communication between users and the application. The proxy network provides a distributed front-end to disperse DoS attack traffic, thereby shielding the application. However, the basic feasibility and fundamental properties of such schemes remain unclear, posing critical challenges for their use. This Paper addresses these challenges by exploring proxy networks. Ability to resist important attacks: penetration, proxy depletion, and DoS attacks. We develop a generic analytic framework for proxy network-based systems, and use it to analyze proxy networks. resilience to penetration and proxy depletion attacks, characterizing how attacks, defenses, proxy network structure, and correlation in host vulnerabilities affect feasibility. Furthermore, using online simulation, we quantify the resistance to DoS attacks at an unprecedented scale and realism, by running real application, proxy network, and attack programs in a simulated network with a size comparable to tier-1 ISP networks. We show that proxy network-based DoS defense can effectively resist these attacks, and protect applications successfully. Specific results are the following. First, proactive defenses, such as proxy migration, are required for penetration resistance . proxy networks can be effectively impenetrable with proxy migration, but will be penetrated easily without proactive defenses. Second, correlation in host vulnerabilities makes proxy networks vulnerable to penetration. By exploiting host diversity and intelligent proxy network construction, effective resistance can be achieved. Third, topology is crucial for resisting proxy depletion attacks: when a topology's eigenvalue is smaller than the speed ratio between defense and attack, all compromised proxies will always be recovered; when a topology's Palladian spectrum is larger than this ratio, compromised proxies will linger, making the proxy network unrecoverable. Last, proxy networks provide effective and scalable DoS defense. They can resist large-scale DoS attacks, while preserving performance for the majority (>90%) of users. Furthermore, increasing the proxy network size linearly improves the level of resistance to DoS attacks.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with Vegetable oil[Full-Text] [References]
Rajpreet kaur Ishar

Biodiesel is a revolutionary step in the world of fuel. The pollutionary effects ofbiodiesel is much less than mineral fuels and even cost less. because the fuel features(power ,combustibility/safety, storage, production/refining, fuel availability/economy, lubricity,enviromental impact, usage) of it. Although biodiesel is greatly promising, its use has beenintroduced gradually all over the world. In fact, most countries are establishing rules to itsintroduction based on mixture contents with mineral diesel in form of (B100, B20, and B10).The increased demand and high price for energy sources are drivingefforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuel. It canbe obtained by Transesterification with alcohol i.e methanol majorly ofvegetable oil and animal fat feedstock. Biodiesel can also be used as a heating fuelin domestic and commercial boilers, a mix of heating oil and biofuel which is standardizedand taxed slightly differently than diesel fuel used for transportation. It is sometimes knownas "bioheat" (which is a registered trademark of the National Biodiesel Board [NBB] and theNational Oilheat Research Alliance [NORA] in the U.S., and Columbia Fuels in Canada).

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Performance Evaluation of Proposed SEHEE-MAC for wireless Sensor Network in Habitat Monitoring[Full-Text] [References]
Mrs. Swati V. Sankpal, Dr. Vishram Bapat

Environmental sensor networks have been a topic of significant research in recent years. Sensor network enables researchers to do continuous long term, autonomous sensing of many different aspects of environmental systems. They must be so energy efficient that they can remain in same situation with little human interaction and be maintenance-free for years together. Habitat monitoring, with its focus on dynamic interactions within and between a variety of scales is an ideal application of sensor network. Many protocols have been proposed for WSNs and have focused on extending the lifetime of sensor networks, WSNs powered by ambient energy harvesting are more useful and economical in the long-term because ambient energy may be harvested from the environment at all times. To improve the life time of WSN this work evaluate the performance of new proposed scheme-Solar Energy Harvesting Energy Efficient MAC (SEHEE-MAC). The SEHEE-MAC protocol controls the activities of Radio by using slotted preamble technique and obtains significant energy savings by allowing nodes to sleep for extended periods of time. The results are compared with ZigBee and Preamble protocols for solar harvesting sensor networks.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The relationship between child rearing practices and identity styles among students of both genders of pre-university level in Rasht[Full-Text] [References]
Dr. Javad Khalatbari, Dr. Mohammad Ebrahim Maddahi, Dr.Shohreh Ghorbanshiroudi, Vahidehsadat Mousavi, Mohammad Mojtaba Keikhayfarzaneh

The main aim of this re exploring is to consider the relationship between child rearing styles and identity methods. The statistical community includes both female and male students of Rasht's pre-university level. The re exploring method is measurable, therefore 150 female and male students in mathematics and experimental science fields were selected by multi- stage cluster sampling data were collected through two shifter child-nurture methods and Benion Adams identity modes questionnaire, to test child nurturing methods and identity modes. Data analysis has been performed in descriptive level with average and Standard deviation methods and inferential levels with multi variable regression (canonical correlation) method. Finally this reexploring leads to following results: There is a significant relationship between parent authoritative style and diffused and foreclosed identity status and no relationship with achieved and moratorium identity status. There is a significant relationship between parent indifference style and diffused, foreclosed and moratorium identity status and no relationship with achieved identity. There is no significant relationship between parent permissive style and diffused, foreclosed and moratorium identity status and has a relationship with achieved identity and also there is a significant relationship between parent authoritarian style and diffused and achieved identity status and no relationship with foreclosed and moratorium identity status.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Modified Variational Iteration Method for the Solution of nonlinear Partial Differential Equations[Full-Text] [References]
Olayiwola , M. O Akinpelu, F. O , Gbolagade, A .W

The Variational Iteration Method (VIM) has been shown to solve effectively, easily and accurately a large class of linear and nonlinear problems with approximations converging rapidly to exact solutions. We present a new Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM) for the solution of some partial differential equations of physical significance.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Design Aids of Flexural Members And Beam-columns Based On Limit State Method[Full-Text] [References]
Prof. Ravindra Bhimarao kulkarni, Vikas Arjun Patil

The latest version of the Code of Practice for general construction in steel, IS 800-2007 is based on Limit State Method of design. The design concept is totally changed in comparison to earlier code IS-800-1984 which is based on elastic method. The design based on limit state method involves many equations and parameters. Therefore the design of steel structural members and connections involves tedious equations. In the present work, the detailed study has been carried out on the design of flexure members and beam-columns for channel section and effort is made to prepare design aids in the form of graphs, which is very useful to the practicing Structural Engineers. The use of charts for the design of flexure members and beam-columns will save the steel designer's time considerably.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Defferential Polarographic Behaviour of Nitro Group Vontaining Pesticides Dinitramine, Bromethalin and Isopropalin[Full-Text] [References]
S.Rajasekhar reddy,K.Chandra mohan and,NY.sreedhar

In this work the effect of functional groups on the reduction potentials of nitrogroup containing pesticides such as dinitramine,bromethalin and isopropalin were studied.Differential pulse polarography,cyclic voltammetry,millicoulometry and controlled potential electrolysis were used for the determination of reduction potentials and electrode mechanisms.DME used as working electrode and universal buffer used as supporting electrolyte. Key words: dinitramine,bromethalin and isopropalin, differential pulse polarography, DME ,Universal buffer.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Modeling Anisotropy and Steady State Creep in a Rotating Disc of Al-SiCp having Varying Thickness[Full-Text] [References]
Vandana and S.B. Singh

The analysis of steady state creep in a rotating disc made of Al-SiCp composite having variable thickness has been carried using Sherby's constitutive model. The creep parameters have been evaluated using the available experimental results in the literature using regression analysis. Three variations in the thickness (constant, linearly and hyperbolic varying thickness) of the disc have been considered while keeping other material parameters same. The change in the radial stress in all the three cases is not significant while the tangential stress is changed with the change in the values of anisotropic constants. The tangential strain rates are highest at the inner radius of the disc and then decreases towards the outer radius of the discs. The radial strain rate which is compressive in nature becomes tensile in middle of the disc for some specific values of anisotropic constants. The study reveals that the anisotropy and thickness profile has a significant effect on the creep behavior of rotating disc. Thus for the safe design of the rotating disc the effect of anisotropy and profile should be taken care of

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------