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International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research


International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research

 


IJSER Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2012 Edition
IJSER Research Group http://www.ijser.org/forum/index.php Register for IJSER Research Forum      IJSER Xplore IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database

Pages   [1] [2]


Improving BER using turbo codes in OFDM systems[Full-Text[References]
Inderjeet Kaur, Dr. Y.K.Mathur

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been successfully applied to a wide variety of digital communication applications over the past several years. OFDM is a suitable candidate for high data rate transmission with forward error correction (FEC) methods over wireless channels. OFDM is a suitable candidate for high data rate transmission with forward error correction (FEC) methods over wireless channels.In this paper, the system throughput of a working OFDM system has been enhanced by adding turbo coding. The use of turbo coding and power allocation in OFDM is useful to the desired performance at higher data rates. Simulation is done over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and impulsive noise (which is produced in broadband transmission) channels.

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Human Protein Function Prediction from Sequence Derived Features using See5[Full-Text[References]
Manpreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Sonam Sharma

Drug Discovery is a tedious process and involves lot of iterations and different processes for the final approval. The present work focus on prediction of molecular class of an unknown protein. The sequence data is taken from HPRD (Human Protein Reference Database) and then the different features are explored for each molecular sequence using various online tools. The decision tree was constructed based on training data of 55 sequences and test data of 29 sequences from different type of molecular classes. See5 based on C5 decision tree is used to obtain the results. Continuous data involving the values of sequence derived features for different sequences is given as input. Different advanced options and combinations are tried out of which decision tree powered with boosting and winnowing give the maximum accuracy of 30% for the data under consideration. If the continuous data set for 25 sequences is taken then the accuracy comes out to be 64% with the same technique.

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Protection of DIP using Object Oriented Modeling of DIPRMS in E-Commerce - An Indian Perspective[Full-Text[References]
Sanjay Banerjee, Sunil Karforma

Copyright is used to protect the rights of the consumers and the creators of the Intellectual Property (IP). The ease of creation, modification, distribution, compatibility and above all, a large market opportunity drive the creator and the consumer to move towards digitization to create and use their IP in digital form called Digital Intellectual Property (DIP). In India the existing copyright law to protect IP is also applicable on DIP. But the same is not enough to protect the DIP in E-commerce environment and such weakness of the legal framework to accommodate the revolutionary technological changes cause a great economic loss. This discourages the creator of the DIP. The Digital Rights Management (DRM) system offers a new technological device that can be deployed in order to protect the creators from the DIP infringements caused by different kinds of attacks in the Internet during electronic transactions. Hence, this tool may also be used as a supplement to the copyright law in India particularly in E-commerce environment.

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Dynamics of a HIV Epidemic Model[Full-Text[References]
Nguyen Huu Khanh

We study a non-linear mathematical model for the transmission of HIV disease. The model is represented by a system of differential equations depending on parameters. We divide the population into three subclasses: uninfected cells, infected cells and free virus particles. A factor deciding the spread of virus is the basic reproduction number R0. We found that if R0 < 1 then the disease goes extinct, whereas if R0 > 1 then the disease remains. This phenomenon is explained by a transcritical bifurcation. A numerical investigation for the model is carried by the software Mathematica and AUTO.

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S- Parameter based Analysis of substrate coupling in NMOS Transistor for Analog/RF circuit [Full-Text[References]
Pawan Kumar Singh, Dr. Sanjay Sharma

Substrate noise issues are important for the smooth integration of analog and digital circuitries on the same die. The substrate coupling mechanism with simulation and measurement in a 0.13µm common source NMOS is demonstrated. The coupling mechanism is related with resistance of ground interconnects; also the importance of coupling mechanism is demonstrated and equivalent circuit of the MOSFET with S-parameters analysis is also proposed.

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A Review of CCSand CDM and their management[Full-Text[References]
Rajeev jha

The clean development machanism (CDM)of the kyoto protocol is a financial incentive intended to make economically marginal greenhouse gas(GHG) prevention projects more feasible.carbon dioxide capture and sequestration (CCS) is a possible GHG mitigating strategy.The Intergovernmental panel on climate change(IPCC) defines a CCS project as a process consisting of three phases: the separtion of carbon dioxide from industrial and energy related sources: trasportation of the carbon dioxide to a storage location ; and longterm isolation of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.This paper focuses on prospects of CCSasCDM projects in general and in context of southern Africa.Currently there is no evidence of longe term proven track record of integrated CCS system ;only three industrial scale CCS projects exist globally.Nevertheless, new concepts have been proposed for CCS CDM projects such as longterm liability and certified emission reduction (CER) cancellation . However, these concepts are not in the current CDM framework at present . It is thus difficult to prove CCS as an eligible CDM project without first addressing possible expansion and shortfalls of the current CDM structure. More research is also required to quantify the trade offs presented between mitigation carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at the possible detriment of the areas of storage in the Southern Africa context. Only then may CCS projects be deemed more viable in the CDM context.

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Theoretical studies on Chirality for Graphene[Full-Text[References]
T.K. Subramaniam and R. Premanand

These Graphene can be obtained from the parent molecule graphite by laser evaporation or laser chemical vapor deposition me-thods (LCVD) on a SiC substrate or similar substrates. The symmetry of the molecule determines its chirality. Using a microprocessor, a control of the diameter (d) and the chiral angle (?) will result in the formation of graphene without any agglomerates. The various values of integers (n, m) are time-averaged using a software program and its chirality (ch) have been determined for low values of (n, m) such as (1, 2) (2, 1), (1, 3) respectively. We conclude that (2, 1) or (1, 2) are the (n, m) values for which non-agglomerated graphene structure can be generated. Higher values of (n, m) will lead to agglomeration.

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4G Mobile Communication system[Full-Text[References]
Kartik Patel Co-Author: Zarna Padia and Darshan Modi

The fourth generation of mobile networks will truly turn the current mobile phone networks, in to end to end IP based networks, couple this with the arrival of IPv6, every device in the world will have a unique IP address, which will allow full IP based communications from a mobile device, right to the core of the internet, and back out again. If 4G is implemented correctly, it will truly harmonize global roaming, super high speed connectivity, and transparent end user performance on every mobile communications device in the world.

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Studies On Polypropylene Bio Composite With Corn Husk Waste [Full-Text[References]
N. Jaya Chitra and R.Vasanthakumari

The interest in the utilization of bio-fillers in thermoplastics has increased recently, mainly due to the need in overcoming the environmental problems caused by the agricultural by products. Polypropylene is an outstanding commercially available important thermoplastic material with wide range of applications in various fields because of its balanced chemical and mechanical properties. The incorporation of the bio fillers at compositions ranging from 10-30% was carried out by melt compounding in segmented single screw extruder and then injection molded into standard test samples. Mechanical, thermal and morphological characteristics of the blend systems were studied to evaluate the effect of filler content on polypropylene. It has been found that while there is a slight decrease in tensile strength and elongation, the tensile modulus was found to be increased with the filler content. There is a good dispersion of both the filler materials in PP matrix. The thermal stability of the PP matrix is found to be increased significantly by the presence of filler

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Sawdust As A Filteration Control And Density Additives in Water-Based Drilling Mud[Full-Text[References]
Adebayo, Thomas Ayotunde, Chinonyere, Precious C.

Sawdust is applicable in agricultural sector for beddings and also for production of particle board but most of it is burnt off in the developing countries. Sawdust, as a fiber, is applied as a filter loss additive in water-based mud. Three grades of sawdust were used. The 0.5mm diameter sawdust caused an increase in the mud density with increasing percentage volume of the sawdust in the mud. The 1.00mm sawdust additive caused a reduction in the density of the mud with an increasing weight of the additive. The third grade was a mixture of sawdust grade greater than 1.00mm and saw shavings. The greater than 1.0mm sawdust gave thickest mud cake while the 0.5mm gave the least mud cake thickness and highest filtration loss among the three. As a result of effect on density and viscosity an optimum weight percentage is recommended for application of the different size grades of the sawdust if they are to serve as weight control additive. These weight percentage are 5.9 % wt. sawdust for 0.5mm; 3.8 % wt. sawdust for 1.0mm and 3.5% wt. for greater than 1.0mm sawdust. If the sawdusts are to serve as filtration control additives, the sizes of 1.0mm and greater than are recommended due to excessive filtration loss for 0.5mm sawdust. Moreover, it was observed that for weight percentage higher than 5% for sawdust greater than 1.0mm, the mudcake was very unstable as it broke down easily.

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Design A Compact CPW-fed UWB Antenna With WLAN band notch characteristic [Full-Text[References]
Anvesh Rajput, Dharmendra Verma, Jai Kishan, Tejbir Singh

UWB antenna with single band-notch characteristics, to obtain WLAN band-notch characteristic, is being proposed in this paper. In this paper, we have designed a compact coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed UWB antenna. The proposed antenna works in frequency range 3.1-10.6 GHz with VSWR<2. By cutting two symmetrically slot in the ground plane, the frequency range of 5-6 GHz of WLAN is being notched. The overall dimensional of antenna is 26*30*1.6mm2. This antenna is design on FR-4 substrate 1.6mm white and effective dielectric constant (er=4.4). The simulation results of antenna shows the perfect impedance matching in all bandwidth (7.5 GHz) of UWB, also stable radiation patterns and constant gain. All simulations in this work has been carried out by using Ansoft HFSS 10.

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Metadata Generation In Health Service Planning[Full-Text[References]
Jaspreet Singh Phul, Dr. Rajan Vohra

Each Capital city of India is administered by multiple agencies. Each agency has its own network of health (Nodal Centre) to identify different Nodes in terms of region or distinct so that the facilities within the region which can be achieved by load transfer between centers. At the primary level, the Nodal Centre is the Node which has maximum load. This research paper describes a model Driven Decision Support that Facilitates load balancing and decentralization. This model can be used by primary health care services within a district, based on patient load

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Biochemical Characterization of Alkaline Phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.1) from species of Crab (Callinectes sapidus and Cardisoma carnifex)[Full-Text[References]
Raimi, O.G., Hammed, A.M., Babatunde, O.T., Fajana, O.O. and Bankole

Alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1), a metalloenzyme which catalyzes the nonspecific hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters was isolated from different tissue homogenates (Digestive gland, Muscle, Carapace and Appendages) of crabs (Callinectes sapidus and Cardisoma carnifex). The digestive gland was found to have the highest level of alkaline phosphatase. The Km and Vmax were estimated to be 2.756 mM and 2.838 mmole/min/ml respectively for Callinectes sapidus and 3.636 mM and 3.322 mmole/min/ml respectively for Cardisoma carnifex. The enzyme has an optimum pH of 10. Metals such as MgCl2 gave an unstable activation effect on the enzyme. The highest activity of the enzyme as found in the digestive gland of crabs used in this study suggests that most of the organic phosphates in the species are hydrolyzed principally in this tissue

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Data hiding in images using Hybrid Fractal Wavelets[Full-Text[References]
Shifali Singla, Talwandi Sabo Bathinda

Image Steganography is the art of hiding message into a cover image. This paper presents a novel technique for image steganography based on DWT, where DWT is used to transform original image cover image) from spatial domain to frequency domain. This paper reviews about the art of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from intended destination knows that a message has been sent. Steganography is defined as an art of hiding information and used in order to offer means of secret communication between two parties. It adopts both fractal and wavelet image processing techniques. BER and PSNR of cover image with stego-image shows the better results in comparison with other existing steganography techniques. Implementation is done in Matlab Software.

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Vaibhav Gravity Engine (VGE)[Full-Text[References]
Dnyaneshwar K Jagzap

Vaibhav Gravity Engine (VGE) working principle is based on constant source of gravitational force

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Influence of Fluoride Substitution on the Physicochemical Properties of LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries [Full-Text[References]
PaulosTaddesseShibeshi, V. Veeraiah, A.V. PrasadaRao

LiMn2O4-xFx (x = 0.00, 0.04 and 0.1) cathode materials were synthesized from Li2CO3, MnO2 and LiF precursors by solid-state reaction method at 800 oC in air. The influence of fluoride substitution on the physicochemical properties of LiMn 2O4 cathode has been investigated by different techniques. From the Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) curves, it is clearly observed that substitution of fluorine attributed to the faster fabrication of LiMn2O3.96F0.04 and LiMn2O3.9F0.1 cathode materials. By Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, the synthesized materials are detected as single phase spinel structure having a space group Fd3m. However, the diffraction picks shifted to lower angles and the lattice parameter increases with substitution of fluorine. Redox titration tests confirmed that the average oxidation state of manganese in fluoride substituted samples is lower than that of pure one (LiMn2O4). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigations demonstrated that substitution of fluorine reduced the agglomeration of powder particles. Also, fluorine substituted samples have greater grain size than the pure one (LiMn2O4). Further, the Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the incorporation of fluorine in to LiMn2O3.96F0.04 and LiMn2O3.9F0.1 spinel samples. Strong frequency bands, responsible for the formation of all samples, are observed from Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopyspectra. However, the bands for fluoride substituted samples are shifted slightly towards lower wave numbers.

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Performance Evaluation and Environmental Impact Assessment of Systems with Waste Exergy Emissions[Full-Text[References]
Ismail, O. S and Adewole, O. S

The transformation and utilization of non-renewable energies involves irreversibility which makes our system less efficient. The environmental impact potential is equivalent to the work potential of the emissions. The irreversibility of inefficient systems has Global Warming Potential or environmental impact potential as wasted exergy is not always in equilibrium with the environment. Most literatures have either considered the optimization of thermodynamic systems for better efficiency or environmental effect of the transformation and utilization of energy separately. Focusing more on systems with waste emissions, the exergy lost to the environment through their waste emissions have environmental impact potential. This work reviews literatures on exergy analysis done for systems with waste emissions (heat and gaseous) and some literatures on environmental impact of human activities like gas flaring. The work further proposes more research into the development of a system that would integrate the environmental impact Potential into the calculation of exergetic efficiency of any thermodynamic system. This is to put researchers on their feet to come up with systems that will be exergy efficient and environmentally friendly. Exergy analysis being a good Environmental Impact Indicator can be used to both optimize our systems and also reduce the pollution of our environment.

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Ground Water Quality Monitoring Of Mine Area Using Remote Sensing And Geographic Information Techniques[Full-Text[References]
Ms.N. Thilagavathi, Dr.T. Subramani

Ground water quality in Chalk Hills, Salem has special significance and need more attention since the area is rich in mineral deposits like Magnezite, Dunites, Peridotites and Talc. Continuous exploitation of natural resources beyond threshold limit causing imbalance in natural ecosystem resulting in large-scale disaster. The continuous extraction of minerals from the study region, result in disturbance of groundwater resource. The objective of the study is to investigate and monitor the groundwater quality in the Chalk Hill region. The present study emphasizes on the ground water quality, sources of contamination, variation of ground water quality and its spatial distribution. Various thematic maps for the research are prepared using SOI toposheets No. 58 I /1, 58 I /2, 58 I /5, 58 I /6 and fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using ARC/INFO software. Physio-chemical analysis of the groundwater samples were collected at 30 predetermined well locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which the spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters has prepared. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated by weighted arithmetic mean method which has revealed that the ground water pollution in the study area. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested.

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New Improved Oil Recovery from Heavy and Semi-Heavy Oil Reservoirs by Implementing Immiscible Heated WAG Injection[Full-Text[References]
Mohammad Amin Gholamzadeh, Naser Akhlaghi, Elyas Golabi

Only next to thermal processes used to produce heavy oil, gas injection is the second most common enhanced oil recovery process. To increase the extent of effects of the gas on the heavy and semi-heavy oils in the reservoir by gas injection, the gas is generally injected intermittently with water. This mode of injection is called Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG) method. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in WAG process both miscible and immiscible.

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Gamma-ray Spectrometric Analysis Of Fly-ash Samples Of Coal Fired Power Plants[Full-Text[References]
Ashutosh Pathak, Archana Sharma, Brijesh Pathak, S.Pathak

Suratgarh super thermal power station, Suratgarh and Guru Nanak thermal power station, Bathinda are the two potential sites selected for the study of radionuclides in fly ash samples by ?-ray spectrometer. The activities of Cs-137, K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232, ( in Bq/Kg.) are 17.8, 98.8, 29.1 and 120.9 respectively for Suratgarh thermal power plant and 25.7, 96.6, 25.0 and 123.2 respectively for Bathinda power plant.

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Efficient Scheme for Dynamic Channel Allocation Using Intelligent Agent in Mobile Communication[Full-Text[References]
Swati M. Khandare, Dr. R. R. Sedamkar

The demand for mobile communication has been growing day by day. Resource flexibility is one of the most important issues in the coming generation of mobile communication. Different techniques are required to increase the efficiency & flexibility of the network to deal with new services and to adopt the new traffic profiles and characteristics. This paper proposes a distributed dynamic channel allocation scheme using intelligent agents to provide more efficiency & flexibility to a network. This scheme of channel allocation will lead to an efficient solution under moderate and heavy load conditions. The agent architecture adopted provides greater autonomy to the base stations and a method for allowing co-operation and negotiation between them; this autonomy and co-operation allows an increase in flexibility to deal with new traffic situations and an increase of the robustness of the network as a whole.

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RIPD - Receiver Initiated Parent Driven Multicast for Grid Environment[Full-Text[References]
R. Abilash Joseph, M. Malleswaran, A. Radhakrishnan

Grid applications often need to distribute substantial amount of data from root node to many other machines. This typical communication pattern is termed as multicast. Most of the multicast methods need to maintain an optimized tree structure, based on external network monitoring data. The dependence on network data impacts the adaptability of tree based multicast methods to the dynamically changing heterogeneous nature of the network. In this paper a cluster based multicast algorithm RIPD (Receiver-Initiated Parent-Driven) has been proposed.

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Artificial Neural Network Approach for Under Frequency Load Shedding[Full-Text[References]
Manoj Kumar.N, M.S.Sujatha, T.Devaraj, N.M.G.Kumar

Different short circuits, load growth, generation shortage, and other faults which disturb the voltage and frequency stability are serious threats to the system security. The frequency and voltage instability causes dispersal of a power system into sub-systems, and leads to blackout as well as heavy damages of the system equipment. This paper presents a fast and optimal adaptive load shedding method, for power system using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The proposed method is able to determine the necessary load shedding in all steps simultaneously and is much faster than conventional methods. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is fast, robust and optimal values of load shedding in different loading scenarios are obtained in comparison with conventional method.

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Socio Legal Perspective of Dowry[Full-Text[References]
Mrs. Reshma

Nature created woman different from men with a definite purpose. Balance is stillness and stagnation; imbalance is motion and progress. Nature designed life and action by means of the imbalance brought about in the traits of men and women. In the process, women find themselves at the receiving end. They ended up as the weaker half of society by their very nature and are naturally handicapped in a world of men, by men, for men.

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Stochastic Congestion Control Model For Video Teleconference Service Trffic (Vtst) Systems [Full-Text[References]
K.SENBAGAM, Dr.C.V.SESHAIAH

A congestion control model of a network of signalized intersections is proposed based on a discrete - time, steady state Markov decision process. The model incorporates probabilistic forecasts of individual video actuations at downstream inductance loop detectors that are derived from a macroscopic link transfer function. The model is tested both on a typical isolated Roberston's traffic platoon intersection and a simple network comprised of five four - legged signalized intersections, and compared to full-actuated control. Analyses of simulation results using this approach show significant improvement over traditional full-actuated control, especially for the case of high volume, but not saturated, traffic demand.

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A new anti-theft system based on the recognition of human blood vessels and blood flow[Full-Text[References]
Tie Qiao, Wan-Chao Huang, Xiao-Bing Luo, Pei-Ming Zheng

This paper introduces a new type of anti-theft system that combines color Doppler ultrasonography and infrared thermal scanning technology. It can identify the superficial vascular network distribution of a user's palm and dynamic information on blood flow that includes blood flow velocity and pressure, and compares this information with the user's default information to achieve anti-theft capability. The new anti-theft system is designed on the basis of the variation in unique information on the human body, and further increases the safety of present security systems. A Chinese Invention Patent (No. 201110351016.3) on this system has been applied for.

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Perspective and Prospect of Tidal Energy in Bangladesh[Full-Text[References]
Tausif Ali, Muhammad Omar Faruk, Sabuj Das Gupta, Kamrul Hasan

Capital of Bangladesh, Dhaka is one of the most polluted city in world. This polluted city is adversely affecting the whole country. Steam, Gas, Coal, Diesel and other fuel based power station is polluting the air, water, land and biological environment day by day. These power stations also making the environment noisily. Moreover the efficiency of these power stations is decreasing day by day. It is because most of the power station in Bangladesh is 50-60 years old. Bangladesh is trying to meet up this crisis by IPP and other different policies. These policies may be a temporary solution but not permanent solution. Another problem is most of the power station is gas based and it is used 88.39% of total generation So now government is looking for alternative energy solution especially renewable energy. Solar and Wind energy are introduced in Bangladesh and currently solar energy is very good in progress. Compared to them other renewable energies are still lag behind, especially tidal power. The potentiality of tidal power in Bangladesh have not yet realized by the authority due to scold environmental concern, lack of interest to invest money and absence of modern technology. Bangladesh has a long costal area with 2-8 m tidal head/height rise and fall. This height is sufficient enough to produce power. So tidal power have a bright future in Bangladesh. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the necessity of tidal power in Bangladesh which may be an effective solution to overcome the recent power crisis in Bangladesh

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Bluetooth Security Lock for Android smart phone platform[Full-Text[References]
Khaled Alghamdi, T. Oh, B. Stackpole

The project is to make an Android application which triggers a screen lock with a PIN when the device is disconnected from another Bluetooth device. This application will run in the background normally and constantly monitor the Bluetooth connection of the device. As soon as it catches a change in Bluetooth connectivity state, it will trigger a lock screen to protect the device.

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Performance Analysis of Direction of Arrival Estimation Algorithms for Smart Antenna for Mobile Communication Systems[Full-Text[References]
Gaurav Chaitanya ,Ankit Jain, Nitin Jain

Mobile communication networks face ever-increasing demands on their spectrum and infrastructure resources. Increased minutes of use, capacity-intensive data applications and the steady growth of worldwide mobile subscribers means that carriers will have to find effective ways to accommodate increased wireless traffic in their networks. Thus, the smart antennas system becomes capable to locate and track signals by the both: users and interferers and dynamically adapts the antenna pattern to enhance the reception in Signal-Of-Interest direction and minimizing interference in Signal-Of-Not-Interest direction. Hence, Space Division Multiple Access system, which uses smart antennas, is widely used in mobile communication systems, because it shows improvement in channel capacity and co-channel interference. But on the other hand the performance stability of smart antenna system greatly depends on efficiency of Direction of Arrival (DOA), which is used to estimate the angle of arrival of the number of incidents plane waves on the antenna array. This paper shows an effort on the study of performance analysis of DOA estimation Algorithms- MUSIC and ESPRIT for Adaptive Array Smart Antenna for Mobile Communication on different performance parameters such as number of elements, number of snap shots, noise mean, noise variance and spacing between elements.

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Cloud Specific Issues and Vulnerabilities solutions[Full-Text[References]
C.Kishor Kumar Reddy, SK. Lokesh Naik,S.K.Prasanth,B.Suresh Kumar

The current discourse about cloud computing security issues makes a well-founded assessment of cloud computing's security impact difficult for two primary reasons. First, as is true for many discussions about risk, basic vocabulary such as "risk"," "threat", and "vulnerability" are often used as if they were interchangeable, without regard to their respective definitions. Second, not every issue that's raised is really specific to cloud computing. We can achieve an accurate understanding of the security issue "delta" that cloud computing really adds by analyzing how cloud computing influences each risk factor. One important factor concerns vulnerabilities: cloud computing makes certain well-understood vulnerabilities more significant and adds new vulnerabilities. Here, we define four indicators of cloud-specific vulnerabilities, introduce security-specific cloud reference architecture, and provide examples of cloud-specific vulnerabilities for each architectural component. This paper highlights and categorizes many of security issues introduced by the "cloud"; surveys the risks, threats and vulnerabilities, and makes the necessary recommendations that can help promote the benefits and mitigate the risks associated with Cloud Computing.

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Comparative Study of Edge Detection using Multi Structural Elements with different parameters[Full-Text[References]
Harpreet Kaur, Mr.Gaurav Mittal

The important step of image processing is edge detection .Conventionally, the method of edge detection only provides the information regarding edges from certain aspects. In this paper, detection of edges is done using multi structural elements with the help of morphological operations and then analyses the results with the help of different parameters. By simulation and comparing the images with the traditional methods i.e. sobel edge detector, canny edge detector,perwitt edge detector, laplician of Gaussian edge detector, the proposed method gives the better result of edge detection.

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Effect of Chip Load on Surface Finish In High Speed Micro Milling[Full-Text[References]
Vivek B. Pansare, Sunil B. Sharma

In a modern manufacturing of sophisticated parts with3D sculptured surfaces such as dies and moulds bull nose face milling is one of the most widely used machining process. Due to the rapid growth, competitiveness and high accuracy miniaturized components are increasingly in demands for various industries viz. aerospace, electronics and automotive etc. In this paper the study presents the result of test done with high speed face milling machine tool. Experiments wear performed to investigate the influence of chip load (feed per tooth) on surface roughness along with cutting parameters such as cutting speed and depth of cut for HcHcr steel as work material. To predict the value of surface finish, empirical equation is developed using linear regression analysis. This equation is validated by equivalence variance test i.e. F- test.

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An Experimental Study on Requirement Gathering Methods of Agile Methodology[Full-Text[References]
Mani Sahore, Harikesh Bahadur Yadav

Agile methods form an alternative to waterfall methodologies. Agile software development method is an iterative mechanism for developing a software. Agile methods focus on accommodating change even late in the development lifecycle. Agile teams commonly use User Stories, Use Cases, interaction with On-Site Customers to provide more detail to the Requirements. This paper investigates the fact that how requirements gathering using Use Cases, User Stories and, interaction with On-Site Customers are beneficial for developers and how it increases customer satisfaction Also this paper presents the result that what are the impact of the methods like Use Cases, User Stories, interaction with On-Site Customers on the requirements gathering that enhances the customer satisfaction while using agile methodology. We found that subjects using Use Cases spent less time understanding requirements in comparison to subjects not using Use Cases. We conclude that the involvement of Use Cases in gathering requirements could benefit agile teams

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Design of Burst Based Transactions in AMBA-AXI Protocol for SoC Integration[Full-Text[References]
V N M Bramhanandam K,Choragudi Manohar

System-on-a-Chip (SoC) design has become more and more complexly. Because difference functions components or IPs (Intellectual Property) will be integrated within a chip. The challenge of integration is "how to verify on-chip communication properties". Although traditional simulation-based on-chip bus protocol checking bus signals to obey bus transaction behavior or not, however, they are still lack of a chip-level dynamic verification to assist hardware debugging. We proposed a rule based synthesizable AMBA AXI protocol checker. The AXI protocol checker contains 44 rules to check on-chip communication properties accuracy. In the verification strategy, we use the Synopsys VIP (Verification IP) to verify AXI protocol checker. In the experimental results, the chip cost of AXI protocol checker is 70.7K gate counts and critical path is 4.13 ns (about 242 MHz) under TSMC 0.18um CMOS 1P6M Technology

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Improved BER and minimized OBI while reducing PAPR by using New Companding Transform[Full-Text[References]
R. Anil kumar,K. Jyothi,Dr. V. Sailaja

The concept of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been known since 1966. OFDM is an attractive modulation technique for transmitting large amounts of digital data over radio waves. One major disadvantage of OFDM is that the time domain OFDM signal which is a sum of several sinusoids leads to high peak to average power ratio (PAPR). The number of techniques proposed for reducing the PAPR in OFDM systems. These techniques can mainly be categorized in to signal scrambling techniques and signal distortion techniques. The signal distortion techniques introduce both In band and Out-of-band interference and complexity to the system. The signal distortion techniques reduce high peaks directly by distorting the signal prior to amplification. Those are clipping peak windowing, peak cancellation, Peak power suppression, weighted multicarrier transmission. Companding is also one of the signal distortion technique but which able to offer an improved bit error rate (BER) and minimized OBI while reducing PAPR effectively. The companding technique can be used to improve OFDM transmission performance. The law of companding technique is used to compand the OFDM signal before it is converted into analog waveform. The OFDM signal, after taking IFFT, is companded and quantized. After D/A conversion, the signal is ransmitted through the channel. At the receiver end then the received signal is first converted into digital form and expanded. Companding is highly used in speech processing where high peaks occur infrequently.

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Comparing Spectrum Utilization using Fuzzy Logic System for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks via Cognitive Radio[Full-Text[References]
R. Kaniezhil, Dr. C. Chandrasekar

At present, lots of works focus on spectrum allocation of wireless networks. In this paper, we proposed a Cognitive based spectrum access by opportunistically approach of Heterogeneous Wireless networks based on Fuzzy Logic system. The Cognitive Radio is a technology where a network or a wireless system changes its environment parameters to communicate efficiently by avoiding the interference with the users. By applying FLS (Fuzzy Logic System), the available spectrum utilization is effectively utilized with the help of the three antecedents namely Spectrum utilization efficiency, Degree of mobility, Distance from primary user to the secondary users. The proposed work is compared with normal Spectrum Utilization method. Finally, Simulation results of the proposed work Fuzzy Logic System shows more efficient than the normal Spectrum utilization method.

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A New High Speed - Low Power 12 Transistor Full Adder Design with GDI Technique[Full-Text[References]
Shahid Jaman, Nahian Chowdhury, Aasim Ullah, Muhammad Foyazur Rahman

The low power and high performance 1-bit full adder cell is proposed in this paper. The Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) technique has been used for the simultaneous generation of XOR and XNOR functions. The resulting full adder circuit is realized using of the 12 transistors, while having full voltage-swing in all circuit nodes. By optimizing the transistor, size in each stage the power and delay are minimized. The full adder are simulated with PSPICE which shows that the new full adder circuit has the lowest power and delay over a wide range of voltages among several low-power adder cells of different CMOS logic styles.

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Literacy Rate Analysis[Full-Text[References]
Tarun Verma, Sweety Raj, Mohammad Asif Khan, Palak Modi

This paper provides the information that literacy is one of the main important issues that every country wants to fulfill. UNESCO, UNDP, ASER are some organizations that work towards this goal and collected data regarding literacy rate and dropout rate. Some solution approaches have been studied for analyzing the data associated with literacy. Weka tool is used along with a pre-existing solution to define the literacy rates region wise, on an international and national level. Data to be analyzed is given as input to the tool and output is obtained in the form of a decision tree. The decision tree, which is the final output, is very easy to understand and comprehend.

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Atm Mobility Communication Via Internet[Full-Text[References]
Ankita Rakesh Mowar,P H Zope

In this paper a research problem based on my ME dissertation describe an alternate way by how ATM and Mobile get communicated through internet which aims to give a dual security system for cash withdrawal from ATM. It is based on research methodology namely 'submergence in integration with identification.' In this paper only designing is given that how virtual ATM is created through software and how message is sending on particular mobile through internet service. Then the developed database is shown the main text ,along with the results of pilot testing finally main testing results are incorporated after the validation . They are also exemplified and elaborated with computerized photos. In conclusion the future scope and adaptability are covered up

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Study of influencing factors of academic performance of students: A data mining Approach [Full-Text[References]
V.Ramesh, P.Thenmozhi, Dr.K. Ramar

The main concerns of any higher educational system is evaluating and enhancing the educational organization so as to improve the quality of their services and satisfy their customer's needs. This is an attempt to find suitable prediction techniques using data mining tool WEKA to help in enhancing the quality of the higher educational system by evaluating student data to predict the student performance in courses during early period of study. This will help the educational institutions to identify the students who are at risk and to tale necessary steps to reduce failing ratio at right time to improve the quality of education. The process of finding a suitable prediction algorithm was also described.

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An Ant based Algorithm for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks[Full-Text[References]
Poonam Narwal, Naveen Goel

Vanet is the most promising area of research. As like other network, this network also suffers by the problems of security and efficiency. The proposed work is about to improve the qos in terms of path selection over the network. Here we have proposed a new bio-inspired routing algorithm and use ant colony optimization approach to find solutions to the vehicle routing problem (VRP) i.e. to find an efficient vehicle route. For that we make use of one of the commonly used vanet protocol called DYMO, here we are improving the DYMO protocol by combining it with ACO. The work is about to provide an intelligent solution to avoid the problem of congestion in case an accident happen in vehicular network. ACO will be used to identify the safe path from the network at some early stage.

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Lipases, its sources, Properties and Applications: A Review[Full-Text[References]
Sumita Thakur

This review paper provides an overview regarding the main aspects of microbial lipases production. The most important microbial lipase-producing strains are reviewed as well as the main substrates, including the use of agro-industrial residues. Current process techniques (batch, repeated-batch, fed-batch, and continuous mode) are discussed. Finally, some future perspectives on lipase production are discussed with special emphasis on lipase engineering.

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MOND Kinematics of simple pendulum[Full-Text[References]
Smita Nahatkar, Manisha Pund

Highlighting the behavior of a simple pendulum in view of the modified kinetic energy, due to Pankovic and Kapor in MOND theory by Milgrom, its Newtonian analogue is reclaimed

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Lean And Green Construction[Full-Text[References]
Ritu Ahuja

Today, the construction industry is facing a number of problems which include cost overrun, completion delay, low productivity, poor quality. These inherent problems need to be solved and taken care of in order to bring an overall change and improvement in the current scenario of the construction industries. The need for the change can only be resolved by the Lean construction and Lean project management approach. Today, people have started to be concerned about the 4 R's i.e. Reduce, Recycle, Reuse and Regulate. In the recent years, eliminating the 'concept of waste' and creating a healthier environment through design and management has become a prime goal, thus involving the issues of sustainability in construction. The paper would bring out the deep connections of the lean and green philosophies, both seeking to reduce waste. It would explore as to how the lean strategy in the construction industries help to bring out a green and sustainable built environment.

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Simplified Scheme for Data Acquisition in Student Imaging Satellite[Full-Text[References]
Mr.G.Raman Gouda, Mr.Dinesha HA, Prof VK Agrawal, Prof.R.Suguna

PES Instiute of Technology and SKR college of Engineering along with four other instiutions are developing a student imaging satellite. The project serves for students as a platform for understanding and dealing with advanced space technologies

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Usage of Incremental Provider-aided Distance Information System to Improve User Assignment from a Performance Perspective for Content-Delivery Networks (CDNs)[Full-Text[References]
C.Kishor Kumar Reddy, M.Venkateswarlu, P.R Anisha

This paper looks at Content-delivery networks (CDNs) originate a large fraction of Internet traffic; yet, due to how CDNs often perform traffic optimization, users aren't always assigned to the best servers for end-user performance and, in particular, suggests Provider-aided Distance Information System (PaDIS), which is a mechanism to rank client-host pairs based upon information such as RTT, bandwidth or number of hops. Headline figure, 70% of http traffic from a major European ISP can be accessed via multiple different locations. "Hyper giants" are defined as the large content providers such as google, yahoo and CDN providers which effectively build their own network and have content in multiple places. Quote: "more than half of the total traffic, including the dominant HTTP traffic, can be delivered in principle from multiple servers at diverse network locations based on observations from passive packet-level monitoring" also "there is choice between at least two subnets over 40% of the time". To improve user assignment of CDNs, we propose and deploy the Provider-aided Distance Information System (PaDIS), which lets ISPs augment the CDN server by utilizing their unique knowledge about network conditions and user locations. Field tests show that using PaDIS can result in significant improvements in download time. Our field test results show that significant improvements in download time up to a factor of four for content offered by popular CDNs can be achieved when utilizing PaDIS. This paper discusses on the usage of PADIS architecture.

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High-speed processing of larger Edge-detection filters using NVIDIA CUDA Architecture[Full-Text[References]
Sowjanya Latha. Mudumba, K. Nageswara rao, Yugandhar Garapati

Image processing on large images is highly computation intensive. General purpose CPUs with Multiple Cores can provide some level of computational speed. Spatial filters used in Image Processing are inherently parallel. By using a Parallel computing Architecture such as CUDA "Compute Unified Device Architecture", huge improvements can be achieved in processing times. NVidia's GPUs that follow CUDA achieved significant improvement in Canny Edge detection algorithm. Typical Canny edge-detection filter is of size 3x3. In many real applications, the edge detection needs higher size of filters. The aim of this paper is to study the improvement in processing times on larger edge detection filters when Nvidia's GPUs are used for computation in comparison to processing the same on General purpose CPUs. In this paper, we describe some of the benefits associated with implementation of canny using CUDA and we are looking at possible development pitfalls, solutions and performance results.

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Exergy Analysis Of Domestic Refrigerator With Different Refrigerants[Full-Text[References]
Rahul ukey, Sharad chaudhary

"Electricity saved is electricity generated". In today's scenario, our country is facing various challenges of saving electricity. Var-ious gadgets, tools and equipments are flooded into the market, which work upon non-conventional sources of energy. Hence requirement of energy efficient devices is of utmost importance in view of the futuristic energy requirements. The uses of electricity in house hold appliances like air conditioner, water pump, refrigerator is obvious and if these devices can be made more energy efficient, handsome amount of electricity can be saved. Work has already been carried out in the field of energy economics, thermo economics

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Color Coded Cryptography[Full-Text[References]
Aditya Gaitonde

Data encryption technique converts data into a unreadable format so as to protect the information from external intrusion.It is thus useful in ensuring the privacy and security of the information transferred or shared between the systems.Text compression algorithms can be used to compact the text stored in the file and reduce the size of the file. It helps to reduce the consumption of resources, such as hard disk space or transmission bandwidth. Here, we propose a color coding scheme that can be used for data encryption which represents text in the form of colored blocks by grouping together binary bits and assigning them colors along with Huffman encoding scheme which is used for lossless text compression. The tandem of the above helps provide a solution to both of the problems above, as illustrate d under.

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Oxidation of Ethyl Benzene over Mesoporous Ceria Modified with Chromium[Full-Text[References]
Rose Philo.K.J, S.Sugunan

Supported metals are used in large scale in heterogeneous catalysis. Highly efficient heterogeneous catalysts consisting of mesoporous ceria modified with different weight% of Cr successfully oxidized ethylbenzene to acetophenone usingTert-Butyl Hydroperoxide (TBHP)withacetonitrile as solvent.Chromium containingmesoporous ceria(CeCr(x%)) were synthesized by templated method using neutral surfactant Hexadecylamine (HDA) followed by wetness impregnation method.The catalytic activities of the newly developed chromium modified samples were evaluated in the liquid phase oxidation of ethylbenzene using TBHP as an oxidant.The kinetic parameters of the catalyst were also calculated for the reaction.

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Detecting Guilty Party Using Dynamic Agents In Data Leakage [Full-Text[References]
Lipi George, Mr.S.Vinoth Kumar, Dr.S.Karthik

In today's business world, sometimes sensitive data must be handed over to supposedly trusted third parties. For example, a hospital may give patient records to researchers who will devise new treatments. Similarly, a company may have partnerships with other companies that require sharing customer data. Another enterprise may outsource its data processing, so data must be given to various other companies. We call the owner of the data the distributor and the supposedly trusted third parties the agents. Our goal is to detect when the distributor's sensitive data have been leaked by agents, and if possible to identify the agent that leaked the data. Here, we develop a model for assessing the "guilt" of agents. We also present algorithms for distributing objects to agents, in a way that improves our chances of identifying a leaker. We also consider the option of adding "fake" objects to the distributed set. Such objects do not correspond to real entities but appear realistic to the agents. In a sense, the fake objects act as a type of watermark for the entire set, without modifying any individual members. If it turns out that an agent was given one or more fake objects that were leaked, then the distributor can be more confident that agent was guilty

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Assessment of District wise Primary Education using Evidential Reasoning[Full-Text[References]
Mohammad Salah Uddin Chowdury, Smita Sarker

Education sector, one of the important social sectors in the developing countries plays a gigantic role in promoting the social as well as the economic growth and development of the concerned countries. More specifically, not the only education but the quality primary education will contribute a lot for its smooth acceleration. In primary education, if the quality will maintain then automatically all the problems in primary education i.e. enrollment, completion, drop-out and so on will be robotic and gradually solved. The assessment of district wise primary education (ADPE) depends on both multiple qualitative and quantitative factors. This paper presents evidential reasoning(ER) approach for ADPE in which most significant factors are aggregated. A case study of Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi and Khulna districts in Bangladesh is provided to illustrate the implementation process of the ER approach for ADPE. In this paper we find out the best performing district while the weakness and strength of specific factors of particular district are determined. In this paper we show the relation of lowest performing districts to its specific factors.

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Effects of Fluoxetine on Testis of Albino rats - A Histological Assessment[Full-Text[References]
Alka Aggarwal, S L Jethani, R K Rohatgi, Juhi Kalra

Fluoxetine is a long acting widely used antidepressant, prototype of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), with a plasma half-life of 2 days. The present study was carried out to see the histopathological effects of Fluoxetine on the testis of adult albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally to rats for 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides were prepared and stained with H and E stain. On examination, distortion of seminiferous tubules, decreased thickness of germinal epithelium, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubules and decreased counts of germinal cell lineage were found in treated groups

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Designing Of Cache Partitioning Algorithm For Multicore Based Real Time System[Full-Text[References]
S. Lokhnade, Dr. D.V. Padole

Cache partitioning and sharing is important to the successful use of multicore processors. However, maximum studies have quite a few limitations, such as too much simulation time due to inter thread memory interfering, simulation in accurateness.This paper proposes a cache partitioning method for multicore based real time systems. It reduces cache interfering among concurrently executing threads. The cache partitioning algorithm estimates the miss-rate characteristics of each thread at run-time and dynamically partitions the cache among the threads that are executing concurrently and hence improve the performance.

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Managing E-Waste in India: [A Review][Full-Text[References]
Gulshan Sirkeck, Gaurav Gupta

The developing countries are facing a huge challenge in the management of electronic waste (e-waste) which are either internally generated or imported illegally as 'used' goods. E-waste contains hazardous constituents that negatively impact the environment and human health. Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the country. Growth of Information and Communication Technology sector has enhanced the usage of the electronic equipment exponentially. Faster obsolescence and subsequent up-gradation of electronics product, are forcing consumers to discard old products, which in turn accumulate huge e-waste to the solid waste stream. E-waste is growing in India at the rate of 10%, because of lack of adequate infrastructure to manage wastes safely; major recycling of e-waste is carried out in the non-formal sector using primitive and hazardous methods. These wastes are buried, burnt in the open air or dumped into the surface water bodies. We should have in place legislation mandating electronic manufacturers and importers to take-back used electronic products at their end-of-life (EoL) based on the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR). Adequate legislative measures and cost-effective, environmental friendly, technological solution would be needed to address the issue.This paper gives an in- sight into various forms and the quantumof e-waste in the Indian scenario, the source and the circulation routes, the nature and the amount of toxic and valuable constituents of e-waste, potential pollution threat to environment, re- cycling methods, efficient management techniques for e-waste, awareness of people and legal requirements.

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Strength Aspects of Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete[Full-Text[References]
Avinash Gornale, S Ibrahim Quadri, S Mehmood Quadri, Syed Md Akram Ali, Syed Shamsuddin Hussaini

Glass Fibre Reinforced concrete (GFRC) is a recent introduction in the field of concrete technology. It has been extensively used in over 100 countries since its introduction in 1980's. This product is covered by international standards and has been practiced all over the world. GFRC has advantage of being light weight and thereby reducing the overall cost of construction there by bringing economy in construction. This work is only an accumulation of information about GFRC from all over the internet and some text books. GFRC is concrete that uses glass fibres for reinforcement instead of steel. It is typically cast in a thin section of around 1/2" to 3/4". Since the fibres cannot rust like steel, there is no need for a protective concrete cover thickness to prevent rusting. With the thin, hollow construction of GFRC products, they can weigh a fraction of weight of traditional precast concrete

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High Frequency RF Source for High Data Rate Modulation Techniques[Full-Text[References]
Sushma K, Manjula V K, S Sandya

There are various modulation schemes that are used in communication system. The modulating signal and the carrier play an important role. There are different methods to build (Numerically Controlled Oscillator) NCOs like Look-Up Table (LUT), Cordic algorithm, Xilinx built-in BRAM (Block RAM) and Slices. This paper presents Xilinx BRAM based method of generating high speed, high frequency sine and cosine digitally synthesized RF wave. The proposed method could generate high frequency signal with nearly 45% faster locking time with respect to Look-Up Table (LUT) based NCO and 60% faster locking time with respect to Cordic based NCO.

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Multiband NCO for BPSK, FSK and FM techniques[Full-Text[References]
Sunita Desai S , Pawan Kumar Bhargav, Manjula V K , S Sandya

There are various modulation schemes that are used in communication system. Some of the modulation technique includes Binary Shift Keying (BPSK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Frequency Modulation (FM) etc. The modulating signal and the carrier play an important role. Generation of the carrier can be done using the Numerically Controlled Oscillator (NCO) techniques. There are different methods like ROM look-up-table (LUT), Cordic , Feedback Circuit can be used to build NCOs. In this paper a look up table based NCO is discussed. The key element of this NCO is a LUT that translates the control input into a desired frequency. This technique is digital, it offers several advantages such as fast switching speed between output frequencies. In the present design the switching speed is 3 clock cycles for 0.1 us clock. It also provides a fine frequency resolution of 4.768 Hz and operation over a broad spectrum of frequencies from 4 Hz to 2.5 MHz.

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A Personalised Ontology Model for Web Information Gathering by Domain Specific Search[Full-Text[References]
Shubhangi Shindikar, M.V.Nimbalkar, Anand Deshpande

The World Wide Web is an interlinked collection of billions of documents formatted using HTML. Ironically the very size of this collection has become an obstacle for information retrieval. The user has to shift through scores of pages to come upon the information he/she desires. Web crawlers are the heart of search engines. Web crawlers continuously keep on crawling the web and find any new web pages that have been added to the web, pages that have been removed from the web. Due to growing and dynamic nature of the web; it has become a challenge to traverse all URLs in the web documents and to handle these URLs. A focused crawler is an agent that targets a particular topic and visits and gathers only relevant web pages. A personalized ontology model is proposed for knowledge representation and reasoning over user profiles. This model learns ontological user profiles from both a world knowledge base and user local instance repositories. The proposed ontology model provides a solution to emphasizing global and local knowledge in a single computational model.

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Cluster Based Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Wireless Networks Using Neuro-Genetic Paradigm[Full-Text[References]
Anju Sharma, Shini Agarwal and Ravindra Singh Rathore

An Ad-Hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. The topology of connections between nodes in ad hoc networks may be quite dynamic. Ad hoc networks require a highly adaptive routing scheme to deal with the frequent topology changes. In this paper we propose clustering based algorithm using both neural network and the mechanisms of a genetic algorithm (GA). Cluster head selection is proposed using neural networks with the objective of maximizing the network lifetime..We use GA's because GA mechanisms allow for self-configuration systems and maintain state information about the neighbouring network better than traditional MANET routing mechanisms. GA mechanisms allow a node to change routing information quickly and efficiently to adjust an ever changing local topology, initiating fewer link breakages. And we obtain the alternative path or backup path to avoid reroute discovery in the case of link failure or node failure.

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NRZ versus RZ in 136 x 10 Gbps DWDM Systems[Full-Text[References]
Prabhjeet Singh, Narwant Singh Grewal

We investigated the 136 x 10 Gbps DWDM system with the interval of 100 GHz for NRZ and RZ modulation formats and further compare the performances of these formats in the term of Quality factor and eye closure, BER. The obtained results reported that NRZ DWDM system will provide better results with acceptable Quality factor (>15 dB) and BER (<10-9).

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Diagnosis of Transformer Faults Based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System[Full-Text[References]
A.Venkatasami, Dr.P.Latha, K.Kasirajan

Transformer fault diagnosis is an interesting subject for plant operators due to its criticality in power systems. There are several international standards available to interpret power transformer faults based on dissolved gas analysis. In certain cases these standards are not able to provide correct diagnosis. There are several soft computing techniques available for modelling transformer faults. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) modelling technique emerges as one of the soft computing modelling technique for power transformer. The objective of this paper is to obtain an ANFIS model from DGA system stimulus and response data of power transformers. The prediction ability of the ANFIS is also tested using limited data set for model training. Results show that ANFIS model is able to estimate the transformer faults with high level of accuracy.

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Multifrequency Fractal Antenna[Full-Text[References]
Dipakkumar J. Barasara, Prof. Jayeshkumar C. Prajapati, Ankitkumar M. Dethalia

This paper presents the fifth iterative micro strip fractal antenna for multifrequency operation. The fractal antenna has been designed on substrate with dielectric constant er=2.2 and substrate thickness h=1.57mm. This fractal antenna offer operation at cutoff frequencies 2.1GHz, 4.4GHz, 5.4GHz, and 7.7GHz.

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Tight focusing of circularly polarized light beam for the fabrication of NEMS[Full-Text[References]
S.Sumathi, K.Gokulakrishnan, K.B.Rajesh

We investigate the focused properties of circularly polarized beam by a high NA lens axicon based on vector diffraction theory. The Circularly polarized femtosecond laser vortex pulses ablate material differently depending on the handedness of light.This effect offers an additional degree of freedom to control the shape and size of laser-machined structures on a sub-wavelength scale.

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Generation of Novel Focal Pattern for Nanolithography[Full-Text[References]
C.Kanchana Devi, K.Gokulakrishnan, K.B.Rajesh

Focusing properties of the azimuthally polarized beam induced by a Binary phase plate are investigated theoretically. The binary phase plate consists of five concentric portions, through which the azimuthally polarized beam is passed and it is focused by an full aperture lens, annular lens, High NA lens axicon. It generates sub wavelength focal hole having large uniform focal depth of 60? without any annular aperture.Such a super long dark channel may find applications in particle guiding or trapping , scanning optical microscopy , lithography , laser cutting of metals, particle acceleration, biological, and atmospheric sciences

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Low Cost Digital Basic Mathematics Rules Learner Kit[Full-Text[References]
MD.Mizanur Rahman, A.H.M. Zadidul Karim, Asraful Haque Ronee, Khandakar Mohammad Ishtiak

In this paper, a low cost microcontroller based digital learner kit has been constructed with ATmega128 and its software is written with basic language (Bascom software).This learner kit can help a student to learn the basic mathematics rules. Mathematics rules about algebra, trigonometre, measurement and calculus are included in this device. In third world country the price of paper and pen is more than other developed country. This device also saves paper and pen because a student can justify and examine himself about the mathematics rules by this device. Our device is unique because someone buys this device then he also saves money instead of paper and pen

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A Hybrid Solution for Resource Discovery Problem in Grid Networks[Full-Text[References]
P.Anuja, K.Gokula Krishnan, J.Jesu Vedha Nayahi

Resource discovery involves finding and retrieving resources that are relevant to the user of the system. All existing intrusive methods to discover available resources have increased number of control messages, which increases message complexity and high maintainability. Our method, overcomes this problem.The method used is a hybrid of both intrusive and non-intrusive methods .First, the Passive Resource Characterization (PRC) paradigm is used for identifying the utilization of the nodes .The PRC algorithm , uses k-means clustering algorithm to passively distinguish between available and unavailable resources. This method is used as an enhancement to the existing intrusive method to fully characterize the network resources. Dedicated Resource Evaluator (DRE) is a hybrid node containing the PRC algorithm and the Name-Dropper Algorithm. DRE passively extracts the resource information from each node on the grid produced by the PRC algorithm. All the data analyzed are updated in the Resource Availability Table (RAT), only the under utilized nodes are computed and listed. DRE is queried whenever grid requires resources and the under utilized resources on the grid are made available to the requesting node by using the Name-Dropper algorithm. This approach reduces message traffic on the network, message complexity and also accurately determines the state of the resources.

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Implementing Schema Evolution in Data Warehouse through Complex Hierarchy Semantics[Full-Text[References]
Kanika Talwar, Anjana Gosain

Data in a data warehouse is collected from several heterogeneous data sources under a unified format, which aims to provide strategic outcomes to the decision makers and facilitate pattern and trend analysis. These data sources are dynamic in nature, due to ongoing transactions in an organization and ever changing requirements. This dynamic nature of the data warehouse has to be dealt with evolution in the data warehouse schema in order to incorporate all the new changes and requirements. In data warehouse systems, the hierarchies play a very important role in processing and monitoring information. So in order to handle complex hierarchies in case of data warehouse evolution, we have proposed evolution operators and certain constraints that need to be fulfilled for ensuring data integrity and schema correctness. This schema correctness in case of evolution is ensured through triggers. In this paper, we have considered a formal metamodel to model the constructs in data warehouse. Also the constraints and operators are defined using the Uni- level Description Language (ULD) and the Multilevel dictionary definition (MDD) approach. The ULD representation exhibits uniform formulation of data, schema and their interrelationships while the MDD structures provide a way for direct implementation in a relational database system.

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QOP: Proposed Framework for Materialized View Maintenance in Data Warehouse Evolution[Full-Text[References]
Hemant Jain, Anjana Gosain

A data warehouse is generally applied to discover and integrate data from independent data source. In data warehouse large numbers of materialized views are stored in order to provide fast access to the integrated data. Maintenance of materialized views is one of the critical tasks in warehousing environment. They must be up to date to ensure accurate results and also to speed up the query processing significantly. Updating of materialized views is also important to ensure consistency because the source data usually change over time. In literature, few frameworks have been proposed for materialized view maintenance. Each of these frameworks has different characteristics, capabilities and complexities. But none of these frameworks focus on query optimisation. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework called QOP to support data warehouse view maintenance. The proposed framework improves the functionality of previously proposed frameworks by primarily focusing on changes in the maintenance phase. This framework also provides the additional concept of query optimization in the maintenance phase.

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How important is cuture and negotiations in the international business: Comparison analysis between Swedish and Latin American companies [Full-Text[References]
Hasim Deari, Paola Lopez, Viktoria Kimel

The number of companies operating internationally is growing constantly. The world is opening up for foreign firms and new destinations in the company' business are increasing. Because of high competition the companies operating abroad are faced with a much larger task then before. When going international the challenges the company must handle are new and unfamiliar. Obstacles the firm never faced before are becoming crucial in the every day work. Culture is one of these obstacles and can affect the entire co-operation. Culture can influence the business in different ways. Language problems, pricing difficulties and culture collisions are not uncommon, especially in the beginning. The company must be able to handle these difficulties in a way that is satisfying also for the other part. Mistakes can be difficult to correct and disrespect for the foreign culture can destroy the entire operation.

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Anomaly Detection Using Clustering For Ad Hoc Networks -behavioral Approach[Full-Text[References]
Belacel, B.MESSABIH

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are multi-hop wireless networks of autonomous mobile nodes without any fixed infrastructure. In MANETs, it is difficult to detect malicious nodes because the network topology constantly changes due to node mobility. Intrusion detection is the means to identify the intrusive behaviors and provide useful information to intruded systems to respond fast and to avoid or reduce damages. The anomaly detection algorithms have the advantage because they can detect new types of attacks (zeroday attacks).In this paper, we present a Intrusion Detection System clustering-based (ID-Cluster) that fits the requirement of MANET. This dissertation addresses both routing layer misbehaviors issues, with main focuses on thwarting routing disruption attack Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). To validate the research, a case study is presented using the simulation with GloMoSum at different mobility levels. Simulation results show that our proposed system can achieve desirable performance and meet the security requirement of MANET.

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Image Steganography and Global Terrorism[Full-Text[References]
Kaustubh Choudhary

This paper informs the reader how an innocent looking digital image hides a deadly terrorist plan. It analyses the strengths of image stega-nography and the reasons why terrorists are relying on it. It also aims to generate interest among the scientific community about Image steganography so that experts from multiple disciplines may join hands for devising better steganalysis techniques against the global terrorism. In this paper a basic digital image is analyzed and based on this analysis an LSB based steganographic algorithm is designed. Using this algorithm a software is developed and its performance is compared with various other steganographic tools available on the internet. The result of this comparison explains us why steganography is so much preferred by terrorists. Various images and image related tables used in this paper are generated using MATLAB Simulation Environment.

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Effects Of Fertilizer On Soil Moisture Dynamics As Conditioned By Rainfall In A Cultivated Maize Plot [Full-Text[References]
Enokela O.S ,M.Eng; I. N. Frances B.Eng and M.O. Isikwue Ph.D.

The effect of fertilizer application on soil moisture dynamics of cultivated plot was studied under dry and wet condition on Makurdi fluvisol on a cultivated maize plot (100m2) for period of eight weeks. Moisture content was investigated weekly on ten ridges of bare soil, Non fertilizer treated and a fertilizer treated each (2kg of N.P.K 20:10:10). Moisture content in the treated plot was found to be higher each week compared to that in the untreated plot by 3.11%. Rainfall increases from the first week of the experiment to the last week although recessed at the 3rd and 5th week. The fertilizer treated plot showed significant moisture retention of 3.97 (-3.97>2.36<3.97) at 5% levels and 7 degree of freedom on statistical test of paired comparison of t test. It was recommended that further work should be carried out on herbicides usage to determine if there will be an increase in moisture of the soil with absence of weed growth and alternate planting of maize with other crops should be advised as this may aid in the increase in moisture.

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Fuzzy Decomposition on the Affine Kac-Moody Algebras [Full-Text[References]
A.Uma Maheswari

The theory of Kac- Moody algebras is one of the modern field of Mathematical research which has been developing rapidly in the past twenty years due to its interesting connections and applications to other fields of Mathematics and Mathematical Physics. On the other hand fuzzy theory has deep rooted applications in varies fields of science and technology. We make an attempt on studying the fuzziness on Kac-Moody algebras. In this paper, we define fuzzy sets on the Cartesian product of some of the affine type of Kac-Moody algebras Basic properties of fuzzy sets are studied; For specific values of - level and strong - level sets are computed. -cut decomposition for there fuzzy sets, associated with the families of affine type of Kac-Moody algebras are computed.

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Scale Invariant Texture Classification using Fuzzy Logic[Full-Text[References]
Shailendrakumar M. Mukane, Sachin R. Gengaje, Dattatraya S. Bormane

In this paper, scale invariant texture classification method based on Fuzzy logic is developed. It is applied for the classification of texture images. Two types of texture features are extracted one using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and other using Gray Level Co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Two features are obtained from each sub-band of DWT coefficients up to fifth level of decomposition and eight features are extracted from GLCM of whole image and each sub-band of first level DWT decomposition. The fuzzy classifier is developed with Gaussian membership function. The performance is measured in terms of Success Rate. This study showed that the proposed method offers excellent Success Rate with WSF1, WSF3, and HWSCF6, proposed HWSCF3, HWSCF7, and HWSCF9. The results of our method outperform earlier methods available

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Energy Efficient Aggregation Algorithm for Wireless[Full-Text[References]
Y.Chalapathi Raoe, Dr.Ch.Santhi Rani, P.Lavany

The wireless sensor network is to provide the users with access to the information of interest from data gathered by spatially distributed sensors. Generally the users require only certain aggregate functions of this distributed data. Computation of this aggregate data under the end-to-end information flow paradigm by communicating all the relevant data to a central collector node is a highly inefficient solution for this purpose. An alternative proposition is to perform in network computation. In this paper, we have presented an energy efficient aggregation algorithm for WSNs that is secure and robust against malicious insider attack by any compromised or faulty node in the network. In contrast to the traditional snapshot aggregation approach in WSNs, a node in the proposed algorithm instead of unicasting its sensed information to its parent node, broadcasts its estimate to all its neighbors. The simulations conducted on the proposed algorithm have produced results that demonstrate its effectiveness.

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Review of Multipath Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network -A Survey[Full-Text[References]
Jayashree A, G. S. Biradar, V. D. Mytri

Various applications like automated information gathering in military, industrial, environmental and surveillance applications requires improved QoS guarantee as well as high reliability in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs). In this paper, we have exhaustly reviewed various multi-path routing schemes and classified them accordingly to be suitable for multimedia-traffic. Benefits of using Multipath routing protocols are represented. In general detailed study has been made on multipath routing scheme with Qos requirement for transmission of multimedia data in Wireless multimedia sensor networks.

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System Modeling the Lacunas of ICT Enabled Control Valve[Full-Text[References]
B Jayalakshmi and V.R Pramod

ICT enablement is a well proven strategy to improve the competency of any system while operating in multifavour locations and instruments. From the dawn of industry suitable control valve of variable designs and functions are used to optimize the process control systems. It has been observed that the lacunas of ICT based control valve exhibit many inter relationships. ISM (Interpretive Structural Modeling) is a supreme tool to study the inter relationships. Hence in this paper ISM is deployed. At the outset inter relationships have been established among the elements of lacunas of ICT based control valve. Subsequently initial reach ability matix, final reach ability matix and diagraph were prepared and diagraph is converted to ISM

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Exploring the Malware Analysis Landscape for Forensic Investigation[Full-Text[References]
Gursimran Kaur, Bharti Nagpal

The computer crime explosion in World Wide Web has increased in both commercial and personal areas. Study of poor users; provide valuable information in their system to their individual needs or for the efficient organization. Among the several attacking approaches like virus, worm, Trojan horse etc. to extract confidential data from particular victim system, this paper uses malware analysis of system to discover malware which extract confidential information from victim system. Malware poses a huge threat to society, which is heavily dependent on computer technology. Traces of malicious activity can be identified through digital forensics techniques. In this research we describe a generic and modular framework to present detection of malware attack & types of malware analysis technique based on existing approach. At the end we propose a Landscape to detect the malware in computer system for the help of computer forensic investigation.

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Simulation Study of GAGD process in One of Iranian Fractured Reservoir[Full-Text[References]
Naser Akhlaghi, Fatemeh Rezaei, Nima Akhlaghi

In gas injection EOR methods the oil recovery is controlled by the rates of injected gas and oil production, relative permeability, heterogeneity and balance among viscose, capillary and gravity forces. In the GAGD process gas injects in the crest and the layer that is located between oil and gas zone and provides gas-oil gravity mechanism. This research investigates the effect of optimum place to explore the injection well in GAGD process and future more the status of injection well which includes vertical, deviation and multilateral model. Results indicate the total oil production in multilateral production well has the best efficiency in comparison with deviation and vertical injection well.

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Network Admission Control System[Full-Text[References]
B. Thanudas, Jeby M. Abraham, Ashwini B., Vini Vijayan

Network Admission Control (NAC) is a computer networking concept that uses a set of protocols to secure the network nodes prior to their accessing the network. NAC provides an enforcement mechanism that helps to ensure that computers are properly configured and comply with the organisation's security policy. In this paper we have provided a simple cost effective NAC system using open source software satisfying the needs of the organization.

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Analysis of Smart Antenna Beamformer characteristics using CMA and DMI[Full-Text[References]
V.L.Bhavani.Maddirala, C.Subba Rao

The Smart Antenna is a new technology and has been used in the mobile communications systems such as GSM and CDMA. Advent of powerful, low cost, digital processing components and the development of software-based techniques has made smart antenna systems a practical reality for both base station and mobile station of a cellular communications system. The core of the smart antenna system is the selection of smart algorithms in adaptive array. Using beam forming algorithms the weight of antenna arrays can be adjusted to form certain amount of adaptive beam to track corresponding users automatically and at the same time to minimize interference arising from other users by introducing nulls in the respective directions. Thus interferences can be suppressed and the desired signal can be extracted. This paper presents description and comparative analysisand utility of various reference signals based on direct matrix inversion and constant modulus algorithms. Exhaustive studies of simulation of beam patterns and learning characteristics have proved the efficacies of the proposed work from application point of view.

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Performance Evaluation of AQM Algorithms for SRM based group communication in DVMRP Multicasting Network[Full-Text[References]
Shaveta, Harsh K Verma, Ashish Kumar

Over the last decade numerous active queue management (AQM) schemes have been proposed. Many of these studies have been towards improving congestion control in best-effort networks. However, there hs been a notable lack of standardized performance evaluation of AQM schemes

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Performance Evaluation of AQM Algorithms for SRM based group communications in DVMRP Multicasting Network[Full-Text[References]
Shaveta, Harsh K Verma, Ashish Kumar

Over the last decade numerous active queue management (AQM) schemes have been proposed. Many of these studies have been directed towards improving congestion control in best-effort networks. However, there has been a notable lack of standardized performance evaluation of AQM Schemes. A rigorous study of the influence of parameteristion on specific schemes and the establisment of common comparison criteria is essential for objective evaluation of the different approaches.

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New Improved Oil Recovery from Heavy and Semi-Heavy Oil Reservoirs by Implementing Immiscible Heated WAG Injection[Full-Text[References]
Mohammad Amin Gholamzadeh, Naser Akhlaghi, Elyas Golabi

Only next to thermal processes used to produce heavy oil, gas injection is the second most common enhanced oil recovery process. To increase the extent of effects of the gas on the heavy and semi-heavy oils in the reservoir by gas injection, the gas is generally injected intermittently with water. This mode of injection is called Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG) method. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in WAG process both miscible and immiscible. In this paper, an experimental study of immiscible Heated WAG (Heated Water-Alternating-Heated Gas) injection into a sand pack is presented for the first time. This new method is a combination of WAG and thermal process and can be used to produce heavy and semi-heavy oils from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Oil recovery efficiency resulting from Heated WAG injection was significant in comparison with unheated WAG injection. The original reservoir fluid was dead oil, and core flooding experiments were performed on it using carbon dioxide as the injection gas. In this experimental study, the sand pack was initially saturated with dead oil and irreducible formation water. A number of WAG and Heated WAG cycles with low and constant rate and, below the minimum miscibility pressure for this system were injected into sand pack alternatively.

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How Insulin Regulates Insect Growth: The Evidence[Full-Text[References]
Dr. Barry.G. Loughton, Mr. Janpreet Singh Atwal

Insulin is now recognized to be an important hormone of the invertebrate system. Insulin; after its discovery by Banting and Best in 1921 is now known to be present in almost all invertebrate species. It was first discovered in the pancreatic Islets of Langerhans of Canis familiaris. Insulin like activity was first documented in the bivalve mollusc Mmya arenaria. Insulin like peptides were purified from Bombyx heads Bombyxin II was the first molecule to have its amino acids sequenced. Bombyxin II showed significant similarity to the mammalian insulin and thus, was declared as insulin like molecule in invertebrates.

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Experimental Study of Anionic and cationic surfactants effects on reduce of IFT and wet-tability alteration in carbonate rock[Full-Text[References]
Elyas Golabi, Fakhry Seyedeyn Azad, Sayed Shahabuddin Ayatollahi, Sayed Nooroldine Hosseini, Mjid Dastanian

The oil recovery by water flooding from carbonate reservoir is not effective because of the capillary forces in naturally fractured oil-wet carbonate formations. Alkaline/surfactant solution is recommended to enhance the spontaneous imbibition between fractures and matrix by both the wettability alteration and ultra-low interfacial tensions. In this work, the effects of anionic surfactant (SDBS), and a cationic surfactant (C12TAB), on the interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water and wettability alteration of limestone core samples were investigated. The understudied oil and limestone core were obtained from Aghajari reservoir, in the south-western part of Iran. The experimental results showed that the minimum amount of IFT achieved are using 0.5 wt% SDBS with 0.6 mol/lit NaOH, 1.5 wt% Na2CO3 and 5wt% NaCl at 70°C. At 0.4 wt% and 70°C, C12TAB mostly altered the wettability toward water wet.

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Modeling and Signal processing for Cochlear Implant to improve speech recognition[Full-Text[References]
D. V. Bhoir, Dr M. S. Panse

Cochlear implant Prostheses device is implanted in the inner ear and restore partial hearing to profound deaf people. A microphone that picks up the sound waves is applied to a signal processor, which then converts the sound into electrical signals. Then, the electrical signals are given to transmission system which transmits the pulses to the implanted electrodes. The laboratory speech processor is modeled and simulated for improved signal processing for different conditions. The speech processor is capable of providing high rate stimulation to the variable number of electrodes. The model offers flexibility in frequency as well as number of electrodes. The Continuous Interleaved Sampling scheme offers least interference between the pulses applied to the electrodes. The test was carried out for different test signals such as vowels, consonants and sentences. The main challenges were to test the model under different conditions such as open stage and monosyllabic words for its accuracy. The model performs very well under sound proof conditions. The open-set speech recognition was also plotted for different patients. From the results it is quite clear that the implant obtained moderate to excellent open-set speech-recognition scores. The results shows the orderly decrease in normal hearing performance as speech -to- noise ratio(SNR) decreases. Normal class room (Open stage) SNR is kept at 6dB whereas the sound proof room will have SNR ratio more than 15 to 20dB. The mean scores for the cochlear implant user decreases as SNR decreases.

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Controlling Home Appliances Using Near Field Communication and J2ME [Full-Text[References]
Mahesh Lanjewar, Sumit Bhattacharya, Prajakt Shastry, Nijil Pillai

Near Field Communication, is a short range wireless RFID technology that makes use of interacting electromagnetic radio fields instead of the typical direct radio transmissions used by technologies such as Bluetooth. It is meant for applications where a physical touch, or close to it, is required in order to maintain security. NFC is planned for use in mobile phones for, among other things, payment, in conjunction with an electronic wallet, and for setting up connections between Bluetooth devices (rendering the current manual Bluetooth pairing process obsolete). Another use of NFC would be controlling your home Appliances with your smartphone. This would mean a universal access device to all of your home appliances right from entry to exit.

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Exploring the Malware Analysis Landscape for Forensic Investigation[Full-Text[References]
Gursimran Kaur, Bharti Nagpal

The computer crime explosion in World Wide Web has increased in both commercial and personal areas. Study of poor users; provide valuable information in their system to their individual needs or for the efficient organization. Among the several attacking approaches like virus, worm, Trojan horse etc. to extract confidential data from particular victim system, this paper uses malware analysis of system to discover malware which extract confidential information from victim system. Malware poses a huge threat to society, which is heavily dependent on computer technology. Traces of malicious activity can be identified through digital forensics techniques. In this research we describe a generic and modular framework to present detection of malware attack & types of malware analysis technique based on existing approach. At the end we propose a Landscape to detect the malware in computer system for the help of computer forensic investigation

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Simulation Study of GAGD process in One of Iranian Fractured Reservoir[Full-Text[References]
Naser Akhlaghi, Fatemeh Rezaei, Nima Akhlaghi

In gas injection EOR methods the oil recovery is controlled by the rates of injected gas and oil production, relative permeability, heterogeneity and balance among viscose, capillary and gravity forces. In the GAGD process gas injects in the crest and the layer that is located between oil and gas zone and provides gas-oil gravity mechanism. This research investigates the effect of optimum place to explore the injection well in GAGD process and future more the status of injection well which includes vertical, deviation and multilateral model. Results indicate the total oil production in multilateral production well has the best efficiency in comparison with deviation and vertical injection well.

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Modeling of Fiber Optic Biosensor to Measure Strain on Bones for Detecting Onset of Osteoporosis[Full-Text[References]
Preeti, Dr. H.M. Rai

Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. With the recent development of biosensors it is now possible to monitor the strain on the bones. For this purpose a number of biosensors have been proposed but not much work has been done in the field of photometric sensors. Microbend sensors are based on microbend induced excess transmission loss of an optical fiber to detect/measure displacement, pressure, strain, temperature etc. A Fiber Optic Biosensor is modeled and a strain attenuation linear response is obtained. Artificial Neural Networks are viewed here as parallel computational models, with varying degrees of complexity, comprised of densely interconnected adaptive processing units.

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Network Admission Control System[Full-Text[References]
B. Thanudas, Jeby M. Abraham, Ashwini B., Vini Vijayan

Network Admission Control (NAC) is a computer networking concept that uses a set of protocols to secure the network nodes prior to their accessing the network. NAC provides an enforcement mechanism that helps to ensure that computers are properly configured and comply with the organisation's security policy. In this paper we have provided a simple cost effective NAC system using open source software satisfying the needs of the organization.

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Phytochemicals - biomolecules for prevention and treatment of human diseases-a review[Full-Text[References]
Manas Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Pratyusha Banerjee and Debjani Nath

Ayurveda is the most ancient healthcare system describes thousands of medicinal plants with their medicinal properties. In recent times, developed countries are turning to the use of traditional medicinal systems because the phytochemicals are potent in different therapeutic applications as they show defensive mechanism of action against a number of chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease. Plant biomolecules are also involved in anti viral as well as antimicrobial activity and also show efficacy in radioprotection. But still there are some difficulties in proper therapeutic administration of phytochemicals due to their low water solubility, low absorptivity and bioavailability. So a strategy of engineered phytochemicals has been developed to enhance solubility, cellular permeability, proteolytic stability and half-life of plant biomolecules. Still further research is required to ensure high yield as well as viability and bioavailibity of the plant biomolecules in different therapeutic application.

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Analysis of Smart Antenna Beamformer characteristics using CMA and DMI[Full-Text[References]
V.L.Bhavani.Maddirala, C.Subba Rao

The Smart Antenna is a new technology and has been used in the mobile communications systems such as GSM and CDMA. Advent of powerful, low cost, digital processing components and the development of software-based techniques has made smart antenna systems a practical reality for both base station and mobile station of a cellular communications system. The core of the smart antenna system is the selection of smart algorithms in adaptive array. Using beam forming algorithms the weight of antenna arrays can be adjusted to form certain amount of adaptive beam to track corresponding users automatically and at the same time to minimize interference arising from other users by introducing nulls in the respective directions. Thus interferences can be suppressed and the desired signal can be extracted. This paper presents description and comparative analysisand utility of various reference signals based on direct matrix inversion and constant modulus algorithms. Exhaustive studies of simulation of beam patterns and learning characteristics have proved the efficacies of the proposed work from application point of view.

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Impact of Low Energy Time Synchronization Methods in Wireless Sensor Networks[Full-Text[References]
Kamlesh Kumar Gautam, Surendra Kumar Gautam, Dr. P.C. Agrawal

In the current time a large no of Time Synchronization methods are used. Each method has own characteristics and Synchronization preci-sion. Each method has its own feature and characteristics. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Each method has its own limitations, working environmental conditions and provided its results. Some of the methods provide accurate results and some of the time synchronization methods provide approximate results. Time Synchronization methods have large series like as RBS, Post Facto synchronization, TPSN, LTS, External vs. Internal, on demand, GPS, offset, subset synchronization, DMTS ,FTSP, RATS, GRADIENT TIME SYNCHRONIZATION PROTOCOL, PLTS etc. These time synchronization methods Precision, Lifetime, Scope and Availability, Efficiency, Cost and Form Factor. DMTS, RATS and FTSP synchronization precesson or errors have shown in µs .

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Multi-Channel Support for MP3[Full-Text[References]
Pooja Mustapure, Leelavathi G, Jayaprada S Hiremath

This paper presents a novel extension of the popular MP3 compression format which extends current MP3 capabilities towards the efficient and compatible representation of multi-channel audio, including the widely used 5.1 sound configuration. As previous 5.1 sound i.e. six channels are first down mixed i.e. they are converted into two channels and then given into MP3 encoder .And at the decoder side the two channels are retrieved then they are up-mixed to produce multi-channel effect sound. In this paper the six channels are directly given to the MP3 encoder in specific format. The input to the encoder will not be in stereo but it is in four channels like. After encoding ,the MP3 bitstream is in multi-channel format which will be a compressed one. Then they are retrieved back at decoder in the same manner. Here there is no necessary of up-mix or down mix. This enhances the sound quality of the main/centre channel by which we can hear the good surround sound of all six channel i.e. efficient implementation of 5.1 CH configurations can be done.

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Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Assessing the Testability of Object Oriented Software[Full-Text[References]
Yogesh Singh, Anju Saha

In this paper, we present the application of neural networks for predicting the software testability using the object oriented design metrics. The testability is generally measured in terms of the effort required for testing. The object oriented design metrics are used as the independent variables and two JUnit based test metrics are used as dependent variables in this study. The software metrics used include different measures concerning size, cohesion, coupling, inheritance, and polymorphism. This study compares the prediction performance of neural networks to the two types of statistical analysis methods: least squares regression and robust regression. This study is conducted on an agile based software, written in Java having 40K lines of code. The results of the study indicate that the prediction model using neural networks is better than that of the regression models in terms of the statistical measures of the model evaluation.

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Design and Implementation of IEEE-754 Addition and Subtraction for Floating Point Arithmetic Logic Unit[Full-Text[References]
V.Vinay Chamkur

This paper describes the FPGA implementation of a Decimal Floating Point (DFP) adder/subtractor using IEEE 754-2008 format. In this paper we describe an efficient implementation of an IEEE 754 single precision Standard for Binary Floating- Point Arithmetic to include specifications for decimal floating-point arithmetic. As processor support for decimal floating-point arithmetic emerges, it is important to investigate efficient algorithms and hardware designs for common decimal floating-point arithmetic algorithms. This paper presents novel designs for a decimal floating-point addition and subtraction. They are fully synthesizable hardware descriptions in VERILOG. Each one is presented for high speed computing.

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