IJSER Home >> Journal >> IJSER
International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research
ISSN Online 2229-5518
ISSN Print: 2229-5518 6    
Website: http://www.ijser.org
scirp IJSER >> Volume 3,Issue 6,June 2012
Cryopreservation of Human Sperm: Effect of Cooling Rate on Intracellular Ice Formation
Full Text(PDF, )  PP.60-63  
Author(s)
D.Devismita, A.Kumar, R.KrishnaKumar
KEYWORDS
Cryopreservation, Human sperm, Numerical modeling, Optimal cooling rate, Correlation, Intracellular ice formation, Diffusion limited water transport
ABSTRACT
he effect of cooling rate on the intracellular ice formation for human spermatozoa have been studied and a correlation formula is established in this study. It is found that after a certain cooling rate, termed as optimal cooling rate in this study, the volume of intracellular ice increases exponentially with increase in the cooling rate. The cellular response of human sperm cells to different cooling rates, varying between 5°C/min and 300°C/min, is studied using the diffusion limited transport model. The membrane permeability parameters are taken from the published literature. For a cooling rate lower than the optimal value, almost all intracellular water flows out to the extracellular compartment through the cell membrane leaving behind only the osmotically inactive cell volume inside the cell. For the calculation of the amount of intracellular ice formation, it has been assumed that the amount of water trapped inside the human sperm at -19°C will finally form intracellular ice with sufficient super-cooling
References
[1] L.Spallanzani, ―Osservation e spezien interno ai vermicelli spermatici dell’ uomo e degli animali‖, In opusculi di fisica Animale e Vegatabile, Opuculo II. Modeena, Italy (cited in Brotherton, 1990), 1776.

[2] C.B.Davenport, ―Experimantal morphology: part I, Effect of chemical and physical Agents upon Protoplasm‖, Macmillan Company, New York, 1897.

[3] A.S.Parkes, ―Preservation of Human spermatozoa at low temperatures‖, Br Med J., ii,212-213,1945.

[4] J.K. Sherman,―Synopsis of the use of frozen human semen since 1964: state of the art of human semen banking. Fertil Steril‖, 24, 397–412, 1973.

[5] C.Polge,A.U.Smith, and A.S.Parkes, ―Revival of spermatozoa after vitrification and dehydration at low temperatures‖, Nature,164, 666–668, 1949.

[6] E.M.Walters, J.D.Benson, E. J. Woods, and J.K. Critser,―The history of sperm cryopreservation‖, Sperm banking: Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, 2009.

[7] R.V.Devireddy,D.J.Swanlund,K.P.Roberts,J.L.Pryor, and J.C.Bischof, ―The effect of EIF and cryoprotective agents on the water permeability parameters of human sperm plasma membrane during freezing‖, Human Reproduction,Vol.15, no.5, pp.1125-1135,2000.

[8] P.Mazur, ―Kinetics of water loss from cells at subzero temperature and likelihood of intracellular freezing‖, J.Gen. Physiol, 47,347-369,1963.

[9] P.Mazur, S.P.Leibo, and E.H.Y.Chu, ―A two-factor hypothesis of freezing inzury‖, Exp cell Res, 71,345-355,1972

[10] P.Mazur, ―Freezing of living cells: mechanisms and implications‖, Am J Physiol,247,C125–C142,1984.

[11] P.Mazur, ―Equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and nonequilibrium freezing of mammalian embryos‖ [Review], Cell Biophys,17,53–92,1990.

[12] R.L.Levin, E.G.Cravalho, and C.G.Huggins,―A membrane model describing the effect of temperature on the water conductivity of erythrocyte membranes at subzero temperatures‖, Cryobiology,13,415–429,1976.

[13] D.Y.Gao, P.Mazur, and J.K.Critser, ―Fundamental cryobiology of mammalian spermatozoa‖, In: Karow AM, Critser JK (eds.), Reproductive Tissue Banking. San Diego: Academic Press,263–328,1997.

[14] O.Kedem, A.Katchalsky, ―Thermodynamic analysis of the permeability of biological membranes to non-electrolytes‖, Biochim Biophys Acta,27,229–246,1958.

[15] M.Toner, ―Nucleation of ice crystals in biological cells‖, In: Steponkus PL (ed.), Advances in Low-Temperature Biology, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press,vol. 2,1–52,1993.

Untitled Page