Volume 5, Issue 6, June 2014 Edition

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Performance of Different Seedlings Accessions of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd in Bauchi, Nigeria[ ]


The seeds of eight accessions of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd gum arabic was collected from farmers fields in Yobe and Borno States of Nigeria. Seedlings raised from the seeds were evaluated for the following morphological characters: seedling height, stem girth, number of leaves, and number of days to transplanting. Results obtained indicated that morphological characters differed significantly (P < 0.05) among the accessions. Some accessions had outstanding seedling features for rapid growth. Hence, there were genotypic differences that could be explore and exploited for genetic improvement and establishment of gum arabic plantations.

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Efficient and Cost Effective Vehicle Tracking and Security System Using Global Positioning System[ ]


The rate of vehicle theft all over the world is alarming and there is need to curb the act. There are different vehicle alarm and security systems with one or more limitations. In this paper, a low cost and efficient vehicle tracking and security system using Global Positioning System (GPS) is developed. The system consists of a hardware device (in-vehicle unit) installed in the vehicle to be tracked and a user/control phone. The device receives signal from the GPS satellites, send this data to the authorized user’s phone by Short Message Service (SMS) with the help of the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) module placed in the device. The data that is been sent to the control phone is processed and fed into a Geographic information System (GIS) interface for the graphical location information display. The developed system also has the ability of stopping and starting the car by the connected relay when codes in form of SMS are sent to the in-vehicle unit from the authorized user of the system. The test results show that, the developed system is highly accurate and effective in determining location of vehicle and it is of high performance.

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A New Compact Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Stepped Impedance Concentric Square Loop Resonators[ ]


In this paper , a new dual mode microstrip bandpass filter has been presented for the requirements of modern wireless communication systems. The filter has been built from double concentrated square loop resonators; each resonator is based on applying step impedance resonator generator on each side of closed resonator. The projected bandpass filter has been designed using a substrate with a dielectric constant of 10.8 and thickness of 1.27mm at 2.43 GHz center frequency . This filter has compact size and narrow band response which are the prerequisites of mobile wireless communication systems. The performance of filter has been studied using Microwave office software package, which is extensively implemented in microwave research and industry. The output results showed that this filter possesses very good frequency responses and high selectivity as well as blocked 2nd harmonic in out of band regions.

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A New Microstrip Bandpass Filter Design Based on Slotted Patch Resonator[ ]


A narrowband, compact, and flexible fabricated microstrip bandpass filter design is presented in this paper as a aspirant for use in modern wireless systems. The proposed filter design is based on the use of dual-mode (two pole) microstrip patch resonator with uniform geometrical slot. This filter has the advantages of owning much narrower and sharper performance responses as compared to single mode resonator and other conventional square patch filters. The performance of filter structures, based on dual-mode resonators, has been evaluated using Sonnet electromagnetic simulator . This filter has been designed at resonant frequency 4.16 GHz using a substrate with a dielectric constant of 10.8 and thickness of 1.27mm.Performance simulation results show that filter structure offers very good frequency responses in addition to narrow bands gained , compactness properties and 2nd harmonic suppression in out of band region.

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Ergonomic evaluation of Ingress/Egress of vehicle using balance assessment approach[ ]


Ergonomic features are needed to be introduced into the design of buses to make them highly comfortable for the driver and passengers. There is a possibility of addition of lot of ideas and techniques in the pre-manufacturing stage of products especially in case of vehicles to make them more ergonomic. Maintaining Balance of body while interacting with vehicles (e.g. during activity of Ingress/Egress etc.) is one of the key ergonomic issue. Furthermore, this area needs more exploration and easy methods of balance assessment. Center of pressure (COP) trajectory, Center of mass (COM) trajectory, Movement sway etc. are found to be the good quantitative measures of postural control and balance of human body. The methods which use the above mentioned quantitative measures can be very easy to implement with some easily available and low cost equipment like “Wii balance board and Microsoft Kinect” which are good alternatives of expensive “force plates and Vicon camera” .In present paper, the work carried out by various researchers in field of ergonomics of ingress of vehicles (especially buses) is discussed. A possible methodology of evaluation of ergonomics of ingress is also suggested.

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Monitoring Mangrove Status using Remote Sensing and Geo-informatics in Piram Island, Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat State, India[ ]


Piram is a living witness to the ancient disturbances of nature, changes in flora and fauna over millions of years and centuries of tides and ebbs. It is unique because there are very few islands of the Indian West Coast, which are so easily accessible. In the present study, Indian remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-P6) LISS-III and LISS-IV digital data covering Piram Island for the period of 2007, 2010 and 2013 have ben analysed for mapping mangrove. The LISS-III and LISS-IV data have been interpreted visually and the mangroves have been classified into two density classes namely, dense mangroves and spares mangroves based on the intensity of pink tone observed on the Satelllite data. Field Survey was carried out for mangrove density identification with the help of GPS measurements at various places in the Piram Island. During field visit soil samples were also collected for physical chemical analysis. Remote Sensing data was analyzed using ENVI Software and the mangrove density classes were delineated using the Quantum GIS software. This study aims to monitor changes in mangrove vegetation, in Piram Island using multi-temporal Indian Remote Sensing satellite data in GIS environment. The physico-chemical properties of soil of various sites in the Piram Island were also studied.

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An overview of tourism-spatial development in cities of Iran with emphasis to warm water of Sar`ein[ ]


Rapid growth of world tourism like an industry has caused that governments consider the world tourism as an important factor in growth and development of local and national economy. According to the special importance of city, city is the fundamental part of tourism development in many developed countries in this industry. It is obvious that creation and expansion of suitable urban spaces as well as reconstructing ruined places and apparently dead ones are some of the effects of urban spatial –skeletal development. Geographical areas have got their own features based on the natural and world-tourism activity field, so their organization seems necessary because of their roles and touristic functions with spatial – skeletal outlook. In other words, human beings have been engaged in creation and formation and they create various shapes of urban spaces. In this research, it has been tried to analyze and investigate the features, characteristics and generally the physical and skeletal situation of old and new parts of Sar`ein from different aspects and according to accessible and extractable information. Additionally, mass entrance of tourists to the city which is more than the current city capacities has caused some problems such as urban traffic, crowds and inappropriate social interactions, increasing in prices of goods and service which dissatisfy the dwellers and tourists. Therefore, in this research, description and arranging the urban spaces and reconstructing the touristic and non-touristic spaces, determining the above spaces, along with appropriate solutions, keeping the urban spaces with regard to historical identity and presenting suitable development patterns in order to assess the urban space –skeletal expansion according to its touristic role have been investigated and studied.

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Mechanical properties of spray atomized Fe-40at.%Al alloys[ ]


The room-temperature mechanical properties of intermetallic Fe-40at.% Al based alloys fabricated by spray atomization and deposition are studied. The Fe-40at.%Al, Fe-40Al+0.1at.%B, and Fe-40Al+0.1at.%B+10at.%Al2O3, alloys were deformed by compression under strain rates from 10-4 to 10-2 s-1. All three alloys diminished their yield stress in the interval of strain rates of 10-4-10-3 s-1 but in the interval of 10-3-10-2 s-1 , the Fe-40at.%Al and Fe-40Al+0.1at.%B alloys increased their yield stress. Contrary to the two last alloys the Fe-40Al+0.1at.%B+10at.%Al2O3 alloy shows a decrease on the yield stress in the interval of the 10-3-10-2 s-1. The yield stress is discussed in terms of the effect of the boron and alumina particles.

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Performance Analysis of MIMO Spatial Multiplexing using different Antenna Configurations and Modulation Technique in Rician Channel [ ]


MIMO systems which employs multiple antennas at the transmitter as well as at the receiver side is the key technique to be employed in next generation wireless communication systems. MIMO systems provide various benefits such as Spatial Diversity, Spatial Multiplexing to improve the system performance. In this paper the MIMO SM system is analysed for different antenna configurations (2×2, 3×3, 4×4) in Rician channel. The performance of the MIMO SM system is investigated for higher order modulation schemes (M-PSK, M-QAM) and Zero Forcing equalizer is employed at the receiving side. The simulation results points that if antenna configurations are shifted from 2×2 to 3×3 configuration, an improvement of 0 to 2.9 db in SNR is being noted and an improvement of 0 to 2.9 db is visualized if antenna configurations are changed from 3×3 to 4×4 configuration.

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Lead Time Reduction in the Production of a Com-posite Thruster Bracket of Satellites usingPlug and Cure Tooling, Universal Jig and Lean Concepts[ ]


These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for IJSER JOURNALS. Use this document as a template if you are using Microsoft Word 6.0 or later. Otherwise, use this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at IJSER. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column. Don’t use all caps for research paper title.

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Information Retrieval in Malayalam Using Natural Language Processing[ ]


This paper explains the information retrieval using natural language processing for Malayalam language in these basic things such as types of information retrieval, the relation of natural language processing with information retrieval.

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Detection Of Suspecious URLs Using Real Time System On Social Networks[ ]


Twitter is one of the famous social networking and information sharing service which allows users to connect with worldwide users. When twitter users want to share a URL with friends via tweets, they usually use URL shortening services to reduce the URL length because tweets can contain only a restricted number of characters. Malicious users often try to find a way to attack it. The most common forms of web attacks including spam, scam, phishing, and malware distribution attacks, have also appeared on twitter using URLs. A number of suspicious URL detection schemes have also been introduced. They use static or dynamic crawlers, and they may be executed in virtual machine honey pots such as Capture-HPC and Honey monkey to investigate newly observed URLs. These schemes are ineffective against feature fabrications or consume much time and resources. We propose an effective suspicious URL detection system for twitter. Our system investigates correlations of URL redirect chains extracted from several tweets. Because attackers have limited resources and usually reuse them, their URL redirect chains frequently share the same URLs. We develop methods to discover correlated URL redirect chains using the frequently shared URLs and to determine their suspiciousness.

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Comparative Analysis of EDFA based 64 channel WDM systems for different pumping techniques [ ]


Wavelength Division Multiplexing using optical network is widely used in telecommunication system because it play an important role in next upcoming networks. So,the different pumping techniques for 64 channel WDM system for different length of Erbium doped fiber are discussed in this paper. For the same, system is analyzed on the basis of Bit Error Rate (BER), Received power and Q-Factor in the wavelength range of 1530nm to 1562nm at power-26dBm with 0.5nm spacing. The effect of different pumping techniques is also compared to find the suitable pumping technique and optimized BER at the receiver end.

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Diversity of Spider Species in Some Agricultural Crops in North Sulawesi, Indonesia[ ]


Diversity and abundance of spider community is generally determined by the complexity of the structure of the plant and their environmental conditions. We have examined this relationship in four habitat types of agricultural crops, namely tomato, kidney bean, maize and shallot in Tompaso and Langowan regions of Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi. We found the diversity of spider species in tomato was more than in maize and shallot, but not significantly different from in kidney bean. Likewise the spider species diversity on the kidney bean was not significantly different from the maize, but significantly different from the shallot. Spider species diversity was found highest in tomato, and then kidney bean, maize, and shallot, consecutively. Spider species richness in tomato and kidney bean was not significantly different, and the similar was between maize and shallot, but that in tomato and kidney bean was significantly different from maize and shallot.

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Loss Reduction with Optimization of DG Placement Using Genetic Algorithm and Comparison with PSO Method - A Case Study in IRAN[ ]


Increasing application of DG units on distribution networks is the direct impact of development of technology and the energy disasters that the world is encountering. To obtain these goals the resources capacity and the installation place are of a crucial importance. Line loss reduction is one of the major benefits of DG, amongst many others, when incorporated in the power distribution system. The quantum of the line loss reduction should be exactly known to assess the effectiveness of the distributed generation. In this paper, a new method is proposed to find the optimal and simultaneous place and capacity of these resources to reduce losses, improve voltage profile too the total loss of a practical distribution system is calculated with and without DG placement and an index, quantifying the total line loss reduction is proposed. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on actual power network of Kerman Province, Iran and the simulation results are presented and discussed.

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Carrier Based Hybrid PWM Algorithm With Reduced Common Mode Voltage For Three Phase Voltage Source Inverter Fed Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drives[ ]


This paper proposes a simple carrier based Hybrid active zero state pulse width modulation (HAZSPWM) Algorithm (HPWM) which is capable of reducing the common mode voltage produced by the Pulsewidth Modulation (PWM) Inverter fed vector controlled induction motor drive. The classical vector controlled algorithm gives variable switching frequency operation and increased harmonic distortion due to the presence of hysteresis controllers. Even though the conventional SVPWM gives superior waveform quality, there exist large common mode voltage variations and the complexity involved is also more. To overcome the above problems, this paper presents a carrier comparison approach in a simple form. The addition of zero sequence signals with the instantaneous reference phase voltages gives the modulating signals for AZSPWM algorithm. The pulses to the inverter switching devices are generated by comparing the modulating signals with two triangular carrier waves. However, due to the exclusion of the zero voltage vectors, the common mode voltage variations can be minimized from to when compared with the SVPWM algorithm. Furthermore, the rms flux ripple which is a measure of current ripple characteristics are plotted for all the sequences of AZSPWM algorithm. Then, in each sampling time period, the suitable sequence, which gives reduced common mode voltage, is applied to obtain the HAZSPWM algorithm. To evaluate the proposed algorithm simulation studies have been carried on vector controlled induction motor drive and the results are presented. The results show good agreement with the proposed work.

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Creating a Dead End for Cancer: The Role of LPA Receptors 1/3 and 2 in Ovarian Cancer Metastases[ ]


Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA), a natural phospholipid, has been implicated as a signaling molecule of migration in invasive malignancies like ovarian cancer. The migration of ovarian cancer is a process that is poorly understood. This study investigated the role of LPA Receptors 1/3 and 2 in the migratory response and protein signaling pathways of ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR) by using a LPA Receptor 1/3 antagonist (Ki16425) and a LPA Receptor 2 agonist (dodecylphosphate). Using a modified Boyden migration assay, it was determined that OVCAR cells migrate in a dose response fashion towards LPA compared to untreated control (p<0.05). It was also determined that the LPA Receptor 1/3 antagonist inhibited migration toward LPA in a dose response fashion compared to untreated control (P<0.05). LPA Receptor 2 agonist inhibited migration towards LPA; combined treatment of LPA Receptor 1/3 antagonist and LPA Receptor 2 agonist inhibited 95 percent of OVCAR migration (p<0.05).

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Current Research trends in Electric Discharge Machining(EDM):Review[ ]


Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the earliest non-traditional machining processes. EDM process is based on thermoelectric energy between the work piece and an electrode. A pulse discharge occurs in a small gap between the work piece and the electrode and removes the unwanted material from the parent metal through melting and vaporising. The electrode and the work piece must have electrical conductivity in order to generate the spark. There are various types of products which can be produced using EDM such as dies and moulds. Parts of aerospace, automotive industry and surgical components can be finished by EDM. This paper reviews the research trends in EDM on ultrasonic vibration, dry EDM machining, EDM with powder additives, and EDM in water.

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By Operation of Law Breakthrough Discretion[ ]


Police is one part of one of the law enforcement officers in the field assigned to act in accordance with legal procedures . Police policy is also given the discretion to do that is a concept of granting authority to act according to his own judgment . Use of Discretion intended to rapidly and precisely in order to maintain general liability , maintain order and ensure public safety . However, abuse of discretion or failure in its implementation in the field can destroy the authority of the police . This can happen if the discretion is done beyond the limits provided by law or morality . It is difficult to know who can be categorized as discretionary deviation regular ( non- criminal ) that is considered contrary to the normative rules of law .

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Energy Efficient Communication for Adaptive MIMO Systems[ ]


In this paper, we propose a mechanism which used to switch between single input multiple output and multiple input multiple output with maximum of two transmit antennas to reduce energy consumption at mobile terminals. when a base station is underutilized then to conserve mobile terminal energy slow down transmission rates so there need to have one crossover point on the transmission rate and below that SIMO is more efficient than MIMO when circuit power is considered but Crossover point is increases with circuit power, channel correlation and the number of receiver antennas these all the factors increase the potential energy savings in mode switching. We recommend an adaptive mode switching algorithm which combined with rate selection according to user perceived performance is acceptable that maintain a user’s target throughput and also conserve mobile terminal energy. Simulations under dynamic loads confirms that the recommended technique can reduce the transmission energy and also enables an effective tradeoff between energy conservation and file transfer delay.

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