Volume 5, Issue 12, December 2014 Edition

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Digital Video Watermarking : A Retrospective[ ]


Due to the ease of availability for multimedia content over the internet, it is too easy for the owners to transfer the data over the internet, and hence it can be copied and stored easily without any loss in fidelity.

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Milk production its commercial aspects, ethical issues, impacts on human health and relation to the widely growing science of biotechnology[ ]


This paper will discuss the implications of biotechnology in commercial milk production and the concerns and issues that arise with it. Milk as a dietary product has been consumed by humans for ages, with increasing human population the need of milk and milk related products have increased tremendously this has led to the advent of commercial dairy farming. Dairy farming is one of the major areas of animal husbandry in developed countries like New Zealand and Netherlands; it is also one of the most indulged ccupations of a common house-hold in sub-urban and rural parts of India. With the growing need of milk related products and constant decline of available free pastures, there has been a need for the development of cow breeds having genetic potential that provides maximum productivity and has low vulnerability to diseases, this is where animal biotechnology is expertise. But, the increasing demand s and price of milk products have exposed these animals to increased health risk as they have been over-exploited for receiving maximum benefit that has in turn raised a lot of ethical issues and concerns. Moreover poor cattle raising practices and unplanned dairy management system has increased the overall susceptibility of the consumers to contagious diseases and infection.

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Cloud point extraction of Phenol using TX-100 as non-ionic surfactant[ ]


Cloud point extraction is one of the surfactant-based separation technologies based on the clouding phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants. In this study, the experiments are carried out to study the effect of non-ionic surfactant concentration and additives concentration on Cloud point of non-ionic surfactant which is one of the design parameter for the cloud point extraction system. The effect of surfactant concentration, solute concentration, electrolytes concentration and operating temperature on the vital parameters of the system such as phase volume ratio (RV), pre-concentration factor (fC), solute distribution coefficient (Kd) and extraction efficiency (? %) has been studied. In the present study, Triton X-100 and phenol are used as non-ionic surfactant and solute respectively. In order to study electrolyte effects, NaCl and Na2SO4 are used for salting-out effect and NaI and NH4SCN are used for salting-in effect.

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Nutritional Knowledge, Attitudes and Junk Food Consumption Habits among Students of Abubakar Tatari Polytechnic (ATAP) Bauchi[ ]


This study was conducted to determine the nutritional knowledge, attitude and junk food consumption habits of Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi students. The target population consisted entirely of the Polytechnic students. This is a survey research based on a research instrument developed by the researcher to measure the students’ nutritional knowledge, attitude and their junk food consumption habits. A sample of 140 students was selected using purposive random sampling to select students who patronize junk food joints. The reliability analysis yielded Cronbach’s Alpha values of 0.84. The collected data was analyzed using frequency distribution, percentage and Pearson correlation coefficient @ (P<0.05. It was revealed in this study that most of the junk food consumers are well informed about the negative effects associated with junk food consumption, but they still patronize junk food at a regular basis without considering their health complications. The younger generation is getting addicted to junk food, which indicates a serious public health concern and urgent action should be taken to tackle this public health problem.

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Determination of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards for Cement and Gypsum in Sulaimani Area (Kurdistan Region – Iraq)[ ]


Activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in twelve samples of cement and gypsum is used as a building material in Sulaimani Governorate-Kurdistan Region-Iraq, these samples were measured using ?-spectrometry based on scintillation detection. Also activity concentration of 222Rn was determined using solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique through the CR-39 detector and radium equivalent activities (Raeq), absorbed dose rate (D), external and internal hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and level index of ?-radiation hazard (I?) were calculated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these samples. The activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K for the cement samples were found to range between (4.458 ± 0.304 - 51.573 ± 11.955, 6.330 ± 1.253 – 19.188 ± 6.612 and 54.950 ± 6.050 -81.648 ± 10.958) Bq/Kg, respectively. Values of average radium equivalent activities (Raeq), absorbed dose rate (D), external and internal hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and ?- index hazard (I?) are ranged as (36.74-78.028) Bq/Kg, (32.093 ± 4.235-69.369 ± 13.110) nGy/hr, (0.099-0.21), (0.111-0.349) and (0.131-0.267) but the radon concentration are ranged inside the air of the tube between (75.514±3.876 - 286.082±28.583) Bq/m3, while inside the studied sample materials is ranged between (30618.211±295.7 - 8081.946±40.101) Bq/m3, the natural radioactivity concentrations. The higher values appeared in the cement samples and the lower one in the gypsum except in thorium concentration, fortunately they are not higher than the limit of worldly values, therefore the studied samples (cement and gypsum) in Sulaimani building materials can be used in construction safely from the radioprotection.

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Hybrid leadership and Employees Capacity building[ ]


The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of hybrid leadership on employees’ capacity building. The concept of hybrid leadership includes the blend of instrumental and expressive traits, reactive and proactive traits of leaders (Bolden, 2011). Capacity building is operationalized as employee’s organizational citizenship behavior and commitment (Reevees, 2010). The present study, however, provided insight to various leaders considering the blend of masculine-feminine traits specifically instrumentality and expressiveness of leaders and their correlation with the organizational commitment and citizenship. A survey based questionnaire was used for primary data collection and 122 responses of leaders were gathered from various organizations within twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The results of the study indicated that hybrid leadership and employees’ capacity building and organizational citizenship behavior are significantly correlated, higher the leaders’ instrumental and expressive traits, the greater will be the employees organizational commitment and citizenship behavior. Thus, all the hypotheses are proved and accepted. This study will help organizations to understand the role of leadership generally and hybrid leadership specifically to prepare employees for the forthcoming cut-throat challenges in global business competition. The importance of this study can be gauged from the fact as organizations are lurching towards decentralization and employees are expectingthat their leaders should exhibit cooperative role rather supervisory. Therefore, hybrid leadership would align the leadership behaviors in consonance with growing decentralization and awareness among the employees.

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Different Image Registration Methods – An Overview[ ]


The main aim of this paper is to provide a review of classic image registration methods. Registration is a fundamental stage in 3D and 2D reconstruction process, which is used to match two or more images that can be taken in different moments, from different sensors, or different viewpoints. Two images are aligned into a common coordinate system in order to monitor the subtle changes between them. Registration algorithms compute transformations to set correspondence between the two images. Previous surveys of image registration divide the field algorithmically, focussing on how registration is accomplished. This approach provides a good basis for classifying different techniques, however it does little to illuminate the conditions important to the problem of registration. Understanding the image registration problem space and the conditions under which specific algorithms perform best allows for further automation of image registration, and makes the field more accessible to non-experts.

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Anomaly Detection System in SDLC using Data Mining and Fuzzy Logic[ ]


In the software life cycle, it is essential to protect corporate resources. Security audits and QA testing happen at the end of the development cycle where issues are most expensive to fix and when developers are focused on getting the release out and moving on to the next release. Audits are typically done late in the cycle to avoid having security experts review and re-review code that is likely to change before release. Due to its criticality, security should be integrated as a formal approach in the software life cycle in each and every phase. It includes the critical areas of requirements analysis and specification, design and code issues, and maintenance. We critically focus on the analysis of security and classification of attack pattern for the software life cycle. The key ideas are to use data mining techniques to discover consistent and useful patterns of system features that describe program and user behavior, and use the set of relevant system features(attribute selection by support vector machines) to compute classifiers(fuzzy inference and defuzzification methods) that can recognize anomalies and known intrusions.

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Environmental Noise and the Association with Occupational Stress among Palm Oil Mill Workers[ ]


In palm oil mills the environmental sound level, resulting from operating machineries, is usually exceeding the action level of noise (85dB(A)). Whereas the excessive noise can develop chronic job stress, thus this study aims to determine the relationship between personal noise exposure and occupational stress among palm oil mill workers. A cross sectional study was done among 173 workers at five selected mills namely in Perak, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Environmental noise and personal noise exposure measured using Sound Level Meter (Model: Lutron SL-4112) and Dosimeter (Model: wireless110A) respectively. Alpha-amylase activity was used to determine the non-auditory effects of noise through determining the stress level. Results showed that, 100% of the workers among exposed group (PNE=85 dB (A)) experiencing stress condition while 43% of non-exposed group (PNE<85dB (A)) experiencing stress condition. Statistically alpha amylase activity in stimulated condition among exposed group was significantly higher than non-exposed group (t-value=-3.983, p-value=0.000). As the conclusion, there is a significant relationship between alpha amylase activity and personal noise exposure among palm oil mill workers. (rs=0.725, p-value=0.000)

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Design and Implementation of DC- DC/AC Non- Inverting Cuk Converter using Sliding Mode Control[ ]


In design of single stage Multi-Input DC-DC/AC Converters, the DC inputs are given to the Multi-Input converter. According to the pulse given, the convertor produces either DC output or AC output. This can be used for supplying power to DC or AC application. The outputs of the solar, Battery and wind energy sources are given as the inputs to the Multi Input Convertor (MIC). The magnitude of output voltage of MIC is increased by using Non-Inverting Cuk converter. There are many methods available to convert DC to AC (or) DC to DC. In this work both DC to DC and DC to AC conversion is done in the same system without including an additional devices. This will be more beneficiary in applications where uninterrupted AC or DC power supply is needed. Sliding Mode Control (SMC) technique is used to control the performance of the system. The proposed system is implemented in MATLAB/SimulinkTM platform and the output performances are analyzed.

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Significance of Big Data on Healthcare and DataSecurity[ ]


Nowdays Internet is a great platform for information where user can search what they want but the main problem is some information present on internet is in unstructured format or semi structured format. When user wants any information from retrieval system then he must have data in structured format so that performance efficiency of system gets enhanced.The percentage of unstructured data is growing.This document exemplifies the work carried out towards contribution of big data technology.The facts given below are based on literature survey carried out by myself. Also how Big Data can be used in various fields and its implementation to these fields.Databases of Healthcare sector are huge so this technology plays an important role pertaining to this sector.Big data concept can be very useful for evolution of whole mankind and development of our future. So this Document explores new ideas regarding big data concept.In this paper we have discussed various significance of huge data to healthcare mainly and how unstructured format can be converted to structured format through filtering process I have proposed.

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Anfis with Cauchy membership function for robotic arm[ ]


An adaptive fuzzy gain scheduling scheme for robotic arm has been proposed. This paper focus on adaptive fuzzy based tracking and gain controller algorithm for obtaining the joints position relative to the desired trajectory, which drives static and different time variations on the environmental changes. We able to estimate them at any point of time, when t >0 or alternatively, starting from the fuzzy initial states, Fuzzy initial states along with system dynamic equations provide us particular fuzzy differential equations (FDEs), referred as fuzzy Cauchy problem, we construct the fuzzy Cauchy problems during the initial time, we introduce two different ways, first we apply the non-fuzzy differential equations with initial conditions of data based. And the second, we apply with anfis with Cauchy membership function for robotic arm to apply with two angles. The proposed adaptive fuzzy based tracking and gain controller algorithm requires much less training patterns than a neural net based adaptive scheme does and hence avoiding excessive training time. Results of simulation show that the proposed adaptive fuzzy controller offers better performance than fixed gain controllers at different operating conditions.

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Cancer infection and its relationship with Streptococcus mitis increasing numbers in human mouth[ ]


The study aimed to determine the relationship between the changes happened in numbers and kinds of bacteria in mouth of human and the cancer infection such as oral and digestion cancer consider the increasing and changes in bacteria kinds as early indicator to develop cancer in body. Saliva samples which not Stimulation, were collected from various places in Baghdad city from who not suffer from cancer infection but exposed to chemical or radiation components as first groups and the second groups consist of people exposed to chemical or radiation components. Samples collection from them after make sure they don’t take food, no smoking or used toothpaste rinsing mouth at least for one hour before. Saliva were cultured on Mitis Salivarius agar cultured by spreading dilution on agar, incubated anaerobically for 48 hours .After bacteria calculated and diagnosed species by using biochemical fermentation of sugars and examination of catalase , in addition api 20 strep to examine the bacteria Streptococcus spp and showed results, the first group showed the highest percentage of type Streptococcus mitis at 13 persons and attributed the reason for being for a long time for the chemicals or radioactive materials as a result of the nature of their work or location of their home , the second group appeared to have the highest proportion of two types Streptococcus mutans or Streptococcus salivarius, that reflect increasing Streptococcus mitis in mouth saliva of human the first marker to cancerous disease.

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Impact of Leader Member Exchange on Organizational Performance and Commitment with Organizational Culture as Moderator: A Non-Monetary Tactic to Enhance Outcome[ ]


Due to mounting competition organizational performance and commitment is becoming the core business activity. Leader member exchange in workplace can bring both key players closer for achieving organizational goals through better understanding and communication (Maslyn & Uhl-Bien, 2001) and organizations are trying hard to achieve through sustainable economic approaches (K. J. Harris, Wheeler, & Kacmar, 2009). This paper is aimed to analyze the impact of leader member exchange on organizational performance and commitment with the moderating role of organizational culture as proposed (Liu, Kwan, Fu, and Mao (2013) and persuaded to check the impact of leadership on organizational performance and other determinants along with cultural variation. The target population for this study was manufacturing sector employees of Pakistan among which 146 employees were taken for data collection through questionnaire based survey (n=146) through simple random sampling technique. The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between leader member exchange, organizational performance and commitment. Moreover culture moderated this relationship significantly. This study can help organizations’ leaders to enhance organizational performance and commitment without any monetary expense just by bridging the members of firm into a communication’s chain through leader member exchange.

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Lean Manufacturing in Electronics & Electrical Manufacturing Industry in India[ ]


Lean manufacturing is an important aspect used by the current companies to compete in the market. The high cost of production in many sectors has forced companies to offer their products at high prices thus failing to attract customers. Small and medium sized enterprises in Indian electronic and electrical industry face high competition challenges from international companies thus, application of lean manufacturing is considered a competitive advantage. Lean manufacturing helps in improving the quality of products offered and increasing profits and revenues through reduction of wastes.

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Surface Integrity analysis in Wire-Cut Electric Discharge Machining of Al 6063/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composite through Response Surface Methodology[ ]


The development of new, superior engineering materials and the need for precise and low-volume production have made the wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) an important manufacturing process to meet such demands. This research investigates the effect of pulse on-time, pulse off-time and servo feed, three important WEDM process in obtaining good surface finish, optimized material removal rate and kerf on newly formulated Aluminum 6063/Al2O3 composite. Stir casting process is adopted for casting the composite plates with varying mass percentage of alumina (3%, 6%, 9%). The distribution of alumina and aluminium is examined by microstructure analysis, and the material is tested for its mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness. The effects of the parameters on the responses were evaluated by response surface methodology, which is based on optimization results. On the basis of optimization results it has been found that a pulse duration (Ton) of 3µs & pulse off time (Toff) 17µs and servo feed 7mm/min, which are the best combination of this analysis.

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Energy and Exergy analysis of Thermal power Plant[ ]


The energy supply to demand narrowing down day by day around the world, the growing demand of the power made the power plant scientific interest, but the most of power plant designed by the energetic performance criteria based on the first law of thermodynamics. The real energy losses of the power plant cannot be justified by the first law of thermodynamics, because it does not differentiate between quality and quantity of energy. Based on the several activity and power plant experience some key observation has made and is presented in this paper. The aim of the paper is to be find out causes of energy destruction that can be helpful help designer to re-design the system component.

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Heat treatment effects on microstructure and magnetic properties of Mg–Zn ferrite prepared by Conventional ceramic method.[ ]


Fabrication of Mg1-XZnXFe2O4 (where x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0), samples using a Conventional ceramic method is prepared. Oxides of magnesium, zinc and iron with purity of about 99.99% were mixed with distilled water this mixture was dried in furnace at 150 ºC for 4 h. By using the Electric grinder for three minutes then ball milling machine for six hours the dried mixtures are ground to a fine powder. By using the sieve fine we got on fine particles with diameters (20) µm. The fine powder was pre-sintered (calcined) at 950ºC for 4 h and sintered at 1000°C, 1050°C and 1100°C. The magnetic and the crystal structure of the prepared Samples were identified using Microwave Measurement, X-Ray Diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The X-ray diffraction analysis showed major peak at plane (3 1 1) of the cubic structure for all the ferrites. The largest value of density achieved was (4.375 gm.cm-3). Reflectance coefficient (S11) and transmission coefficient (S21), has measured using network analyzer device then the attenuation coefficient and absorbance were calculated at the X-band range (8-12.5 GHz), The SEM micrographs shows the uniform distribution of the particles.

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Double Guard: Detecting and Preventing Intrusions In Multi-tier Web Applications[ ]


In today's world we have many issues in internet security and privacy. We use internet in travelling, social media, banking, study etc. But we often face the problems with the privacy of the network system. To accommodate this increase in application and data complexity, web services have moved to a multi-tiered design wherein the web server runs the application front-end logic and data is outsourced to a database or file server. IDS plays a key role in computer security technique. But it also has drawbacks of its own. To overcome those drawbacks Double guard technique is introduced.

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Wireless Home Automation System Using Zigbee[ ]


Home Automation industry is growing rapidly; this is fuelled by provide supporting systems for the elderly and the disabled, especially those who live alone. Coupled with this, the world population is confirmed to be getting older. Home automation systems must comply with the household standards and convenience of usage. This paper details the overall design of a wireless home automation system (WHAS) which has been built and implemented. The automation centers on recognition of voice commands and uses low-power RF ZigBee wireless communication modules which are relatively cheap. The home automation system is intended to control all lights and electrical appliances in a home or office using voice commands. The system has been tested and verified. The verification tests included voice recognition response test, indoor ZigBee communication test. The tests involved a mix of 10 male and female subjects with different Indian languages. 7 different voice commands were sent by each person. Thus the test involved sending a total of 70 commands and 80.05% of these commands were recognized correctly.

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The Effect of Milling Time on Aluminum- Silicon Carbide Composites Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy[ ]


To fabricate aluminum- silicon carbide composites, 10 vol% of the silicon carbide powders at size of 20 µm mixed with aluminum powders, Those mixtures were ball-milled for 0, 40, 80, and 120 minute in a planetary ball mill at speed of 200 rpm using zirconia balls.The ball- to powder mass ratio 10:1. The mixed powders are die-pressed at room temperature under a pressure of 10 ton in a 12.7 mm internal diameter cylindrical stainless steel die. The aim of this study is to develop Al – 10 vol %SiC composite by mechanical alloying; the main steps in mechanical alloying are milling, compacting and sintering. Aluminum and silicon carbide powder are mixed by ball milling and it was then sintered at 550° C for 5 hours. The parameter to control the microstructure of the composites is milling time. Microstructure and hardness of the composite were investigated. The results are showed that hardness of the composites has increased as the time of the milling increased. The maximum value of hardness can be obtained at 80 minute milling time. After 80 minute milling time, the hardness starts to drop for Al- silicon carbide composite. Microstructure plays important role in controlling the hardness of the composites.

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Investigat Hydraulic Performance of Groins by Computational Fluid Dynamic Model[ ]


Three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model are intend to investigate the flow patterns around groins under different conditions. Used k- turbulent model and VOF method to predict the complex flow around groins .The initial part of this study con-cerns to the experimental investigations of flow patterns. The results from the measurements in terms of water elevation, velocity magnitudes according to groins are showed. These were used to validate the Computational Fluid Dynamic model. The results of CFD models showed good agreements with the corresponding experimental measurements.

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Alternative Management Plan for Flash Floods/ Flows of Mithawan Hill Torrents in Pakistan[ ]


Water is a back bone not only for Agriculture but for every industry. One of the major sources of water is the Hill Torrents which emerges from the mountains and diverted towards Agriculture fields for irrigation. Due to steep gradient, flood flows with high velocity which results in damaging to standing crops, irrigation system, houses, roads and sometime human lives also. The flood of hill torrents having a lot of potential for agriculture to meet the shortage of food if manage wisely. Dera Ghazi Khan (D.G. Khan) hill torrent zone is one of the largest zone in Punjab province of Pakistan which emerge from mountains of Suleiman range. Mithawan Hill Torrent is one of the largest hill torrents of D.G. Khan Zone. Different options have been studied during this research to know that how the barren land will convert into lush green fields to meet the food requirements of the country. Peak discharge of Mithawan at Darraha was estimated 79,045 cusecs at 25 year return period by interpolating rainfall data. The study includes detail analysis and investigations of four options for Mithawan Hill Torrent management. The 6000 cusecs discharge of Kachhi Canal is beneficial for the agriculture of Baluchistan province of Pakistan only if safe cross drainage structures will propose at the crossing of Mithawan Hill Torrent. Result of the study revealed that flow of Mithawan hill torrent can be managed through a number of ways. It is concluded that flow of Mithawan can be managed by a combination of reservoir and utilization in pachad area (Option-4). Present study will be helpful in developing the Agro based community in the Hill torrents affected areas and for the design of cross-drainage structures & storage reservoir at different locations.

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