Volume 6, Issue 5, May 2015 Edition

Publication for Volume 6, Issue 5, May 2015.


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To Detect Outlier for Categorical Data Streaming[ ]


Instant identification of outlier patterns is very important in modern-day engineering problems such as credit card fraud detection and network intrusion detection. Most previous studies focused on finding outliers that are hidden in numerical datasets. Unfortunately, those outlier detection methods were not directly applicable to real life transaction databases. Outlier detection methods are divided into transaction specific and non transaction specific outlier detection methods, in this paper we are going to focus mainly on transaction specific methods and detect outlier transactions from transactional databases e.g. purchase of the data at the store, customer dataset at a company. Here we are going to compare two transaction specific methods and find efficient method from them.

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Realization of Binary Full Addition Module in Optical Domain Using SOA[ ]


Now days, Optical amplifiers are being invariably used for amplification of the signal in optical fiber communication for long distance trans-mission due to less power loss. Out of the three types of amplifiers (EDFA, Raman amplifiers and SOA) SOA is an optical amplifier where the amplification is based on semiconductor gain medium. Therefore, by using non-linear properties of SOAs such as Four-Wave Mixing, Cross gain modulation and Cross phase modulation, wavelength translation and designing of optical logic gates is possible. These logic gates functions with optical amplifiers which allow amplification of optical signals without O-E & E-O conversion, therefore helps in fast processing of the system with minimum loss. We here demonstrate the implementation of full addition of two self generated 10 Gbits/s signals by using four SOAs. In this module, a full-adder operation is achieved by using two half adder in pure optical domain. This module can be used further in the implementation of ALU’s and encryption decryption circuits.

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SONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF YOLK SAC[ ]


Yolk sac is the most important conceptional structure evaluated sonographically in first trimester. Yolk sac can be detected early by transvaginal sonography when the mean gestational sac diameter is 5-6mm. The important benefit of sonographic evaluation of yolk sac is confirmation of intra uterine pregnancy. The present study is aimed at identifying various characteristics of yolk sac in first trimester pregnancy complications by transvaginal ultrasound evaluation. Antenatal patients with bleeding per vagina or abdominal pain or both in first trimester and diagnosed as cases of threatened abortion, missed abortion, incomplete abortion or suspected ectopic gestation were included in the study. Among 133 gestational sacs present by transvaginal sonography, there were yolk sacs in 106 patients (79.7%) and yolk sac was absent in 27 patients (20.3%) with gestational sac MSD >8mm. 27 cases had no yolk sac when the gestational sac diameter was greater than 8mm. Among them 25 cases with the absence of yolk sac and fetal pole when the MSD >8mm ended up in complications. However there were 2 cases with no yolk sac but a normal appearing gestational sac and fetal pole with good cardiac activity till 10 to 11 weeks which were subsequently lost for further follow up. The association between the presence of the yolk sac and the final ultrasound diagnosis was significant (p<0.001). Assessment of yolk sac should be part of complete first trimester sonographic examination. An abnormality in sonographic appearance of yolk sac can predict subsequent embryonic health or abnormalities. There for accurate recognition of normal and abnormal sonographic findings related to yolk sac can be used to anticipate the course of pregnancy.

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EVIDENCE OF INCREASED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND DNA DAMAGES IN WOMEN WITH RECURRENT ABORTIONS[ ]


Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 consecutive pregnancy losses prior to 20 weeks from the last menstrual period, and it affects approximately 1% to 3% of women. A total of 37 consecutive patients with recurrent miscarriages and 25 age matched healthy women were involved in this study. The subjects were in the age group 21 to 45 years. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of increased oxidative stress and DNA damages in women experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss. Malondialdehyde test is performed to detect the frequency of oxidative stress in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and the extent of somatic DNA damage is quantified by Cytokinesis Block Micronuclei assay. The study demonstrated that both the MDA value and micronuclei frequency are significantly elevated in the study subjects. The results were correlated with various demographic, lifestyle and clinical aspects of the patients. Increase in maternal problems such as history of infection, increased duration of married life, thyroid disorders, diabetes etc can also lead to foetal loss. Modification of life style along with proper medication for teratogenic infection and awareness of the role of Genetics in the etiology of RPL will help in reducing the risk for recurrent pregnancy loss.

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Cloud based Vendor Neutral Archive: Reduces Imaging Rates and Enhances Patient Care[ ]


The primary goal of healthcare organizations worldwide is to deliver high quality patient care while reducing costs. The challenges in achieving this goal are daunting. Specifically, with information exchange while transferring patient between hospital departments or between two different hospitals. Nowhere is this situation more compelling than with medical imaging, because exchange of medical image reduces unnecessary repeat imaging, radiation exposure and associated costs. Consequently, there is growing need for the healthcare organizations to adopt centralized medical image archives that can efficiently store and make it instantly accessible across hospital departments and partner hospitals. In this paper, we address this emerging need by taking the advantage of Vendor Neutral Archive (VNA) and Cloud computing to define an architecture for cloud based Archive that can reduce cost and complexity but at the same time enhance patient care.

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Finite Element Analysis Of Piston Head By ABAQUS[ ]


The motive of undertaking this project of “Structural Analysis of Piston Head” is to study and evaluate the performance in real working conditions of the piston in internal combustion engine. In this paper, the wok is carried out to measure the stress distribution on the top surface of the piston made up of aluminium alloy. In I.C. Engine piston experiences uneven temperature distribution and from piston head to skirt. The analysis predicts that due to stress generated the top surface of the piston may be damage or break during the operating conditions, since the damaged or broken parts are so expensive to replace and generally are not easily available, the 3D model of piston is created using Creo. 3 D model is imported to the Abaqus and FEA is performed. By identifying the true design features, the extended service life and long term stability is assured.

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Water absorption characteristics and modelling of unripe plantain chips[ ]


In this study, water absorption characteristics of dried unripe plantain chips were investigated by soaking in distill water at 20, 30 and 40oC. The data generated were fitted into three models namely Peleg, Weibull and exponential. The statistical criteria used in evaluation of the models were coefficient of determination (R2), reduced chi square (χ2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE). The result shows that temperature did not affect water absorption properties initially, but it did affect it as re-hydration progressed. The result of R2 shows that Weibull model has the highest value of 0.979 and exponential model has lowest value of 0.653. Therefore, Weibull model was adjudged to have successfully fitted water absorption of unripe plantain chips.

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Factors influencing surface integrity in hard machining of steels- A review[ ]


During the last few years, hard machining has emerged as an attractive alternative to grinding, as it can be used for finishing steel components, in their hardened state (HRC 45 and above). Machining of hard steels, using advanced cutting tool materials, such as coated carbide, ceramic, CBN (cubic boron nitride) and PCBN (polycrystalline cubic boron nitride) inserts has a large number of advantages e.g. short cycle time, process flexibility, very good surface finish and higher removal rate, when compared to grinding or polishing. The present paper provides an overview of the main factors influencing surface integrity in hard machining of steel. There are many types of surface integrity (SI) problems reported in literature, among those being surface roughness, residual stresses, white layer and work hardening layers, as well as microstructural alterations. From the multitude of parameters influencing the SI of a hard machined component, cutting conditions, cutting tool characteristics, workpiece material properties, cutting fluid properties and machine tool rigidity appear to be the most important.

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Mesoscale Simulation of Alkali-Silica Reaction[ ]


Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) deformation causes a random network of crack patterns on the concrete surface and leaching of the ASR gel. The rapidity of its expansion in an affected structure causes early deformation to the structure, making the understanding of its process a necessity to the engineering field. Factors that affect ASR vary, although it is unanimous that ASR occurs between deleterious silica from aggregates and hydroxide ions in the pore solution that result from cement hydration. Other factors include the relative humidity, temperature and porosity of the cementitious matrix. Temperature influences the kinetics of silica disintegration. Moisture works as a swelling agent for the gel which is hydrophilic in nature. The resultant gel flows into the voids or accumulates on the aggregate surface. The gel expands with the availability of moisture, exerting internal pressure onto the surrounding matrix and lowering the concrete stiffness to the point of cracking. What sets apart ASR with other concrete damage models is its heterogeneity, occurring at different regions at different rates depending on the concrete composition and external influences, making predicting its behaviour difficult. The heterogeneity of the process depends on the pore distribution and the rate of water diffusion. ASR is studied at the mesoscale level to gain an explicit insight on what happens at the material level. Modeling on this level allows the matrix adjacent to the aggregate surface to be developed. This allows us to study the different phases separately, for instance, the effects of ASR gel expansion on the aggregates as well as the bulk matrix. Numerical simulation has enabled us to build models for the representation of different physical phenomena in so many engineering problems. The potential of ASR simulation in detecting the possibility of expansive pressures due to ASR at a fine scale gives new perspective to this phenomenon.

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Effect of Particles on Flow Structures in Secondary Sedimentation Tanks Using Neural Network Model[ ]


Sedimentation tanks are designed for removal of floating solids in water flowing through the water treatment plants. These tanks are one of the most important parts of water treatment plants and their performance directly affects the functionality of these systems. Flow pattern has an important role in the design and performance improvement of sedimentation tanks. In this work, the neural network model is used to study the particle-laden flow in a rectangular sedimentation tank which used the Kaolin as solid particles. The neural network simulation has been designed to simulate and predict the Shear stress coefficient at the bottom of tank for various inlet concentrations and maximum streamwise velocity along the channel. The system was trained on the available data of the two cases. Therefore, we designed the system for finding the best network that has the ability to have the best test and prediction. The proposed system shows an excellent agreement with that of an experimental data in these cases.

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Implementation of AUTOSAR Communication Stack with SCI-UART[ ]


AUTOSAR (Automotive Open System Architecture) is an open and standardized software architecture used in automotive industry for vehicle software. AUTOSAR architecture is layered and its layers are: ASW, RTE and BSW. BSW is grouped functionally into functions or stacks. In this paper, AUTOSAR Communication stack is implemented with SCI-UART and I/O driver module for asynchronous serial communication. Serial communication output is visualized on Hyper Terminal.

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Wavelet Method for Detecting and Modeling Anomalous Observations in Gaussian and Non - Gaussian Distributions[ ]


Wavelet analysis has been applied recently for analyzing data completely due to its potential. In this paper, we present aberrant observation detection and modeling approach based on wavelet analysis in Gaussian and Non-Gaussian distributions. In order to characterize these distributions, a simulation of 1020 data set from normal distribution and contaminated with four normal data and later with four aberrant observations since wavelet analysis is dyadic. It was discovered that Normal (Gaussian) distribution with aberrant observations is the most efficient in detecting aberrant observations while Laplace (Non-Gaussian) distribution is the optimal distribution in modeling aberrant observations using the three distributions.

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Thermodynamic parameters of medicine with Ethanol[ ]


The information related to the solute-solvent interaction has been carried out related to thermodynamic properties like activation en-ergy, conductivity, enthalpy entropy etc in the mixture of Ayurvedic Medicine-Dashmularishta and ethanol. Dielectric relaxation study of Dashmularishta used in gynaec problems has been carried out at 150C, 250C, 350C and 45 0C in the frequency range 10MHz to 20GHz for 11 different concentrations of the system. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Technique in reflection mode has been used to measure Thermodynamic parameters viz activation energy, conductivity, enthalpy entropy etc.Further, Fourier transforms and least square fit method has been used to obtain Thermodynamic parameters. With change in concentration and temperature, the systematic changes in Thermodynamic parameters are observed.

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SAFETY OF PASTORAL PROCESSED CAMEL MEAT (NYIRINYIRI) FOR CONSUMERS ASCERTAINED FROM MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY[ ]


This study determined the load, type and most common species of molds in 35 samples of fresh camel meat and Nyirinyiri obtained at different nodes along the value chain. Molds were detected in the samples: 75% at production, 55.5% at processing and 66.7% at marketing nodes with counts highest at the market (1.2 log cfu/g) and lowest at processing (0.8 log cfu/g) relative to production (1.0 log cfu/g). The most common mold species were Cunninghamella (20%) and Syncephaalastrum (17.1%) relative to Fusarium (14.3%), Alternaria (11.4%) and Paecilomyces (11.4%) while Aspergillus (5.7%), Penicillium (5.7%) and Mucor (2.9%) were least common. The study established that both spoilage and pathogenic molds were present in the camel Nyirinyiri and therefore the product could be unsafe for human consumption due to the risk of mycotoxins. However, there is room for improved hygiene standards along the camel Nyirnyiri value chain.

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Recycling Waste Biomaterials as Low-Cost Mortar for Cement Replacement[ ]


This study was carried out to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of mortar cement produced from biomaterials like rice husk ash (RHA) and carrot powder (CP). To do this, 8 mortar cement specimens were formed by changing the weight of RHA and CP with cement. Increasing ratio of RHA and CP weight ratio affected the compressive strength, impact, hardness. As for the bending ,water absorption and fracture toughness decreased and were affected positively. It was concluded that RHA and CP might be used in mortar cement production replaced the cement in certain ratio to make them profitable and lessen their adverse effects on the environment.

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The surface roughness effect of transverse patterns on the performance of short bearing[ ]


An attempt has been made to investigate the performance of short bearing under the presence of magnetic fluid as a lubricant. Bearing surfaces are considered to be transversally rough. The roughness of the bearing surfaces is characterized by a stochastic random variable with non-zero mean, variance and skew-ness. The modified Reynold’s equation is solved with suitable boundary conditions to obtain the pressure distribution which is then used to calculate the load carrying capacity. Simpson’s 1/3 rule is used for numerical integration. The results are presented graphically as well as in tabular form. It is seen that due to magnetization the performance of bearing system gets improvement. It is also observed that the roughness causes the system adversely. The investigation suggests that the negative effect of roughness can be reduced by positive effect of magnetization parameter. While designing the bearing system, the roughness must be given due to consideration.

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An Overview on Tactile Display, Haptic Investigation towards Beneficial for Blind Person[ ]


This paper presents the intellectual issue with proper information of several improvements on tactile display and haptic oriented research. Through this paper a specific study approach is implemented towards the tactile display with interdisciplinary action. Mobile apps and sophisticated Braille technologies are previewed with informative and comparative way. This overview focuses mainly on tactile prototype development issue with chronological research territory. Concisely, the advance level product based beneficial approach for visually impaired is presented infomatively. In addition, this study is carrying its importance towards the beneficial development of tactile display for visually impaired people in our society.

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Development of Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency (R-IDF) Equations and Curves for Seven Divisions in Bangladesh[ ]


Due to proliferation in greenhouse gases hydrologic cycle is changing day by day which is causing variations in intensity, duration and frequency of rainfall events. By pinpointing the potential effects of climate change and acclimating to them is one way to reduce urban susceptibility. Since rainfall characteristics are often used for planning and design of various water resources project, reviewing and updating rainfall characteristics (i.e., Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) curves) for future climate situations is necessary. The target of this study was to develop Rainfall IDF empirical equations and curves for seven divisions of Bangladesh to estimate the rainfall intensity for any duration and any return period with least effort. Yearly maximum rainfall data for last 41 years (1974-2014) from Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) was used in this study. Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) empirical reduction formula was used to estimate the short duration rainfall intensity from yearly maximum rainfall data. Gumbel’s Extreme-Value Distribution method was used to develop IDF curves and equations. It was found that intensity of rainfalls decreases with increase in rainfall duration. Further, a rainfall of any given duration will have a larger intensity if its return period is large. In other words, for a rainfall of given duration, rainfalls of higher intensity in that duration are rarer than rainfalls of smaller intensity.

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A Birdview on Emerging of Bigdata in Smart Cities Development[ ]


In the growing scenario,development of smart cities will be the most wanted area of research whose objective is to enhance the performance and well beings of people there by reducing the cost and consumption of resources. In a smart city, core fields like transport energy, health care, water industrial control, agriculture, waste management and soon are expected to function automatically and intelligently in a distributed manner with the help of internet. In the era of Information technology, concept like Internet of things, Grid, Cloud and big data computing and analysis plays a vital role in building smart cities. In this paper, different fields of smart cities and their construction challenges are discussed. Further the role of several IT concept and their issues are summarized also various big data analytical tools and technologies needed for building a smart cities are narrated.

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Smart System for Personal Assistance in Physiotherapy[ ]


Proper exercise is the key to a healthy body. Unfortunately, injuries and accidents are on the rise in every corner of the world.

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Levenshtein Distance based Information Retrieval[ ]


In today’s web based applications information retrieval is gaining popularity. There are many advances in information retrieval such as fuzzy search and proximity ranking. Fuzzy search retrieves relevant results containing words which are similar to query keywords. Even if there are few typographical errors in query keywords the system will retrieve relevant results. A query keyword can have many similar words, the words which are very similar to query keywords will be considered in fuzzy search. Ranking plays an important role in web search; user expects to see relevant documents in first few results. Proximity ranking is arranging search results based on the distance between query keywords. In current research information retrieval system is built to search contents of text files which have the feature of fuzzy search and proximity ranking. Indexing the contents of html or pdf files are performed for fast retrieval of search results. Combination of indexes like inverted index and trie index is used. Fuzzy search is implemented using Levenshtein’s Distance or edit distance concept. Proximity ranking is done using binning concept. Search engine system evaluation is done using average interpolated precision at eleven recall points i.e. at 0, 0.1, 0.2…..0.9, 1.0. Precision Recall graph is plotted to evaluate the system.

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An Efficient and Secure Algorithm to Eliminate the Routing Misbehavior In MANETs[ ]


One of the emerging technologies in wireless communication is Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. A Mobile Ad Hoc Network(MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate with each other via wireless links either directly or relying on other nodes such as routers. These networks can be set up easily anywhere and anytime without any base infrastructure, thus proving to be very efficient in various applications such as military environments, emergency operations, collaborative and distributed computing, wireless sensor networks, personal area networks etc. The cooperativeness between the nodes is vital for the communication among the nodes. But in open MANETs, some nodes deviate from the normal behavior thus causing misbehavior in the network. The misbehavior is caused by selfish nodes which refuse to forward the data packets for other nodes in order to conserve their own energy. Securing the MANETs in an untrustworthy environment is always a challenging problem.

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Removal of Ammoniacal Nitrogen by using Albite, Activated Carbon and Resin[ ]


Ammonical Nitrogen in waste waters promote Eutrophication of receiving waters and are potentially toxic to the aquatic life. Albite, Sodium Cation Exchange Resin and Activated Carbons have shown an affinity for Ammonium ions (NH4+) and were, potentially used for the removal of NH4+ ions.The major objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of albite, Sodium Cation Exchange Resin and Activated Carbon to remove Ammonical nitrogen from waste waters using Batch Studies. Several operating variables such as pH, Temperature, Initial Ammonium ion Concentration on the exchange capacity were explored. Batch Studies were conducted using different concentrations of ammonical nitrogen and different amounts of Zeolite, Sodium Cation Exchange Resin and Activated Carbons. This experimental approach of removing Ammonia from Synthetic Waste waters using Resin, natural Zeolite and Activated Carbon has been simulated for the study of Ammonia Removal from synthetic waste waters.

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Proposal Fingerprint Recognition Regimes Development Based on Minutiae Matching[ ]


Fingerprint recognition is one of the oldest and most popular biometric technology and it is used in criminal investigations, civilian, commercial applications, and so on. Fingerprint matching is the process used to determine whether the two sets of fingerprints details come from the same finger or not. This work focuses on feature extraction and minutiae matching stage. There are many matching techniques used for fingerprint recognition systems such as minutiae based matching, pattern based matching, Correlation based matching, and image based matching. Two fingerprint recognition regimes have been developed based on minutiae matching, the first one is: Artificial Neural Network based on Minutiae Distance Vector (ANN-MDV), while the other one is: Artificial Neural Network based on Principle Component Analysis (ANN-PCA). It is observed that the recognition rate is increased and return better result. A comparative study between the 2-developed system is done based on average recognition time (ART), and the accuracy of the recognition system. The experimental results are done on FVC2002 database. These results show that the accuracy of ANN-MDV system is approximately equal to 91%, and the accuracy of ANN-PCA system is approximately equal to 98%. Therefore ANN-PCA is the best recognition system accuracy. Also the experimental results show that ART for ANN-MDV (equal to 0.251) is slightly better than ANN-PCA (equal to 0.275).

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Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Zinc Oxide[ ]


Thin Film of ZnO nanoparticles paste are spread on transparent conducting ITO coated glass using doctor-blade method, the average particle size of about 16.4nm. Natural dyes extracted from pomegranate and spinach were used as sensitizers to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thin films were studied by absorption spectra of all dyes were performed by UV-Visible spectroscopy which showed that the dye absorbed light in the visible region from (200-325)nm for chlorophyll pigment and (500-530)nm for anthocyanin pigment. The optical band gap was found to be 3.5eV. X-Ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were also investigated.

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Feature Extraction Techniques for Speech Recognition: A Review[ ]


Speech is the way of communication between the human. It also defined as it is a process which automatically recognizes the spoken words of person based on given speech signal information. It is also known as Automatic Speech Recognition or computer speech recognition and speech to text conversion. Automatic speech recognition is the very interesting area of research and lots of research work has been done by number of researchers. To recognize the speech feature extraction and word recognition these two steps are followed. After feature extraction feature matching is performed for word recognition. This paper describe the different feature extractions techniques like MFCC,LPC,LPCC,DWT etc. section I gives the introduction. Section II explains the types of speech uttered. Different feature extraction techniques are explained in section III. The section IV gives the classification of speech recognition techniques. Conclusion is given in section V and section V gives acknowledgment.

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Application of Taguchi Method to Study the Influence of Cutting Parameters on the Surface Hardness in Turning Inconel 718[ ]


In this study, the Taguchi method is used to investigate the relation between changes in hardness caused on the material surface due the turning operation with respect to different machining parameters. The orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise ratio, and analysis of variance are employed to study the performance characteristics in turning operations of Inconel 718 bars using TiCN – Al2O3 coated cemented carbide insert tools. Three cutting parameters namely, speed, feed rate, and depth of cut are used to find the optimum combination of the cutting parameters to minimize the surface hardness using Taguchi method. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

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Outage Analysis of Coded Cooperation with Full Duplex Relay[ ]


In this paper we propose analyse the outage behaviour of a coded cooperative communication system with one full duplex relay. The full duplex relay listens to source and transmits to the destination simultaneously. The expression for the outage probability is derived, and the effect of loop interference (that exists between the transmitting and receiving antennas of the relays) over the outage performance is investigated. The channel coefficients are assumed to be modelled as Nakagami-m distribution.

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