Volume 15, Issue 5, 05 2024 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 15, Issue 5, 05 2024 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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Differential Evolution Based PID Antenna Position Control System with Disturbance Mitigation []

This paper presents a robust and efficient way of tuning PID controller using different variants of differential evolution (DE) algorithms for control of antenna positioning system and external disturbance mitigation. Quite a number of failure in complex control systems e.g. flights is attributed to external disturbance resulting from natural events, and sometimes from man oriented events. Hence controllers should not only be rated based on their ability to track the command input (target), but also in their ability to mitigate the effects of external disturbance. Five DE variants were implemented in this experiment, out of which DE/rand/2/JDE/bin appear to be optimal in addressing the problem, with maximum disturbance amplitude of 0.00073 which decayed rapidly to zero within 3 seconds, peak overshot of 0.0167, rise time of 0.04sec, and settling time of 0.08sec. This has an overall cost or objective fitness function of 0.034. The second optimal optimizer is DE/rand/1/bin with maximum disturbance amplitude of 0.00079.

Swarm Intelligence Based PID Position Control System with Disturbance Mitigation []

This paper present a robust and efficient way of tuning PID controller using three variants of swam intelligence algorithms for disturbance attenuation, and control of a positioning system. While many tuning algorithms focuses on getting the best PID gains that will enable the system to track the command input, and little or no attention is paid on the effect of those gains on disturbance resulting from external natural and artificial sources. Out of the three variants considered, comprehensive learning particle swarm optimization (CLPSO) appear to be more promising in rapidly attenuating (mitigating) the effect of disturbance on the system with a maximum disturbance response amplitude of 0.000329, and peak overshoot of 0.00635 (0.635%), rise time of 0.01s, and setting time of 0.01s. The second most promising algorithm is toroidal bound CLPSO with disturbance response amplitude of 0.000518, and peak overshoot of 0.0812 (8.12%). These results depicts the robustness of swarm intelligence algorithm variants implemented, in combating the effects of external disturbance on the position controlled system, and at the same time achieving a very low peak overshoot, rise time and settling time.


On discovery of a commercially productive reservoir, a detailed development plan is expected to be organized by the reservoir engineer to aid optimum recovery of reserves from the field under prevailing economic conditions, government policies and operating procedures. Central to this plan are data obtained from interpretation of well tests that are required for reservoir characterization, optimum production and determining the course of future development and production, thereby maximizing profit. Such data which include reservoir drive mechanisms, nature and extent reservoir boundaries, average reservoir pressure, heterogeneity, fluid and wellbore properties assist the reservoir engineer to take critical management decision. Generally, reservoir fluid flow is governed by the diffusivity equation and solution to this equation helps to investigate pressure behavior under certain reservoir and wellbore boundary conditions. In this work, the dimensionless approach of the Green and Source Function solution method is employed to determine the performance of a horizontal well located in an anisotropic reservoir bounded by top gas cap and double edge water and sealing faults in other directions, assuming rectangular reservoir geometry. The pressure expression derived from this work reveals that a maximum of four possible flow regimes occur for the selected reservoir model; however, only the first and last regimes could be used for analysis which highlight the inevitable and negligible shortcoming of Green and Source Function solution method as already presented by the authors of the solution technique. For all well lengths, it is observed that dimensionless pressure slightly increases over time signaling little decrease in bottom hole flowing pressure as production progresses. Derivative data further reveal nature of the boundary surrounding the well; the constant value of bottom hole flowing pressure at later time implies that the reservoir is infinite-acting at this stage. Greater pressure drop is recorded for tighter reservoirs (smaller anisotropy) due to reduced bottom hole flowing pressure. Late time behaviors are best described for well lengths 500ft, 650ft, 800ft and 1000ft. Dimensionless pressure initially increases and gradually decreases later towards zero. Initial increase is attributed to encounter of sealing boundaries and decrease results from the encroachment of double-edge water. Meanwhile, the top gas acts as energy support for oil production. Finally, it is advised that well are stationed far away from reservoir boundaries to avoid early breakthrough of unwanted fluid.

Enhanced catalytic activity of Chitosan-Assisted Ag-Cu-TiO2 nanocomposites for degradation of Azo dyes []

Water pollution is considered one of the major issues facing the globe today. The present work aims to synthesize Silver, Copper and Titanium dioxide using a banana fruit peel extract and cross-linked them with Chitosan to address water contamination. Banana peel extract is used as a reducing agent for copper, silver and titanium dioxide. The characterization peaks of silver-copper-titanium dioxide nanocomposites was examined by using UV-Vis, between 700-500 nm. SEM analysis of trimetallic nanocomposites showed the spherical morphology. Trimetallic Silver-copper-titanium dioxide nanocomposites, coated with chitosan, were examined through the FTIR. The photocatalytic dye degradation was examined against methyl orange and Congo red. The current work establishes the effectiveness of nanocomposites as a viable option for the catalysis of organic dyes. When nanoparticles are coated with the biocompatible polymer chitosan, their efficacy in degrading dyes is increased. It was shown that the level of degradation activity increased with the concentration of chitosan. This approach will work well to reduce waste water contamination.

Severe Tooth Loss and Muscle Weakness in Elderly from Indonesia []

Severe tooth loss is one of the major oral health concerns among the elderly. It`s considered as an early marker of decline muscle strength, increasing risk of reduced physical function, falling and disability. The potential pathway linking is impaired mastication performance, which can impact diet and nutrition in elderly muscle status. This impaired condition is one of characterized of sarcopenia which is a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass, decreased muscle strength and function. This contributes significant costs on national health care especially in elderly. Therefore, preventing severe tooth loss in elderly, could be crucial in promoting better physical strength and function later in older. Since some previous studies had shown some inconsistent results based on the number of remaining teeth can reflect change in muscle strength in elderly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe tooth loss and muscle weakness on the Indonesian elder.

Impact of Road Infrastructure on Road Traffic in Nigeria []

Planning, designing, and constructing road facilities should always be done with the well-being and safety of motorists in mind. Regrettably, infrastructure has often been the cause of road accidents. These may be overcome through consideration of the effects of construction factors on the risk of accidents, thereby ensuring the best possible treatment of the elements for better results. This study aims at (1) studying and understanding road infrastructure and its relevance to accidents and (2) improving road safety levels by enhanced response measures. Here, secondary sources in the form of books and journals were critically analyzed to meet the above-stated research questions and objectives. In this regard, it was found that infrastructure elements play a significant role in the occurrence of traffic accidents. In the context of road architecture, conceptual planning, design, construction, and infrastructure improvement, countering and preventing such accidents should start with the known techniques of Road Safety Audit (RSA) and Road Safety Assessment (RSA). Road safety can be improved if the public authorities take all the responsibility of enacting safety protocols and policies, making sure that the rules are strictly implemented and standardised safety level assessment were carried out.

Valuation of Human Factor as Determinant of Road Traffic Crashes Among Drivers in Lagos State, Nigeria []

This study examines the perspectives of drivers in Lagos State regarding human factors as a major factor contributing to traffic accidents. Structured questionnaires were sent to 210 drivers at various sites in the study zone, namely at the motor park. To evaluate the demographic data of the respondents, we used descriptive statistics such as simple percentages and frequency counts. We used linear regression for the inferential statistics. Based on the findings, more than 70% of the drivers had no secondary school education as their highest level of education, while 60% of the drivers were less than 45 years old. Out of these drivers, 16% had no prior education, and 11% had just finished primary school. Moreover, the analysis revealed a significant F-ratio of 2.506, indicating that drunk driving emerged as the primary determinant of road traffic accidents.

Effects of Roadway Condition and Traffic Features on Road Safety []

Nigeria is a developing country and road safety is in a transforming stage. The order of accident severity is increasing because of the daily growth of the vehicle population. Crashes cause disablement, damage to property and health, social suffering, death, and overall environmental degradation. It is alarming when you look at the road accident situation in Nigeria. The high road accident rates are primarily because the main roads and highways are not effective in meeting traffic demands, vehicle defects, road user behavior, poor road geometrics, and visibility are some of the factors that contribute to the high accident rate. Road traffic crashes have resulted in heavy economic costs to the country. It is, therefore, necessary to make roads user-friendly and safe, which can be achieved through promoting road safety to minimize accidents involving both human beings and vehicles. With the population of vehicles becoming more and more, the number of accidents is growing every year. A black spot is a place on a National Highway/ State Highway and other roads where traffic crashes often occur. The deficiencies in safety were identified to reduce crashes and be of help to the road users towards their security. The deficiencies, as well as the ways of their enhancement, have been shown in this thesis. The study aims to find out the safety problems for the project stretch and provide remedial and mitigating measures to reduce the road crashes on the project road.

Investigating the Link Between Pavement Roughness and Traffic Crashes for Varied Traffic Accidents in South Western Nigeria []

Maintaining safe roads is crucial for both public and commercial transportation. Pavement unevenness, while directly affecting ride quality, can also indirectly impact driver behavior in terms of their concentration, and vehicle handling, and ultimately contribute to traffic crashes. This study explores pavement roughness and its impact on traffic safety in Southwestern Nigeria. It analyses data on traffic volume, pavement condition (using the International Roughness Index or IRI), and crashes that occurred on both single and dual carriageways between 2016 and 2023 for assorted traffic scenarios. Data on Crash occurrences was obtained from the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) while IRI data was obtained from the Pavement Evaluation Unit of the Federal Ministry of Works, Oyo. Condition data was obtained from the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) while IRI data was obtained from the Pavement Evaluation Unit of the Federal Ministry of Public Works, Oyo. Interestingly, the accident sections/sites comprised about two-thirds of the entire road (63%), with a narrow difference (0.4 IRI) between crash and non-crash sections. This suggests that pavement roughness is just one factor influencing crashes; others like driver error, road design, and vehicle condition also play a role. Serious accidents were divided into three categories: fatal, serious injury, and minor injury. The analysis revealed a rise in total crash rates with increasing IRI up to a critical threshold. This threshold varies from road to road, with values of 4.5 and 6.18 for Oyo-Ore and Ilesha-Akure-Owo roads respectively. Beyond these critical IRI values, the crash rate actually decreased. This implies that extremely rough roads may lead drivers to slow down significantly, reducing the severity of crashes. The study emphasises the importance of maintaining pavements below these critical roughness levels to minimise traffic crashes. It highlights that while ride quality suffers with increased roughness, it doesn't directly correlate with crash rates.

Adoption of Digital Learning Technology: An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants in Telecom Sector []

Technology has advanced significantly from the analogue period to the digital era. Digital Learning Technology (DLT) is a learning paradigm based on the use of ubiquitous latest technologies, by using smart devices. It can be described as a learning environment that is assisted in daily life by wireless networks, mobile, and embedded computers. It aims to offer content and interaction to students wherever they are, at any time. The learning process has advanced thanks to the technology revolution, which has also fundamentally altered how knowledge is shared and learned. At present, there exist other frameworks too, but they are centered towards different paradigms, and point of view pertaining to DLT with its emphasis on Telecommunication Sector has not been taken into consideration. As, existing frameworks are centered towards different environments hence there exists a need to add dimensions of Empowered Learner, Digital Citizen, Knowledge Curator, Innovative Designer, Computational Thinker and Creator, Communicator & Global Collaborator. These have not been integrated together in existing available research. The study will ascertain level of knowledge of DLT and examine factors which affect the adoption rate, use, and role of DLT in telecoms setups. The results of this research will help create a framework that, if used in any academic or learning setting in a technology-based firm.

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