Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2014 Edition

Publication for Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2014 is in-process.


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A comperative study of Bioethanol Production ability of Bacillus subtilis and Sacchromyces cerevisiae using Banana and Orange Peels[ ]


In present in present investigation a comparetive analysis of bioethanol production ability of S. cerevisiae and B. subtilis is done on varies parameters such as temperature, pH and incubation time to determine the best optimal conditions of bioethanol production using Banana and orange peels with these micro- organisms. Banana and Orange peels choosen as substrate in solid state fermentation for bioethanol production due to its cheap, easy and whole year availibilty.Collected plants material were dried and converted into fine power, then a pretreatment was given to plant material to delignifie the plant material.The enzymatic hydrolysis of both pretreated substrates were done with cellulase that depolymerized cellulose to monomeric glucose, that converted in to ethanol finally. S. cerevisiae and B. subtilis both exibited maximum yield of bioethanol at 400C, 4.07% (v/v) and 4.10% (v/v) respectively for orange peels. For banana peels S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis both has shown maximum ethanol production at 300C which is 2.86% (v/v) and 3.89% (v/v) repectively. For both orange and banana peels B. subtilis showed maximum ethanol production at pH 7 but S. cerevisiae shown maximum ethanol production at pH 5 from orange peel and at pH 4 from banana peel. Produced bioethanol purification were done through fractional distillation. Specific-gravity and Iodine values were determined for best optimal conditions to cheak the purity of bioethanol produced. Specific-gravity and iodine values of bioethanol produced through fermentation with S. cerevisiae was found to more close to pure ethanol.

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GIS based Real time municipality management system (RTMMS)[ ]


This paper is built on GIS based Real Time Municipality Management System (RTMMS). RTMMS is used for analysis of Municipality Management issues, like solid waste, water drainage situation, waste disposal, recycling and many more. It is the need of the time to improve municipality system through proper planning and management which is possible by using RTMMS. GIS is integrated successfully as the management tool in every sector and also in municipality management issues. The focus of this topic is to only check that how much RTMMS is effective for visualization of water drainage situation in the area of Lahore and how much beneficial for the decision making process.

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Simulation of the Interaction of Solitary Waves and Breakwaters Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics[ ]


Designing safe and economical seashore structures such as breakwaters is of great importance in the engineering of seashore structures. Besides, breakwaters have a wide variety of applications in commercial and recreational harbors, military activities and offshore operations. In the designing process of aforementioned structures, wave rose and wave transmission coefficient are important criteria in determining the height of these structures. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics method is also a powerful tool for studying the free-surface and simulation of waves and structures interaction. Hence, in the present study, the performance of submerged breakwaters against solitary waves was examined. The main objective of this study was to investigate transmission coefficient of solitary waves in fixed submerged breakwaters. To study the standing waves formed in front of a trapezoid submerged breakwater, a two-dimensional numerical model, without Lagrangian mesh approach and using smoothed particle hydrodynamics method was developed. In this numerical model, solving Navier-Stokes equations are used to investigate the problem. The waves are generated using a pistontype wavemaker which is moving forward. At first, the results of the numerical model were compared to the results of experimental model, and the accuracy of the model was evaluated. Then the transmission coefficient of solitary waves over the submerged breakwater was studied in different scenarios.

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Election Report and Political Analyzes of the 5 June 2011 Early Parliamentary Elections in the Republic of Macedonia[ ]


The paper examines the seventh parliamentary elections in the Republic of Macedonia held on 5 June 2011 as a result of the pressure from the opposition led by the SDSM. These elections were won by the VMRO-DPMNE, by winning the elections for the third time since 2006, but with a lower difference compared to the previous early elections in 2008, and which made a coalition with the winner of the Albanian political camp DUI, winning the elections for the fourth time since 2002 in this political camp, but with a lower difference compared to the previous early elections in 2008. These elections had a special political weight for the country's Euro-Atlantic integration process considering the fact that with no progress in EU and NATO integrations, inter-ethnic relations will remain fragile because Euro-Atlantic integrations are the only issue on which there is complete inter-ethnic consensus between e the different ethnic communities in the country. Also, these elections were an examination for the democratic maturity of the country and they were performed under strong observation of the international community as a result of serious irregularities of previous elections in 2006 and 2008. The importance of those elections consists in the fact that they brought a more balanced Parliament, with a more powerful opposition, but no changes in government and in the state rigid policy positions over the name dispute with Greece.

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Long Term Survival of CABG Patients in Age Groups Using Complete and Incomplete Populations (A New Approach)[ ]


In this paper long term survival of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG) patients in four age groups is considered. A new approach of complete population from its incomplete population of CABG patients of 12 years observations is applied for the survival analysis. Complete and incomplete Populations of the age groups are used in a well known survival model. In the complete population, censored patients are proportionally included into the known survived and died patients respectively. The availability of a complete population may represent better behavior of lifetimes / survival proportions for medical research. Survival proportions of the CABG patients are obtained from lifetime representing parametric model (Weibull). A classical technique, maximum likelihood method, in-conjunction with Davidon-Fletcher-Powell (DFP) optimization method and Cubic Interpolation method is used in estimation of survivor’s proportions from the parametric model. For complete population Drop Methodology is introduced i.e. we may drop the term for censored observations from likelihood function. The survival proportions of complete and incomplete populations of the CABG patients with respect to the four age groups are presented in term of statistics and graphs (survival curves) discussed and concluded.

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An Experimental Analysis of Stress Relaxation in Nonwoven Fabrics[ ]


The current research deals with an analysis of stress relaxation in nonwoven fabrics with different gsm values with a view to understand how these nonwovens behave under an applied stress for a given load over a constant period of time. An electronic stress relaxation tester was designed indigenously for this purpose which works on the strain gauge principle of measuring loads applied to the specimen at any given instant of time during the experiment. The respective stress values were calculated for corresponding load values for each specimen with every thirty seconds passage of time. The results obtained were graphically analyzed and it was revealed that the stress relaxation percentage was significantly different for the same nonwoven materials but with different gsm values. It was observed that nonwovens do possess the property of decaying the stress generated due to external loads and the extent to which this happens depends to a considerable extent on the gsm of the structure along with other factors like type of fibers and type of bonding.

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Fuzzy Logic based Expert System for Students’ Performance Evaluation in Data Grid Environment[ ]


In the current competitive era, every school, collages and institutes strongly focus on improvement of the students’ performance by applying fair evaluation methods. Performance of students is difficult to assess before the final results are declared. Major factors that affect on performance are the attendance of students in their theory and laboratory sessions, the exam grades they obtained in internal exams and the exam grades they obtained during term work evaluation. Assessing students’ performance is an area in which strict rules often do not represent the realistic situation. Fuzzy logic provides a way of representing the behavior of systems which are either too complex or too imprecise. Also, university is a very large domain and students’ data are generally stored in various distributed and heterogeneous data repositories which may span across different organizations and administrative domains. Such distributed data repositories can be integrated within data grid environment by implementing data grid middleware. Therefore, we have developed a fuzzy logic based expert system which assists the process of decision making of students’ performance evaluation within data grid environment. The system will utilize the fuzzy logic theory and develop the decision making process based on fuzzy rules to assess whether a student gets very poor, poor, good, average or excellent performance.

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Data Transfer without using Internet or Bluetooth[ ]


This paper is about sending Data without using Internet or Bluetooth because these days Smartphones acquiring the whole world via Android os where one uses apps to fulfill their needs. But for sending SMS or Data either they will have to send message by normal manner or by using E-mail or Apps. This application works on the same paradigm as E-mail does. What happen if Internet Balance get finished unfortunately at that time when he or she is in great need of that, than one can’t send data from any app , at that time this app can be proved to be a boon for the person, sometimes Government has to send guidelines via E-mail to their employees, villagers etc. or any Catastrophe occurs than Doctors could help the people by sending guidelines where mostly internet connection not available at that point of time this app can be fruitful and one can send files through sms to remote area also. With this low-cost application a user can send Attached file like .txt, .pdf, .doc etc. with maximum characters as compared to normal SMS. This paper proposes a sms application through which a user can attach a file from the SD-Card (retrieve) just like E-mail and send it to the recipient to the remote area. And nominal charge will be deducted from the user who sends data to the recipient.

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Gender Differences on Marital Satisfaction and Social Relations among Diabetic Patients[ ]


The present study was carried out to analyze the gender differences among diabetic patients on marital satisfaction and social relations. Total 200 diabetic patients (100 males and 100 females), were selected by using convenient sampling method and were approached from different private and public hospitals from Faisalabad, Pakistan. Comprehensive Marital Satisfaction Scale (Blum & Mehrabian, 1999) with its adapted and translated (Urdu) version by Khan, 2006 was administered to participants for the identification of their marital satisfaction, whereas Provision of Social Relation (PSR) scale by (Turner, Frankel, & Levin, 1983) with the Urdu translated version (Ayub, 2004) was used to determine social relations of the respondents. The results showed that there was significant difference on the basis of gender on marital satisfaction. Moreover it was indicated from the results that the male diabetic patients showed more marital satisfaction as compared to the female diabetic patients. Results also revealed a significant gender based difference of social relations among the participants.

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Innovations in Science and Technology Education: A Case for Ethnoscience Based Science Classrooms[ ]


It was previously believed that useful knowledge was only generated in laboratories or research institutions for subsequent transmission to the ignorant peasants. Available evidence has revealed that these peasants are not actually ignorant but endowed with complex knowledge system that could transform the world if appropriately harnessed, hybridized and incubated in a more organized science classroom. This paper presents appropriate background, rationale and procedures for integration of indigenous knowledge systems into formal science classrooms processes and instructional modules.

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Data Security in wireless Sensor Network using Multipath Randomized Dispersive Routes[ ]


Attacks are common in wireless sensor networks. In this paper we study the routing protocols to overcome the black holes formed by the attacks. We also discuss the problems that we have in our existing multipath routing and how to overcome the problems of our existing multi path routing by our proposed randomized random routing. In our proposed routing we generate random multi path routes and send the packets of information in these randomized multi path routes. By this proposed method it would be difficult for one to discover the routes in which the actual packets are being transmitted. Besides randomness the packets transmitted are highly dispersive and secure, making the bypass the black holes.

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Effect of temperature, pH, and solids concentration on biogas production from poultry waste[ ]


Anaerobic digestion of organic waste yields biogas as one of its bi-products, containing methane; a gas that has become popular in the search for alternative sources of energy. The efficiency of the anaerobic process is governed by a number of factors. The effect of temperature, pH, and solids concentration on production of biogas from organic waste (poultry waste) was investigated for a period of 14 days, using laboratory scale digesters constructed from 2L plastic containers. The feedstock consisted of poultry waste made into slurry of four solids concentrations (SC); 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. The starting hydrogen ion concentrations (pH) of the slurries used in the study were, 5,6,7,8, and 9. Two digestion temperatures; 30 and 35oC were used during this investigation. The result of the anaerobic digestion indicate that slurries with starting pH 5, recorded highest cumulative gas yield of 3650ml for slurry with 15% SC, digested at 30 oC. Slurries with pH 6 recorded highest cumulative gas yield of 2880ml for slurry with 20% SC, digested at 35oC. Slurries with pH 7 had 3945ml highest cumulative gas yield observed in slurry with 15% SC, digested at 35oC. Highest cumulative gas yields for pH 8 and 9 were 4635ml and 4730ml respectively, recorded for slurries with 25% SC digested at 35oC. For both digestion temperatures, gas yield tend to increase with solids concentration, however, highest gas yield was observed at 35oC, and slurries with starting pH of 7 gave relatively consistent high gas yields.

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Transesterification of dimethyl malonate with a novel catalyst derived from Musa balbisiana colla[ ]


Malonate esters are important synthons that can be transformed into variety of building blocks in organic syntheses. Trunk of Musa balbisiana colla triggered successful transesterification of dimethyl malonate with a series of higher alcohols efficiently. The catalyst is obtained from seedy variety of banana plant Musa balbisiana colla which is popularly known as kolakhar in the Assamese community of the north-eastern region of India and is used as an additive in many traditional cuisines. This work highlights the transesterification of dimethyl malonate with different types of alcohols resulting in the products from moderate to good yields. This newly developed catalyst can be considered as green catalyst as it is heterogeneous, natural, biodegradable, non-toxic, easily obtainable, inexpensive and environmentally safe. We are hopeful that it will contribute a lot in the field of organic synthesis.

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Viscometric and Compressibility behavior of Arginine in Aqueous-Glucose solutions[ ]


Densities (?), Ultrasonic Speeds (u) and Viscosity (?) of aqueous-glucose (5, 10, and 15% of glucose, in water) and of solutions of Arginine in three aqueous-glucose solvents were measured at 303, 308, and 313 K. From these experimental data Compressibility(ß), Apparent Molar Compressibility (Ks,?), Limiting Apparent Molar Compressibility (K°s,?) and the Slope (Sk), Transfer Compressibility (K°s,?,tr), Falkenhagen coefficient (A), Jones–Dole coefficient (B), Free energy of activation of Viscous flow per mole of solvent ( ?µ1°#) and Viscous flow per mole of solute (?µ2°#) were calculated. The results are interpreted in terms of solute–solvent and solute– solute interactions in Arginine systems. It is observed that there exist strong solute–solvent interactions, which increases with increase in glucose concentration.

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Distance training for physics teachers in education sciences: flexible and efficient.[ ]


Continuous training courses for the teachers of the Minister of National Education are essential to update their disciplinary and pedagogical skills. However, teachers in Morocco rarely benefit from continuous training courses, especially in educational science. This lack is due to organizational constraints as well as temporary unavailability of teachers. In this paper, we propose distance learning, across the Moroccan Kingdom in educational science based on complete, intelligent and communicative e-Learning platform. The main objective of this distance learning is to provide teachers with solid, efficient and flexible training courses in educational sciences. Flexible, because our distance learning use some approaches that allow each teacher to preplan their learning activities and collaboration with other teachers. Efficient, because traditional training is done at each city and requires an important budget, while our distance learning is at the national level and without cost of the training courses (movement of both teachers and Supervisors, Indemnities of the supervisors, catering and also accommodation). The added value of our distance learning platform is to offer various advantages: First, updating their knowledge in physics science, Second helping teachers improve their methods and teaching strategy, Third sharing courses and new teaching strategies between the teachers, fourth encouraging teachers to educational research and also preparing teachers to become future scientists in education.

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TRANSITIONAL INFLUENCES IN ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ON MANAGEMENT OF EARNINGS[ ]


This paper examines whether the transition in accounting standards has an effect on the use of management of earnings. Using the item provisions from 4 equally large listed companies in The Netherlands and Germany from before the year 2005 and compare them with the annual reports of these companies after 2005 in order to get a clear picture about the possibilities to apply management of earnings before and after IFRS. Annual reports from before the year 2005 have all been formulated according to Dutch and German GAAP. From the year 2005 onwards Dutch and German listed companies have been obliged to report according to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Also I have engaged more specifically into the balance sheet item ‘Provisions’. For this item I have debated regulations under Dutch and German GAAP and indicated what has changed after the obligation to report under IFRS. Also in the item provisions it can be clearly seen that IFRS rules are stricter than Dutch and German GAAP. The results show in this paper that the transformation in regulations has an influence on the level of earnings management.

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Using Feature Extraction to Recognize Handwritten Text Image[ ]


In this paper, a robust technique for identifying and recognizing Handwritten Text images is presented. There are many methods for Handwritten Text, but most of them require segmentation or connected component analysis. The Recognition process utilizes the determinant value that produces the features for the Handwritten Text. Image’s determinants values are computed by dividing image into blocks then designed Threshold (T) to extract feature, afterwards, use chain code to find the centric point and direction of text. The least square criterion is then utilized to determine the similarity between the existed (in Database file) Handwritten Text with a new query Handwritten Text’s images.

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Toward an automation increasingly interconnecting[ ]


The evolution of Information and Communications Technologies ICT and their reliability in the different areas of the industry has changed completely the design of automated systems. The vision today is to manipulate the media of communication such as generic Ethernet since the connection of a sensor up to the network of workshop or for business, for this the programmable logic controllers (PLC) are become more and more of a communication through communication interfaces such as Ethernet/IP, PROFINET, PROFIBUS…,which allow you to perform a remote communication between the field level( production tools), the workshop level ( the production service) and the local network which concepts the different service of the company. The maintenance is part of the features that can pull the advantage of interconnection of production systems.The communicative function allows you to perform the remote maintenance or at least to establish a precise diagnosis in order to reduce the time of intervention.

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A study on Impact of Cross-Cultural Marketing mix on Asia and Asia pacific region[ ]


The study highlight on the marketing mix cross-cultural Issues from the Asia and Asia pacific Region like as Australia, China (PRC)Bangladesh, Japan, Pakistan and India. There are a number of key cultural elements that international marketers need to take into consideration when designing products, developing promotions and implementing distribution systems in foreign markets. These elements include values, beliefs, thought processes, symbols, traditions, religion and language. In international markets this will involve taking into consideration a number of different factors including consumer's cultural backgrounds, religion, buying habits and levels of personal disposable income.

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Security Aspect of Cloud Computing[ ]


Cloud computing is the use of computing resources that are delivered as a service over a network. Today, cloud computing generates a lot of excitement. It is both promising and daunting. Businesses world see its potential but also have many issues for discussion. Cloud computing offers attractive financial and technological advantages but some of them has not been fully evaluated with respect to security. Security is considered one of the most critical aspects in cloud computing due to the sensitivity and importance of data stored in the cloud. Cloud Computing has several major issues such as data security, trust, expectations, regulations, and performance. This paper discusses the privacy and security issue of cloud computing and some existing security solutions about Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs), Antivirus (AV), and Email Security, suggested by some researchers.

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Effect of the Waste Weight on Nitrogen Oxides Formation in a non Temperature-Controlled Laboratory Scale Rotary Kiln[ ]


Waste incineration, both urban and industrial, is one of the way of reducing their volume and weight. However, environmentally sound waste incineration can only be achieved if done according to well known physico-chemical conditions. This study focused on the formation and reduction mechanisms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with a non temperature-controlled laboratory scale rotary kiln. It was found that NOx releases vary with the weight of the waste in the kiln. For temperatures lower than 900 °C, it appears that NOx emissions are strongly influenced by the temperature and the local concentration of oxygen. Experiments show the effect of combustible weight on emissions of nitrogen monoxide (NO). NO2 was not found for peak temperature less than 1012°C or waste weight less than 3kg. In ours experimental conditions, NO is essentially formed by the mechanism of “fuel NO”. It is highly influenced by local oxygen concentration in the reaction place, but moderately influenced by the temperature. Lack of the kiln’s temperature control implies kiln’s operation temperature variations. We found that these variations are related the combustible load. NOx and residual O2 concentration in the kiln’s combustion zone where correlated to the combustible weight.

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A Novel Method of Secure Communication through Randomized Pixel Variation (RPV)[ ]


A Novel Reversible Data Hiding Scheme (RDH) using Randomized Pixel Variation (RPV) is proposed here. It is based on the biological process of controlling the color of the epithelial tissue by a pigment cell, named as melanocyte. The pixel pair mapping technique is utilized to select the pixel randomly to hide the data bit. The main objective of this work is to satisfy robustness, imperceptibility and high capacity simultaneously. A new informed image watermarking scheme with a simplified complexity of 1.511x10-3sec and an information rate of 1/150 bit/pixel is obtained. While comparing the proposed approach with conventional method, the image redundancy is exploited, thereby embedding performance is improved. Due to slight variation in the pixel values, the high image quality is preserved. The performance is analyzed using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) calculations and Structural Similarity (SSIM) index for watermark imperceptibility and robustness, respectively. The Experimental results show that the value of PSNR and SSIM is 72.95 dB and 1.00, respectively.

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Improved approach of applying data mining in SCM decision making[ ]


ERP is huge and wide application containing various modules like CRM, SCM, marketing, employee management etc. SCM stands for supply chain management which deals with managing supply of products based on market needs. In supply chain management, organization needs to have a model that can identify them which product should be sent in bulk to a given location and which should not be. If organization sends product in bulk then transportation charge will be reduced but stock keeping charges will increase and vice versa. This location selling rate finder algorithm is about analysing data and generating result that can let organization make appropriate decision about this. Using this algorithm, an organization can fed there data in and can have result displaying selling rate of that product to that given location. This algorithm is mainly use full to business that is having large number of branches and a huge bulky data warehouse.

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Rethinking Environmental Friendly Technology for Sustainability in Bangladesh[ ]


Most of the textile industry discharges the polluted textile waste-water directly into the waterways as the cost of treatment process is high. To minimize the cost, an effective and advanced treatment process has been setup at Mascom Composite Textile Ltd and Dalas Fashion Ltd. at Gazipur, Dhaka. The treatment process consists of a combined process (anaerobic and bio-filtration process) which is mentioned as High Rate Biological Treatment (HRBT) process. This biological treatment process is successfully operating without chemical process. The raw textile waste-water is highly polluted with high level of alkalinity in nature. The pollution parameters were removed successfully with standard quality by using the HRBT process. The ETP treatment capacity was 50,000 Liter/hour. Case study on chemical ETP process has revealed that taka 8.984 million is required for chemical ETP whereas taka 1.784 million for HRBT ETP process. Thus HRBT ETP process has been proved to be highly economical than the Chemical ETP process.

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AN INTELLIGENT DISTRIBUTED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN GRID ENVIRONMENT USING IDS[ ]


Intrusion Detection Systems have been used along with various techniques to detect intrusions in networks, distributed databases and web databases. However, all these systems are able to detect the intruders with high false alarm rate. In this paper when the intruder enters the grid system with the help of brute force attack to the data base stored in the grid environment. When a intruder enters the grid system a R- LOGIN-ID is created, to avoid the such kind of attacks create the DIDS . Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Grid environment which has the ability to detect the intruder in the grid environment, track and monitor his malicious activities until a threshold. Once the intruder reaches the threshold, he is prevented from moving forward in his malicious activities. The grid environment and the identification and prevention of intrusions in the distributed grid environment is to be simulated.with the help of central manager to secure storage, data analysis to detect intrusions, discovery of distributed sensors, and sending of alerts.

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A Software Implementation Of RSA Algoritm Using 19 bit Prime Digit Number[ ]


RSA cryptographic is a technique used to encrypt and decrypt the messages.So that the secure communication is done between sender and receiver without any loss through transmission channel like internet. It will also throw some light on the flaws of some other public key cryptographic algorithms in comparison to RSA algorithm. In this 19 bit prime digit is used to encrypt and decrypt the messeges by generationg two key pairs (private key and public key), Algorithm is implemented using Big Integer which makes Algorithm work efficiently and time complexity is also reduced.

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Smartphones and off the shelf hardware for 3D scanning in mobile robots[ ]


3D scanners are gaining a lot of momentum. In this paper we wish to highlight a possible solution to make 3D scanning portable and affordable. The way in which we intend to do is this is to use the processing power and sensors already present in smartphones. Smartphones are becoming increasingly available to the majority of the world’s populace. Our approach involves using additional hardware to provide some amount of processing along with a second camera which is necessary for stereovision.

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Performance Analysis of Spray and Wait Protocol and Epidemic Protocol in VDTN[ ]


Mobile ad hoc routing protocols allow nodes with wireless adaptors to communicate with one an- other without any pre-existing network infrastructure. Existing ad hoc routing protocols, while robust to rapidly changing network topology, assume the presence of a connected path from source to destination. Given power limitations, the advent of short-range wireless networks, and the wide physical conditions over which ad hoc networks must be deployed, in some scenarios it is likely that this assumption is invalid. In this work, we develop techniques to deliver messages in the case where there is never a connected path from source to destination or when a network partition exists at the time a message is originated. This paper mainly two DTN routing protocols: Epidemic Routing and Spray and Wait Routing, are advocated and compared in terms of Message Delivery Probability.

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Prehistoric “J” – Element?..[ ]


In this Scientific Research Article, it is focused that the “first element” evolved in the material universe shall be considered as only “single element”. This single element shall be hypothetically called as element “J”. In Pre-historic Tamil language this element shall be called as “CHISU”. CHISU shall mean “INFANT” or “Glittering Star” and shall be denoted by single alphabet “J”. The “J” element is considered originated ever before origin of so called PLASMA matter. The newly classified “J” element shall also be called as “MU-ASMA”. Plasma shall mean species matter to Mu-Asma.

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Determinants of Customers’ Acceptance of Electronic Payment System in Indian Banking Sector – A Study[ ]


Internet is perhaps one of the most important tools to businesses and individuals in the recent world economy. Globalization, financial liberalization and technology revolution have opened the door of new and more efficient delivery and processing channels as well as more innovative product and services in banking industry. With increased educational qualification and growing wealth consumers’ need and expectations are continually changing and they are involving themselves more and more in their financial decisions. After deregulation and reforms in Indian Banking scenario payment systems like Debit Card, Credit Card, ECS, EFT, RTGS, NEFT have offered variety of services to the customers. Despite the growth of electronic payment system over physical check-based system, its rate of adoption in India especially in Metro cities like Kolkata has been relatively slow. Its slow adoption rates raise many questions.. The aim of the study is to determine the factors influencing consumer’s adoption on the light of Technology Acceptance Model. Survey based questionnaires are designed and Factor Analysis is used to find reliable and consistent factors. Proposed model illustrates the level of fulfillment of each acceptance factors and therefore predicts its adoption and indicates areas of improvement.

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An ergonomic study on the assessment of work related musculoskeletal disorder risks among agriculture workers of Uttarakhand, India[ ]


Safety of the workers and productivity of work in rice cultivation is impacted by the human drudgery. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most common work-related problems among farm workers involved in rice transplanting activity. The main aims of the present study were to investigate the causation of discomfort related to working postures and to assess the work related musculoskeletal disorder among the farmers. For this study, 60 agricultural workers aged 25-45 years were selected randomly from the Kalinagar Village of Udham Singh District of Uttarakhand and a detailed posture analysis was performed among them by REBA and VAS methods. For the study, only uprooting and transplanting activity were selected from the rice cultivation activity. Agricultural workers suffered from pain especially in the low back, knees, hands shoulder and neck. The average REBA score observed was 10. Prolonged work activity, high repetitiveness, and remaining constantly in an awkward posture for a prolonged period of time etc. were the major factors of drudgery, acute pain and discomfort among farm workers.

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