Volume 6, Issue 2, February 2015 Edition

Publication for Volume 6, Issue 2, February 2015


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RC-MAC Protocol Based On Congestion Avoidance in Wireless Sensor Networks[ ]


Application for wireless sensor network is notably different in its characteristics and requirement from a standard WLAN. When a critical event triggers a surge of data generated by the sensor, congestion may occur as data packet converge toward a sink, which causes energy waste, throughput reduction, information loss, hidden terminal problem and link failure in contention based MAC protocol. Due to hidden terminal problem the RC-MAC and CSMA/CA protocol sensing is used to reduce the channel contention and radio collision. The formation of a new tree for avoiding link failure-a MAODV routing protocol was introduced in this paper, and the performance of this protocol is measured using the above parameters. The demonstration of a near optimal throughput at each sensor and to achieve congestion avoidance in presence of a multicast routing towards a multiple sink is also done.

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Design of ALU using reversible logic based Low Power Vedic Multiplier[ ]


Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is a heart of microprocessor and microcontroller units that are playing main role in digital computers. By optimizing the ALU circuit in microprocessor and microcontroller highly power efficient digital system can be achieved. The use of low power and high performance sub-blocks like adder and multiplier can reduce the total power dissipation of ALU. So in this paper we are introducing new architecture for a high speed and area efficient Vedic multiplier and an adder circuit using reversible logic gates. The proposed adder and multipliers are employed in the implementation of Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) to reduce the power dissipation and area and to improve the performance sufficiently. Integration of low power sub-blocks of ALU resulted that the power dissipation of proposed ALU unit is reduced when compared with the conventional unit. The proposed logic blocks are implemented using Verilog HDL programming language, simulated and synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i software.

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Design And Simulation Of Binary Floating Point Multiplier Using VHDL[ ]


Most of the DSP applications need floating point numbers multiplication. The possible ways to represent real numbers in binary format floating point numbers are; the IEEE 754 standard represents two floating point formats, Binary interchange format and Decimal interchange format. To improve speed multiplication of mantissa is done using specific multiplier replacing Carry Save Multiplier. To give more precision, rounding is not implemented for mantissa multiplication. The binary floating point multiplier is plane to do implemented using VHDL and it is simulated and synthesized by using Modalism and Xilinx ISE software respectively. The result so got will be compare with the previous work done.Floating point multiplication is important in many commercial applications including financial analysis, banking, tax calculation, currency conversion, insurance, and accounting.

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A Study on Retrieval Models and Query Expansion using PRF[ ]


This article compares the state of the art retrieval models and reports how query expansion enhances the retrieval effectiveness. Five state- of-the- art retrieval models (parametric and non-parametric), three Query expansion Techniques Bo1, Bo2 and KL are selected and presented. A comparative study of the retrieval models, namely TF_IDF, DLH, DPH, I(n)L2 and PL2 enhanced with the mentioned QE models are experimentally shown using FIRE 2011 Adhoc data. This is an initial study carried out to understand how the performance of these approaches varies on multiple languages (English and Hindi).Furthermore, we explore the optimal parameter settings for the non-parameteric models incase of Short, Normal and Long queries. Results show that I(n)L2 performed well for Hindi dataset and BM25 and PL2 gave best MAP for English dataset. We use the Terrier, the information Retrieval framework for indexing, retrieval and evaluation. The models used for comparison are Terrier’s DFR based weighting models.

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REAL TIME GENDER RECOGNITION ON FPGA[ ]


This paper is about how the gender of the person can be detected by using the facial parameters. The parameters such as eyes, jaw, hair, eye brows, and lips are used to detect the gender of the person in the image. The Mat Lab is used to detect the gender of the person in a saved image. The code generated on Mat Lab is then operated on Real-Time basis with the help of National Instrument’s myRio FPGA Kit. The Lab VIEW is used to interface the Mat Lab with FPGA Kit. Supporting devices include web cam to acquire the image, LCD to display the result and push button switch to take the image. Gender detection on FPGA has numerous applications in the area of security and surveillance, human-computer intelligent interaction, and smart environment. The proposed method can be further evaluated in the future by using different database and considering more facial parameters.

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Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Configuration in Wind Turbines – Technological status review, survey and market trends.[ ]


With rapid development of wind power technologies and significant growth of wind power capacity installed worldwide, various wind turbine concepts have been developed. The wind energy conversion system is demanded to be more cost-competitive, so that comparisons of different wind generator systems are necessary. An overview of different wind generator systems and their comparisons are presented. First, the contemporary wind turbines are classified with respect to both their control features and drive train types, and their strengths and weaknesses are described. The promising permanent magnet generator types are also investigated. Then, the quantitative comparison and market penetration of different wind generator systems are presented. Finally, the developing trends of wind generator systems and appropriate comparison criteria are discussed.

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THE LAW OF SEX?..[ ]


This Scientific research article focus that “SEX” shall be considered as “Super natural Tree” supported with three-in-one Tape root (Base). The super natural tree consider “Produced” billions of fruits on origin. Each fruit has microbial varied genetic characteristics called “GENDER”. The fruit shall also called as “Natural fruit” (or) “Divine fruit” (J-Fruit).

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Effect the Beam Section Shape for Different Materials on Buckling Load Using Finite Element Method[ ]


Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. So, this study focuses on finding the effect of the beam section shapeon buckling load using finite element software ANSYS R.15. The buckling loads for Rectangular (Rec.), U-channel (Uch.), Solid circle (Scir.) and Hollow circle (Hcir.) cross-section beams are calculated using Eigenvalue and Non-linear analysis for Carbon Steel, Titanium and Aluminum materials. A comparison made between the two methods and the different percentage is not exceeds of 0.27%. The results shows that the Buckling loads are strongly depend on the material properties and the beam shape geometry. Buckling loads are directly proportion with modulus of elasticity, thickness, outer to inner radius ratio and all beam geometry parameters except the beam length.

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Characterization of Durable Resistance gene Yr18/Lr34 against Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in different Pakistani Wheat Cultivars by Using Molecular (STS) and Morphological (LTN) Markers[ ]


Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat in many countries. Its significance was seemed to be increased to many serious wheat growers at that time when more than 70% of the wheat crop got loss due to it. Hundreds of diverse methods was developed to control that very stupid and indirect enemy of human but failed because of mutation of pathogen in the universe is so quick. Durable resistance is considered the most impact giving way to slowly control the spread of disease in whole plant. In this study we tried to characterize durable rust resistance gene, Yr18, in Pakistani wheat cultivars using molecular marker, csLV34, categorize under STS and morphological marker for leaf tip necrosis (LTN). We used a hexaploid population from Pakistani selected wheat genotypes that were moderately resistant to moderately susceptible (MRMS) to stripe rust in field trials. The wheat genotypes were evaluated for stripe rust at, Pir Sabaq (Nowshera Khayber Pukhtoonkhwa, KPK), Pakistan which is considered as hotspot for stripe rust pathogen. Characterization included seedling testing, field evaluation, morphological marker studies and marker assisted selection (MAS). MAS of all cultivars revealed that varieties (C-518, Mexipak, Kohinoor-83, Faisalabad-83, Zardana-93, Shahkar-95, Moomal-2002, Wattan-94, Pasban-90, Kiran-95, Haider-2000) possessed the desirable marker. Same varieties showed susceptibility at seedling stage and moderate resistance to resistance (MRR) at adult stage under field conditions with either presence or absence of LTN as a morphological marker. The slow-rusting gene, Yr18, can be utilized in combination with other slow-rusting genes to develop high levels of durable adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust in wheat.

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Defect Prediction in Agile Software Development[ ]


Software Quality is synonymous with Defect Density. There is always a speculation as to whether the defects can be linked to the volume of development work done by Scrum teams. This paper does a scientific analysis of the quantum of work and the defects logged at various stages by multiple scrum teams to arrive upon a conclusion substantiated by data collected across six months comprising twelve sprints (each sprint being fifteen calendar days long)

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Personal and Professional Development Plan[ ]


At this point in life as I enter a program of graduate study, it is difficult to conceive of a more meaningful activity than a self-study that addresses such questions as: Which people and events have shaped me? What motivations drive me? What are my core values? What is my self-concept or self-image? Where am I in my life right now?

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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF AN ADAPTIVE LEFT THROTTLING PEDAL FOR V-BOOT WAGON 230 FOR RIGHT LEG PARAPLEGIC PATIENT[ ]


This work is problem- solving oriented. It is all about Design and Fabrication of an Adaptive Throttling Pedal for V-Boot Wagon 230 for Paraplegic Patient who has a problem with his right leg and still desire to drive his car with ease. Although there were various car adaptations in existence mainly customized for paraplegia that have been developed by different International Automobile industries. Nigeria is yet to have one.. The clauses behind the design of this work are the difficulties to access left adaptive throttling accessories for V-Boot Wagon 230 for Right paraplegic patient and possibility of driving the car upon reverting the car to its existing state. In order to achieve this research work, the following factors were considered; Anthropometric data of the client, Physical dimensions of available spaces for left throttle, design analysis which includes adaptive link mechanism, material selection, strength, and forces were determined, fabrication, machining of parts and assembling, Installation of the product, equipment maintenance and Performance evaluation. Ordinarily the engines speed runs 2000rpm at an idle position of the existing pedal compared to what has been adapted which runs at 1500rpm. This low speed indicates improved efficiency and minimizes fuel consumption. Also when the two pedals were activated and pressed through an arc length of 45mm, both engine speeds read 6000rpm. Although there were little deviations in the curves at displacement position 20mm and 30mm. These deviations have no significant effect on the performance of the engine.

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Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity studies of nano ZnO deposited on sintered calcium phosphate (ZnO/SCaP)[ ]


Nano ZnO was prepared by chemical methods on a novel solid support, namely, calcium phosphate .Different loading levels of nano zinc oxide over the support were prepared and influence of temperature on the synthesis was studied. The catalysts were characterized by physico-chemical methods. The XRD and UV-DRS showed formation of ZnO and high resolution SEM image showed formation uniform nano particles. The catalyst was found to be efficient in Knoevenagel condensation when compared with unsupported analogue.

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Use of the VFD to minimize the throttling effect of the Hostel water supply system by the automation of the system[ ]


This paper presents the case study of the water supply of the hostels buildings of the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University Aurangabad. There are about fourteen individual buildings with approximately sixty four water tanks located on the terrace of the buildings and underground tanks to collect and store the water for the individual buildings. From these underground tanks the water is pumped to the terrace tanks through electrical pumps. Each tank inlet is provided with ball cock valve to close the water supply after the tank fills up. The different valves are generally in semi closed conditions which results in the throttling of the water flow and causes overloading of the motors and also eventually causes unnecessary tripping of the motors. This also results in throttling effect and causes additional power consumption to overcome. This throttling effect can be minimized and the extra power consumption can be saved by the application of the VFD for the pump motor and the automation of the water supply system. The use of the VFD drive and the automation of the water supply system results in the significant savings in both cost and GHG emissions. Also the automation will result in the reliability of the supply with the avoiding overflow of the water which also results in the water conservation. For motors used for driving the pumps, the consumption of the electrical energy is proportional to the cube of the flow rate. Therefore relatively small reduction in the flow rate may result in significant energy savings.

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Mobile Internet Subscription Trends in Kenya up to 2014[ ]


Mobile phone communication is a sector that has been credited for playing a very vital role in the economy of most countries in the world. It has helped poor people in the rural areas to be able to communicate far within a very short time with minimal costs as opposed to earlier communication methods. The telecommunications market in Kenya was liberalized in 1999 with the licensing of two mobile operators at that time Safaricom Ltd and Celtel Kenya currently Airtel Networks Kenya Ltd while mobile internet communication was introduced in 2008. Since then its subscription has been growing steadily helping the Government to generate more revenues and create job opportunities. The current mobile operators in Kenya are given as Safaricom Ltd, Airtel Networks Kenya Ltd, Essar Telecom Kenya Ltd and Telkom Kenya Ltd (Orange) through which the mobile internet service is provided.

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Simulation & Modelling of Deep Drawing Process of SMA Material[ ]


This research work presents modeling of deep drawing of square cup. The sheet forming materials considered in study is NiTi shape memory alloy. The finite element analysis has been useful tool in simulating complex industrial forming operations. A simulation program has been carried out to study, effect of main process parameters such as blank holding pressure, coefficient if friction between sheet and die, on the thickness variation of cup wall and flange and to get maximum height of cup with minimum defects. The results of the study shows that uniform thinning of cup can be obtained by selecting proper combination of various process parameters.

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Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of Magneto-Rheological Brake[ ]


In this work, an effort has been made to study the reliability analysis of the system using the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) technique. FMEA is a development tool used to identify failures and effects on system, products or services. In addition to identifying failure modes and failure mode effects, FMEA provides for quantification and categorisation of failure information in order to allocate and prioritize the risk. The greatest impact of FMEA is in pre-production phases of new product or system development in order to provide failure free systems and products during implementation. FMEA is a versatile tool that has many expressions and that can be integrated with the statistical and software tools to provide for a comprehensive view of risk. Thus, the various possible causes of failure and their effects of a magneto-rheological (MR) brake along with the ways of prevention are discussed in this work.

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Physical and Mechanical Properties of Palm Frond for the Development of Palm Oil Waste Chopper and Pressing Machine Design[ ]


Physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond are very important factor for the development of palm oil waste utilization technology. The objective of this research was to determine the maximum pressure to break off palm oil tissue for mulch processing. The average dimension of palm frond is also needs to be determined in order to design pressing machine as well as leaflet and frond chopper machine. The result found that the average length of palm oil frond was 675.89 cm, average leaflet length at the palm frond base was 103.89 cm and average leaflet length at palm frond tip was 23.83 cm. Based on the experiment, the maximum compression strength at the 20 years-palm frond base was 443.78 kgf and at the 5 years-palm midrib base was 287.56 kgf. This finding suggests that pressure of machine should be designed above 443.78 kgf.

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Effect of Intermittent Power Supply on the German Power System[ ]


In Germany due to the continuous high expansion of the intermittent power supply capabilities of wind turbines and photovoltaic systems, the operational modes of thermal generation units will be influenced essentially until 2020 and beyond. The integration of this increasing share of intermitting generation while maintaining the present security level of supply confronts the existing power system with a big challenge. The fundamental problems are that the intermitting generation does not necessarily fit the power demand and is often located far away from the load centers. This results in physical limitations for integration of intermitting generation with regard to the existing infrastructure. Therefore it is has to be lined out that the acceleration time constant is reduced if some conventional power plant generators with masses are disconnected and replaced by the intermittent generators while the total nominal power value of the whole system remains constant. On the other hand more immediate acting acceleration power produced by the turbine-generator-systems of the conventional power plants will disappear because of shut down of these plants and related loss of inertia. With the reduction of inertia not only the frequency deviation after disturbances will increase substantially but also with more oscillation occurs and causes reduction of system stability. Therefore, different methods and tools to simulate the power plant scheduling will be presented and illustrated under different scenarios of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) to check whether the system is stable or unstable.

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Mobile money usage in rural areas of Zimbabwe - case of Mudzi District[ ]


Mobile money is increasingly becoming popular in Zimbabwe. Availability of mobile money agents in rural areas is increasingly improving. This had dramatically simplified banking to the majority of the rural poor unbanked Zimbabweans. Consumers now enjoy much convenience offered by these mobile money services. However mobile money usage is still higher in urban areas than in rural areas although significant penetration levels can be witnessed. Most people in rural areas use mobile money more to receive money than any other service. About 69% of respondents in this survey have used mobile money. This figure shows a significant growth in mobile money usage. Convenience is the major driver to mobile money usage in rural areas. This survey was done in Mudzi and used face to face interviews as well as questionnaires. Financial services providers need to open more outlets in rural areas if they wish to reduce the unbanked population.

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Theoretical and Experimental Study for Hybrid Journal Bearing[ ]


Journal bearings are well known for their lowest wear rate and high damping coefficients under fully developed hydrodynamic lubrication mechanism. However, metal-metal contact at start/stop and low speed condition, causing bearing wear and excessive power loss, are major disadvantages of hydrodynamic bearing. Therefore, a concept of hybrid (hydrodynamic-permanent magnetic) bearing for the radial applied load has been developed. In such bearings the static load is taken by magnetic bearing and dynamic load by hydrodynamic bearing. However, due to the unstable nature of passive magnetic bearings and larger axial thrust compared to radial thrust emphasis for the requirement of extra subassembly and proper alignment compared to conventional bearings test setup. In the present work, using 3D Coulombian model, the radial and axial forces of a passive magnetic bearing for the given dimension having different arc length of the top stator magnet have been analyzed. To reduce the unstable force, the required axial offset was estimated. After obtaining the required configuration from the theoretical results, the hybrid bearing was developed. Experiments were performed on the preliminary developed experimental setup and the challenges faced for development of setup and problems faced after performing the experiment have been reported. A detailed investigation was carried out to overcome the problems and various solutions have been provided.

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Effect the Beam Section Shape for Different Materials on Buckling Load Using Finite Element Method[ ]


Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. So, this study focuses on finding the effect of the beam section shapeon buckling load using finite element software ANSYS R.15. The buckling loads for Rectangular (Rec.), U-channel (Uch.), Solid circle (Scir.) and Hollow circle (Hcir.) cross-section beams are calculated using Eigenvalue and Non-linear analysis for Carbon Steel, Titanium and Aluminum materials. A comparison made between the two methods and the different percentage is not exceeds of 0.27%. The results shows that the Buckling loads are strongly depend on the material properties and the beam shape geometry. Buckling loads are directly proportion with modulus of elasticity, thickness, outer to inner radius ratio and all beam geometry parameters except the beam length.

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Absorption studies of Creatinine using Kinetic Reaction method by optical Interference wavelength filter[ ]


Accurate measurement of Creatinine is very essential in order to pre diagnosis the renal functioning of human body. In this paper we introduced the measurement of creatinine by means of studing its equivalent absorption with the interaction of wavelength of light using kinetic reaction method with the help of photometer.

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Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Zinnia Elegans Leaves Ethanolic Extract[ ]


This study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract comparing with silymarine, as standard in rats. The data revealed a highly amounts of phenolic compounds (2.6mg/g d.w of plant), which significantly reflected an antioxidant scavening activity (88%) at 250ppm.The hepatoprotection activity of Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract (50, 100 and 125 mg/100g b.w) comparing with silymarine (0.2 g/kg b.w) against CCl4 toxicity when the Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract improved the AST, ALT and recovered the activity of kidney function by decreasing the urea and creatinine content on the other hand, the administration of Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract significantly suppress the oxidative stress via its direct scavenging against the reactive oxygen species under CCl4 stress. The results reported a decrease in the MDA, H2O2, NO accumulation and increase of GSH content. Finally the administration of Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract have been improved the lipid profiles, LDL and HDL recovered also, the administration of Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract significantly suppress the CCl4 toxicity via its activation of antioxidant enzymes (GST and SOD). The results showed that The Zinnia elegans leaves play an important role in the antioxidant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 toxicity.

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Relationship between Tourism Development and Sustainable Environmental preservation[ ]


In the broader sense, Tourism plays a major role in bringing the multinationals on one platform that cultivates understanding, develop good relationship and brings about love and harmony among the comity of nations. The whole world has now become a Global Village. The people’s tendency is to enlighten themselves by visiting various countries, see the peoples and their living conditions, civilization, culture and mode of living. Moreover, peoples are ambitious to refresh their minds, need change of climate, weather by visiting various countries and enjoy mixing up with the variety of the universe. Since the world has become a Global Village, the peoples have strong inclination and natural tendency to become closer. The electronic media, print media and publications of books on tourism have created in the mind of the peoples to come closer and see their behavior, colour and the way of living and their country’s weather conditions.

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Robotic Configuration for Paralyzed Swing Leg with Motion Captured Stance Hip Orientation[ ]


This research work explores an alternate approach toward generating strategies for developing dynamic motion planning for walking and training the paralyzed leg with a robot attached to the pelvis. The dynamic properties considered in this work are mass, center of gravity, moments of inertia of each link and the friction at each joint. The B-spline curves were used for the dynamic motion planning. The least square method is used to identify the dynamic properties after exciting the robot and collecting the data of joint positions, velocities, accelerations and applied forces. The joint trajectories are defined by B-spline polynomials along with a time-scale factor. A robot attached to the pelvis is employed to control the stepping motion of a paralyzed person suspended on a treadmill.

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