Volume 6, Issue 8, August 2015 Edition

Publication for Volume 6, Issue 8, August 2015.


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Production of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Polyethylene Composite for Ballistic Protection[ ]


Kenaf reinforced polyethylene composites for ballistic protection was produced in this work. The samples of alkaline treated and silane-coupled non-woven matted kenaf fibers were cut to the required dimensions and oriented vertically and horizontally in combinations with a virgin high density polyethylene (VHDPE). The composite panels were produced using Box-Behnken 3-variables settings. The following factors settings were used (molding temperature: 1600C to 2000C; molding time: 60minutes to 80minutes; fiber volume fraction: 10% to 30%) based on dry mass in a two-piece mild steel compression molding set. The pressure for heating and cooling was controlled at 12MPa. The responses as tensile and flexural values were determined and optimized. The composite sample of VHDPE ballistic test were blended based on the optimum settings of temperature: 2000C; molding time: 80minutes and fiber volume fraction:30%) and tested with Jojeff Magnum riffle gun. The mechanical and ballistic properties of the composite panel of VHDPE were determined. The studies revealed that fiber volume at 30% protected against Armor Level Protection Class of NIJ standard level III-A for VHDPE composite.

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Parameters influencing connecting rod: A Review[ ]


Connecting rod works as an intermediate link between piston and crankshaft. The function of connecting rod is to convert reciprocating motion into rotary motion. Since it is subjected to variable tensile and compressive load, it should be strong enough to bear that load. Manufacturing of connecting rod is one of the most important parameter that can affect the overall performance of connecting rod. Selection of connecting rod for good performance of engine is very difficult. There are various factors that are to be considered before selecting connecting rod, like type of engine, maximum rpm engine produces, requirement of relative weight, stiffness and strength of connecting rods, type of cross section like I-section, H-section, Rectangular or circular, material of connecting rod etc. After selecting the appropriate cross section, the material used in the connecting rod should be chosen wisely because during manufacturing process it has to undergo various production processes and subsequent heat treatment process, which is very much important for strength and stiffness. In this paper, a review has been attempted on selection parameter of connecting rod like cross section, manufacturing process and material selection which can enhance the performance of engine.

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An Efficient Approach for Classifying Intrusion using Fusion based HMM & Clustering[ ]


Intrusion detection system is a method of identifying unnecessary packets that may be creates some damage in the network; hence various Intrusion detection based methods are implemented to provide security in the network traffic flow. Here in this paper an efficient technique of identifying intrusions is implemented using the concept of hidden markov model and then classification of these intrusions is done. The methodology implemented here is applied on KDDCup 99 dataset where the data to be detected is first group some by using clustering approach so that the similar packets are grouped into one and the dissimilar packets are grouped into another. Now some of the important attributes are selected from the dataset and defined as the states of Hidden Markov Model and the probability is calculated from each of the state to other state and finally these probabilities are fused to find the overall probability of the dataset and hence on the basis of threshold probability packets can be classified as low and medium and high intrusions.

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Investigating the effect of ocean waves on gravity based offshore platform using finite element analysis software ANSYS[ ]


Finite element analysis (FEA) technology has become a very important tool for evaluating the structural integrity of massive and gigantic structures of which offshore platforms is an example. Modeling of offshore platforms has been challenging due to the complexity of structural designs and the large volume of elements used in the model.

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Survey of Risk in Software Project Development by Data Mining Tree Algorithms[ ]


The knowledge or technical skill have major role in software engineering. Correction and completion are necessary part in software coding and documentation. Every software has different quality according to the requirement of the software project. Mistaken bug is detected by software tracking system. Mistaken bug problem is a coverable problem and mentation in the problem report for correction. In this paper we proposed and analyzed three data mining tree algorithms find the geometric mean, J static coefficient parameter (for sensitivity and specificity),correctness, completeness, error rate of data object by the help of AD Tree, Lad Tree and REP Tree algorithms.

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Evaluating learning effectiveness in collaborative learning environment by using Multi-Objective Grey Situation Decision Making Theory[ ]


The learner’s learning effectiveness in group encourage each other to ask questions, explain, reasoning with opinions, and elaborate and response their knowledge. It also could enhance critical thinking, because learners could understand more diverse views by sharing different perspectives on a given problem. Collaborative asynchronous learning system could understand more diverse views, if it has the conditional data representation to the user based on the understanding level. For this, the attempt in this paper is to apply Multi-objective Grey Situation Decision Making theory (MGSD) on the collaborative online learning system for measuring the basic understanding level of learner and then accordingly presents the conditional content to the user. To evaluate preliminary learning level of the user in the collaborative environment, we considered multiple parameters of the learner like age, demographic profile, family profile, basic qualification and basic competency scale.

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Characterization of Lipolytic Microorganisms From Traditional Tanneries of Fez (Morocco)[ ]


This study led on the traditional tanneries of Fes aims at the characterization of the skins treatments stage. The most important of which are the one dropping of pigeons which by lipolytic effect of the microorganisms, would be at the origin of the skins degreasing and softening. The high lighting of the lipolytic microbial potential would be nil doubt mattering not only for the adoption of a method of non-polluting clean tanning of the environment but also for the unpublished biotechnological progress in the field of lipases application. The analysis of data collected further to the physic-chemical and microbiological characterizations in the various stages of tanning revealed the extreme character and the microbial wealth in this site. The pigeon’s droppings stage revealed three lipase producing yeasts. The kinetics of lipolytic activity for these yeasts with the biomass showed an important production of lipase in two phases suggesting the hypothesis of two synthesis lipases by the same yeasts.

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Algebraic Structure of Boolean and Cubic Graphs[ ]


T he concept of applying Group Theory on Graphs has been developed by many researchers in order to demonstrate very basic and important graph properties and establish the connections between groups and graph theory. This was carried out by many researchers such as Biggs [ 1 ], who studied graph theory with Algebraic terms. This gave some principles ideas of applications of Algebra on Graph Theory.

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Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thermal and Thermodynamical Properties of ThO2[ ]


Nuclear energy has become a very important source of energy, realising the low efficiency and low productivity of fossil fuels. The nuclear fission process generates heat which is further removed by the coolant and using steam and turbines, electrical energy is produced. And for a stable fission reaction, nuclear reactor design and fuel composition alongwith storage of spent fuel and its reprocessing need to be studied, both theoretically and experimentally (if possible). Molecular Dynamics Simulation is an atomistic approach towards predicting the behavior of materials using the classical equations of motion (Newton’s Laws of Motion). This paper showcases the close results produced by the simulation by using two inter-atomic potential set of parameters for ThO2. One is Buckingham potential and the other being Buckingham-Morse-Many Body potential. ThO2 based materials are important fuel for various reactor systems (conventional Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR), Advanced Heavy Water Reactors (AHWR)) owing to a number of neutronic properties. Hence, it clearly needs an experimental database of properties like melting point, density, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity in order to meet the fuel requirements. However, due to extensive as well as expensive safety precautions, not all the properties can be determined at every required temperature experimentally. Hence, classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) is an efficient simulation technique to obtain the same. It was observed that Linear Thermal Expansion parameter was predicted very accurately by both the potentials. Moreover, Melting Point as well as single crystal elastic constants’ prediction was very close to the experimental value.

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Investigation of Instructing Reforms in Databases[ ]


As the enlargement of database technology tools within the field of network communications and knowledge mining has created further projections and more views for information technologies and subsequently these information knowledge are thought of joined of the core technologies in data Technology. Thus, there's a great mandate from academic centers, business companies and marketplaces for extremely qualified experience in database areas. As a result, it's doubtless fundamental for academic analyses within the field of databases and education to conduct additional research works so to boost teaching, learning, and assessing strategies of database courses. This paper describes the salient properties of those database courses and highlights the challenges of conventional teaching/learning/assessing strategies of database courses at universities in Kurdistan generally. This paper provides comprehensive reformations to those challenges.

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Lateral Earth Pressure between two Parallel Rigid Retaining Walls[ ]


Parallel retaining walls are usually used for jetties, docks and cutoff walls. The lateral earth pressure is a significant design parameter in retaining structures and in number of foundation engineering problems. Retaining walls require quantitative estimate of the lateral pressure for either design or stability analysis. It is known that the distribution of lateral earth pressure against retaining walls is neither triangular nor linear owing to the effect of arching in the backfill. This paper presents experimental evaluation of the reaction induced by lateral earth pressure from granular soil contained between two parallel rigid retaining walls when the distance between the two walls is narrow.

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Optimized Strength Model of Cement-RHA-Laterite-Water Mix in Hollow Sandcrete Block[ ]


With the cost of cement and transportation of sandcrete aggregates in Nigeria increasing geometrically, designers now seek more locally available materials for constructing durable structures that still stand the test of time. This paper focuses on modeling and optimizing the compressive strength of a four component mixture of Cement, Rice Husk Ash, Laterite and Water in the production of hollow sandcrete block, at 67/33 Cement/RHA and 100% laterization. The study applies the Scheffe’s optimization approach to obtain a mathematical model of the form f(xi1,xi2,xi3,,xi4), where xi are proportions of the concrete components, viz: cement, RHA, laterite and water. Scheffe’s experimental design techniques are followed to mould various hollow block samples measuring 450mm x 225mm x 150mm and tested for 28 days strength. The task involved experimentation and design, applying the second order polynomial characterization process of the simplex lattice method. The model adequacy is checked using the control factors. A purpose-made software is prepared to handle the design computation process to take the desired property of the mix, and generate the optimal mix ratios.

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Study Magnetic Properties And Synthesis With Characterization Of Nickel Oxide (NiO) Nanoparticles[ ]


Nickel Oxide (NiO) nanopowder was obtained during a chemical method, which is a bottom up approach of synthesis. It was initially prepared via chemical synthesis of main materials were nickel acetate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and cety trimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB), and extremely stirring until the pH becomes 7.5, and nanoparticles of (NiO) are prepared by thermal decomposition of freshly prepared nickel hydroxide by a sol gel and followed by heat treatment at 350oC. Nickel oxide, a kind of soft magnetic materials is one of the most attracting class of materials due to its interesting and important properties and has many technical applications, such as in catalysis, sensors and so on. The characterization of (NiO) nanoparticles for structural properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphology of the prepared sample was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetization measurements were carried out on an Alternative Gradient Force Magnetometer (AGFM), which revealed saturation magnetization of the samples were strongly dependent on the calcinations temperature and particle size of the sample. The saturation magnetization values of the samples increased as a function of the calcinations temperature. Finally our results showed that the chemical synthesis method leads to obtain nickel oxide nanoparticles with good magnetic behavior.

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A Prototype of a Mobile-Based High Blood Pressure Patients’ Self Management System[ ]


This paper proposed a prototype of a mobile high blood pressure patients’ self management system. This is to leverage on the increasing Internet population coupled with the increasing population of people using mobile devices, and high speed broadband that will provide a better method to support the current approach to health care service delivery. The target groups are all individuals who have high blood pressure diagnosed and people that are prone to it but most importantly the younger generations who are not particularly oblivious of the health risk posed by high blood pressure. It is hoped that the management of patients with high blood pressure in developing countries of the world will achieve a better result by reducing mortality and increase awareness if the mobile technology with health information management applications that is fast gaining accessibility and availability is deployed and hence, the study.

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Degradation kinetics of Jet fuel A and Bunker C Oil in sandy soils: the effect of plant materials amendments and nutrients[ ]


In this work, the kinetics of the degradation of two petroleum hydrocarbon fraction (Jet fuel A (JFA) and bunker C oil (BCO)) in sandy soil was studied during winter and spring seasons of 2010. The effect of adding some plant materials with oxidative enzymes content (A Sativa, A Cepa, Brassica Rapa and Raphanus Sativus) as bulking agent as well as the addition of N and P nutrients upon the degradation process was also investigated. The results indicated that the kinetics for JFA degradation varied between first order equation (ln C= ln C0 – kt) for natural attenuation and in the presence of A Cepa and Raphanus Sativus minced roots. Zero order equation rate (C= C0 – kt) was obtained in the case of the addition of A Sativum and Brassica Rapa roots and in the application of commercial nitrate and phosphates fertilizers to the contaminated soil mixtures. The degradation rate for the heavier fuel oil fraction using minced root materials was better described by the zero order equation C = C0 – kt applying A Cepa to the soil mixtures. However, the biodegradation kinetics rates for A Sativum, Brassica Rapa and Raphanus Sativus followed the equation C = C0 – kt(0.2) based upon higher R2 values obtained. Overall, the applied four root materials achieved ≈ 90% reduction in JFA content while a maximum of 32% reduction of BCO was achieved using Raphanus Sativus root with and without nutrients.

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An In-vitro Study on Bacterial Susceptibility and Novel Resistance to Allicin[ ]


As one of the most popular vegetables, garlic has been used by many cultures as a natural cure for numerous health problems. Ranging from the ancient Israelites to our modern society, garlic’s effect on human health has been studied intensely. Used as an anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and an anti-parasitic medication by many civilizations millenniums ago, garlic is still used as a popular “folk remedy.” (Petrovska and Cekovska 106-110) Studies have shown that a particular compound in garlic called allicin possesses antibacterial qualities and has shown to be highly effective against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial efficacy of allicin against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, S. typhirium, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli, and examine whether bacteria undergoes mutagenesis to attain resistance to allicin. It was postulated that all bacteria tested would be sensitive to allicin, and that S. aureus would be the most inhibited, based on prior studies. Mutagenesis has never been recorded in response to allicin, but it was postulated that the bacteria would undergo mutagenesis to show resistance to allicin. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to determine antibacterial efficacy and extent of mutagenesis. Results were inconclusive about the antibacterial efficacy of allicin. Although some bacteria, including P. aeruginosa, were somewhat inhibited by allicin, others, including S. aureus, were not affected at all. Mutagenesis did occur in P. aeruginosa, as the zones of inhibition were remarkably different between control and mutated plates. Although allicin is undoubtedly an interesting compound with unique qualities, further studies must be done to truly examine its antibacterial efficacy.

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A Review of Testing Techniques and Principles in Software Quality Assurance Testing[ ]


To judge any software product it should completely free from errors, faults, bugs, and vulnerabilities that is, product should completely correct, complete, fit for use Nothing but it should satisfy all the internal, external requirements and should comply with the given functionalities then only anyone can judge the quality of the software product for these we have got plenty of tools which are entrepreneur and open source This paper describes Software testing techniques and importance of in engineering the software product and also tells about Software testing goals and principles. And also describes Software testing techniques and strategies. Finally it describes the difference between software testing and debugging.

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Dynamics and Servo Control of Biodiesel Purity from a Reactive Distillation Process[ ]


This research work has been carried out to study the dynamics and apply some techniques to perform set-point tracking (servo) control on the purity of biodiesel obtained from a reactive distillation process via the esterification reaction between palmitic acid and methanol reported in the work of Giwa et al. (2015). The model used for the study of the system was developed with the aid of System Identification Toolbox of MATLAB as a first order transfer function. The input variable of the process model was the reboiler duty of the column while its output variable was the mole fraction of biodiesel obtained from the bottom section of the reactive distillation column of the process. The open loop simulation of the developed model revealed that the system was a stable one because its response could attain a steady state when simulated. Furthermore, the closed loop responses obtained from the simulations of the process using proportional (P), proportional-integral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers tuned with Cohen-Coon and Ziegler-Nichols techniques showed that the best controller for the system was PID controller tuned with Ziegler-Nichols method because, apart from the graphical comparisons made among the various controllers and techniques, the integral absolute error (IAE) and the integral squared error (ISE) of that combination (PID controller tuned with Ziegler Nichols technique) were found to be the lowest, implying that that was the best for the process considered.

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Design and Finite Element Analysis of E-glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite Air Bottle used in Missile System: Experimental Validation[ ]


The objective of this paper was to design the air bottle used in military system and to validate the design using finite element analysis. The load bearing capacity of the air bottle was 40 MPa. The air bottle was made of E-glass/epoxy composite. The hoop and helical winding layer thicknesses were, respectively, 3.6 3.013 mm. Matrix splitting was occurred along the fibers. The fibers were broken when the air bottle was tested at a pressure of 60 MPa.

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Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Rosmarinus officinalis L and Acridicide Activity on Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunberg, 1815 in Morocco[ ]


This work aims to study the chemical composition of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis L. samples collected in spring in Moyen-Atlas (Morocco) and to test their insecticide activity on survival of the pest locust Dociostaurus maroccanus. These essential oils are characterized by the presence of 1,8-cineole (42,24%), α-pinene (16,31%), camphor (10.81%), sabinene (8,64%) and myrtenol (5,01%) as major compounds. Comparative analyses among plants collected in different countries evidenced 4 well defined chemotypes, associated to more or less extended territories. Our extract was active against locusts, as estimated by the determination of the LT50 (lethal time 50). LT50 obtained was around 2.25 days for females and 1.9 days in males. This effect can be attributed to one or several compounds of the extract. Given the high humidity of produced faeces, disturbance of water intake by rectum seems to be the most probable cause of mortality.

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The Effect of Variable Valve Timing on SIE Performance and Emissions[ ]


The present work deals with the overlap period variation effects; by changing the intake and exhausts valves open and close timings. The study focuses on the impact of this timing variation on engine performance and exhaust gases emission. The experimental work was conducted on the experimental single cylinder research engine SI engine type "Prodit”. The valve timings variation carried out by changing the clearance distance between the rocker arm and valve stem. Three valve overlaps (104Ëš, 108Ëš, and 112Ëš) investigated theoretically and experimentally.

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A Proposed Modification of Baseline JPEG Standard Image Compression Technique[ ]


Image compression is the transformation of image data in an arrangement to a more compressed form. The objective of image compression is to reduce redundancy of the image data in order to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form. It is used in many applications like broadcast television; remote sensing via satellite, aircraft, radar or sonar; teleconferencing; computer communications; and facsimile transmission and medical images storage for patient monitoring systems. JPEG is one of the most popular compression techniques in the field of image compression. It has both lossy and lossless image compression part. The baseline mode of JPEG standard is a lossy compression technique which is the most popular among baseline, progressive and hierarchical modes of lossy part. Though the compression performance in baseline JPEG standard is good but still it needs to be improved. In this paper, the baseline JPEG compression standard has been modified to increase the performance. The proposed modification is done in entropy coding where a well known encoding technique; the arithmetic coding technique has been used. The typical baseline JPEG standard and proposed baseline JPEG standard modification has been implemented and performance has been measured. The experimental data states that the performance of the proposed baseline JPEG standard modification better than the typical lossy baseline JPEG standard in terms of space savings though the compression and decompression time is higher.

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Experimental Investigation of the Thermodynamic Behavior of an API Standard Water Base mud[ ]


The behaviour of the drilling fluids under high temperature is extremely important for drilling deep wells. Most commercial oil base drilling fluid systems have limitations such as reduced rheology and filtration control if the fluid is exposed to higher temperature for prolonged periods of time. Formulating a drilling fluid system that can adequately withstand drilling in a high temperature environment is very challenging but very often little attention is given to proper fluids design. In this study, the effect of temperature (at constant pressure) on the rheological properties of water based mud was investigated. Furthermore, the conditions under which water based mud of certain composition fails were determined. The mud sample 8.6 ppg density, was prepared using a 350 ml of fresh water, 25 g of Bentonite and 0.6 g of Barite. The results of the tests performed showed that, the Viscosity drilling mud was decreasing with increasing temperature, Plastic viscosity of mud decreases with the increase in temperature, Gel strength decreases with increasing temperature until a temperature of 300 0F after which there is a general increase in gel strength, The yield point for Mud Sample was generally decreasing with temperature until a temperature of 300 oF at which the yield point dropped to a minimal value. This research work is aim at managing the challenges of changing in properties of a drilling fluid in high pressure and high temperature environment (Deep offshore).

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Efficiency Estimation of the Turbocharger Compressor Wheel[ ]


The paper is to discuss on turbocharger compressor wheel at different blade angles to find out the maximum efficiency of a turbo-charger at inlet blade angle β1 = 650,450 and 350 and studied the analysis of fluid flow phenomena over a compressor wheel of the turbocharger with the help of computational fluid dynamics (ANSYS-CFX).

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Studies on the Effect of Top Bar in Bond Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete[ ]


Self Compacting Concrete is well known for its strength and uniformity. The mechanical properties and bond strength at the steel –concrete interface of SCC varies with its varying mix design. The aim of this paper is to investigate on the bond strength of the top reinforcement and compare with the bond strength of bottom bars in both SCC and VC through pullout tests. For this SCC and VC of compressive strength 40MPa was designed and achieved through proper mix design procedures. The pullout specimen was designed as an integrated composite comprising of both pullout cubes and cubes for compressive strength test at five different levels. The study concludes that the bond transfer mechanism and the top bar effect in self compacting concrete are similar to that of vibrated concrete up to a 500mm height.

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Intelligent Text Extraction System for Complex Images[ ]


The Intelligent text extraction system automatically identifies and extracts the text present in different types of images. The growth of digital world Detection and extraction of text regions in an image are well known problems in the area of image processing. The growth of digital world and the usage of multimedia generated a new era with a classic problem of pattern recognition. Thus Automatic text extraction from images and videos serves an important role in indexing and efficient retrieval of multimedia. The existing techniques such as region based , texture based techniques for the text extraction are not able to compact with all the applications of text extraction. The proposed Intelligent Text Extraction system automatically identifies and extracts the text present in different types of images. The system consists of different stages which include the localization, segmentation, extraction and recognition of text from the images. In the proposed system we use the discrete wavelet transform for the localization of text. The morphological operations are used which enhances the identification of correct text portions. The text part is segmented and is recognized using an efficient system. The advantage of the system is that the extracted text is shown in the .txt file. The proposed system also allows the modification of the recognized text from the image. This method shows better efficiency , precision and recall compared to the existing techniques. This shows the possibility of using this technique in more new and advanced applications.

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Discrimination Resistant Privacy Preserved Data Mining[ ]


These Data mining is the process of analyzing and summarizing data and extracting some useful information. There are some negative issues related to data mining. Potential discrimination and potential privacy invasion are two important issues among them. Discrimination is the phenomenon of unfairly treating people based on their membership in some group or category. Automated data collection may lead the way to making automated decisions, like loan granting/denial, insurance premium computation, job granting/denial etc. So, antidiscrimination techniques such as discrimination discovery and prevention have been introduced in data mining. Mainly there are two types of discrimination, direct discrimination and indirect discrimination. Privacy Preserving Data Mining deals with protecting the privacy of individual data or sensitive knowledge. There are no studies developed yet to avoid discrimination and privacy invasion simultaneously. In this work, to avoid these issues the following methods are combined. The basic idea behind discrimination finding is to apply the rule mining algorithms on the given datasets. The measure of impact of the rules is found out using elift function; the measure may be used in algorithms for prevention of direct and indirect discrimination. A discriminative attribute may be protected using two methods- direct rule protection and rule generalization algorithms. Privacy preservation is carried out based on K anonymity algorithm. In K anonymity attributes are suppressed or generalized until each row is identical with at least k-1 other rows.

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