Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2016 Edition


Publication for Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2016.


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The Effect of the Electrostatic Field on The acid-base properties Of Indigo Carmine Indicator through Immobilization[ ]


The possibility of immobilizing the Indigo carmine indicator on the surface of quartz fibers to create a flow-through sensor was studied. The values of the pKa of the transition for free and immobilized indicator, and the effect of the ionic strength of the solution are determined. The results can be used for the development of flow-through sensors reversibly changing color depending on the pH of the solution.

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Advance Applications of Nanotechnology in Medicine[ ]


The various nanoparticles have been used for positive effect on human health. A large number of the medical projects are under emergent stage. Nanotechnology-based nanomedicine means tools and device are technically designed in such a way which can interact at the molecular level and enhance the therapeutic index of drugs with no side effect. It poses a broad range of application in drug delivery, protein detection, robotics, cancer and cardiac therapy, etc. which are described in detail. Treatment and diagnosis of cancer have been restricted due to their poor sensitivity and specificity respectively. Nanotechnology-based cancer treatment is being developed used for diagnostic purpose. Cancer chemotherapeutic drug is possessed high toxic potential cause adverse effect to the body. For example- hair loss, weight loss and reduce urine and sugar formation. By using nanotechnology, enhance the therapeutic index of cancer chemotherapeutic drug, their tolerability, and efficacy and suppress their toxic effect. It also enhances pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics as well as bioavailability and provides better safety profile. In this review, other modalities of different aspects are being discussed such as potential hazards of nanoparticle in addition to microbivores and nanosome, etc. Urothelial cancer is cancer occur in the urinary bladder.

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A REALISATION ON THE DEPLOYMENT OF SMART TRAFFIC LIGHTS WITH WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS IN AN EFFORT TO ENSURE SAFETY ON THE ROADS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA CAMPUS AREA [ ]


This paper provides a modelling and deployment approach to a traffic light system on The University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) campus for traffic flow control. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is added to the system to create a smart connected network of nodes to optimise traffic flow. Such a smart system can help speed up journeys of motorists which can also consequently reduce fuel consumption. Most importantly, a deployed smart signalling system can ensure safety on roads through the monitoring of vehicle movement, of which speed is of focus. Over the years, the amount of cars on the UNN campus area has drastically increased which exponentially increases the possibility of accidents in the area. A system that provides all the incentives a smart traffic light offers will highly be welcomed in the community of UNN. This paper, therefore, focuses on the initial modelling and deployment approach, where no existing infrastructure is in place, in installing a network architecture of traffic lights and a WSN on the UNN campus area. In essence, the approach in realising the signalling system is through the motion and path planning of a predetermined vehicle in determining the feasible locations traffic lights are to be deployed on the campus.This is achieved through the relevant equations that characterises the motion of the vehicle and the path it follows as it travels from source to destination. It is only through the defined site locations of the traffic lights that will determine the necessary deployment of WSNs on the relevant road network to efficiently monitor traffic flow for a safer road environment.

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Fast fashion Vs. Luxury fashion[ ]


There is a different between fast fashion and luxury fashion brands on the way of process, produce and manage their business, and they have many effects on their businesses, the public, their working force, the environment and each other. I think luxury fashion brands are doing fine, and they can reach a larger number of customers by finding a way to reduce their prices. On the other hand although that fast fashion brands are helping many people to feel fashionable in some way by getting lower prices, the way they affecting the environment is not acceptable, and they need to care about their supply chain and their impact on the society and the environment.

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HOW TO MOTIVATE MEDICAL SCHOOL STUDENTS[ ]


This paper investigates what motivation means and what factors influencing leaners’ motivation in general and medical students’ in particular. The paper explores empirical and theoretical research studies that examine medical students’ motivation, the types and sources of motivation, and causes of lack of motivation. The paper highlights major theories and views of motivation. The research found that the psychological motivation for medical student learning is determined by internal and/or external factors. The results indicated that medical students are inherently motivated yet may experience events and situations that adversely affect their motivation. Whether intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, medical students must maintain and strengthen their motivation and medical educators and professionals should support them taking into consideration factors that can be manipulated, such as providing and encouraging autonomy, rewards, feedback, assessments, self-efficacy, in addition to adopting educational method, including problem-based learning curriculum.3

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Purification of Acid Phosphatase from Wheat Germ[ ]


Acid phosphatase is a type of enzyme, used to free attached phosphate groups from other molecules during digestion. Three different forms of acid phosphatase have been isolated from wheat germ by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Slightly different molecular weights were determined by SDS gel. The activity of the enzyme was assayed using a spectrophotometer at different Ph.

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Elaboration of a new method in the science of decision[ ]


In this article, we discuss a preliminary study on the scientific field of decision support; it aims to use the most suitable tool to improve the efficiency in implementing necessary changes in order to increase production. For this, we intend to start with a classification of workshop equipment using the Pareto chart to determine which elements introduce the most downtime based on the number of hours of stops. The histogram is based on the empirical law of 80/20, i.e. 20% of the causes often explain up to 80% of the problem. Then we will redo the classification of these devices using our CBA diagram, which sorts the performance indicator in the opposite direction from that of Pareto. An algorithm that gathers both Pareto and CBA methods to make the best decision to increase the rate of productivity will be presented at the end of the document.

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Numerical evaluation of the effect of soil type on the behavior of underground structures against explosion[ ]


This paper presents a 3D numerical investigation on explosion response of underground structures. Analysis of the behavior of structures against explosion is very essential. Design philosophy of protective structures against explosion is minimizing possible damages. Exploitation underground structures is one of the popular method to preserve strategic structures, so that understanding the behavior of soil under blast loading is very important to engineers in tunneling and military construction. In this study, a two-story structure with reinforced concrete walls and slabs that constructed underground has been studied. The soil using as an absorber to improve the performance of structures against explosive load by absorbing the released energy from explosion. Considered structure has been modeled by finite element software (ABAQUS). In numerical simulation different amounts of explosive charges and different locations have been considered. Two types of soil including clay and sandy soil have been used. The results revealed that the sandy soil has greater ability to dissipate energy of explosion in comparison with clay. The strain and displacement response have been compared and depicted that the sand-underground structure has better behavior than the clay-underground structure and has less displacement. Also the results revealed the stresses of sand-underground structure are less than stresses of the clay-underground structure.

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Wearable Devices-FitBit[ ]


The paper explains the wearable devices and how it works and how it connects. Also, the paper focuses on the security issues.

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Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Sawdust as Aggregate[ ]


This paper reports on experimental investigations on the effect of replacing sand with sawdust on the properties of concrete. A concrete mix of 1:2:4 was used as control while sawdust was used to replace 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of sand by volume. The percentage reduction in density are 5.96%, 12.44%,13.56% and 17.93% respectively while the corresponding percentage reduction in compressive strength were 57.5%, 68.1%, 83.7%,and 87.3% respectively. The results of the study indicate that both the density and compressive strength of concrete decreased as the percentage replacement increased but replacement of sand by sawdust produced a higher percentage reduction in compressive strength than in density. Sawdust can potentially be used as aggregate in the production of both non-structural lightweight concrete and structural concrete. However, further research should be conducted to establish its suitability as aggregate in concrete

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A Survey and Morphological Studies of Members of the Family Moraceae in Selected Areas of Benue State, Nigeria[ ]


A study was carried out to determine the taxonomic spread of the family Moraceae in selected areas of Benue State between May, 2012 and December, 2014. The selected areas are namely: Agan forest Reserve in Makurdi Local Government Area, Ikwe wildlife Resort in Gwer-east Local Government Area, and Leke Forest Reserve in Konshisha Local Government Area. Also, the morphological characters of the members of the family found were recorded. A total of eight (8) plant species belonging to two tribes of the Family Moraceae were recorded in the study areas ( Ficeae and Artocarpae). Of the eight (8) plant species of the Moraceae recorded, seven(7) belonged to the Tribe Ficeae. These were: Ficus exasperata, Ficus ingens, Ficus platyphylla, Ficus polita, Ficus sur, Ficus thonningii, Ficus trichopoda, and only one species belonged to the Tribe Artocarpae. This was Artocarpus heterophyllus. The density of specific species of Moraceae varied. Ficus sur was the most dominant species in all the three sites with the highest number of thirty (30) stands at Agan Forest Reserve, followed by 25 stands at Leke Forest Reserve and 24 stands at Ikwe Wildlife Resort. Ficus thonningii was second to Ficus sur with Ikwe Wildlife Resort having the highest number (30 stands), followed by those found at Agan Forest Reserve (28 stands), and lastly those found at Leke Forest Reserve (26 stands). Artocarpus heterophyllus had the least number of 7 stands at Ikwe Wildlife Resort only. There was no significant difference between the density of specific species in the three study areas at p= 0.05

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A Comparative Study between Vector Control and Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Using Optimal Controller[ ]


This paper presents a comparison between two famous control strategies for induction motors: Field Oriented Control (FOC) and Direct Torque Control (DTC). These two strategies are Vector Control (VC) methods and provide a solution for high-performance drives. These strategies are implemented using an induction motor with ratings of 300W, 380V and 50Hz. The motor parameters are estimated using laboratory tests. From simulation results the advantages and disadvantages of both methods are investigated to illustrate the features of both methods. The performances of the two control schemes are evaluated in terms of torque, current ripples and transient responses to load toque variations.

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Assessment of Noise Pollution in Hyderabad city, Sindh, Pakistan[ ]


Hyderabad is second largest city in Sindh province of Pakistan. In recent years, rising level of transportation such as tempos, rickshaws, four wheelers, two wheelers and heavy vehicles is one of the major source of noise pollution that impact the quality of life across the city. In the present study, noise levels were measured in different areas of Hyderabad city viz., commercial, residential, and silence area on different time and date by using Sound Level Meter SL- 4010. The highest noise level was recorded at commercial and residence area City Gate Hotel (88 114.4 dB), (80.0 110.0 dB at Bhitai Town; 85.1- 103.2 dB at Tower Market. The results show that sound levels are much higher than the standard sound level (55-75dB) for the residence and commercial area respectively, which is considered a hazard of noise, may induce hearing loss, headache, annoyance and other adverse effects on the health of the residence and shopkeepers. Various mitigation measures have been taken by Environment Protection agency (EPA), Sindh, Pakistan to keep the noise level within the prescribed standards.

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Spline interpolations besides Orskov model widely used in in vitro gas production[ ]


In this study, for the curve of in vitro gas production, three spline interpolations, which are alternative models passing through exactly all data points, with compare to widely used Orskov model applied to the data of in vitro gas production, were discussed. These models are linear spline, quadratic spline and cubic spline. The curves of in vitro gas production of spline interpolations and widely used Orskov model were shown on the same graph. Thus, these differences have been observed. The estimates for some intermediate values were done by using spline interpolations and Oskov model. Due to spline interpolations, the estimates of intermediate values could be made more precise. By using spline interpolations, the investigator is shown to obtain new ideas and interpretations in addition to the information of the well-known classical analysis

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EDIBLE HIDE (GANDA)[ ]


A cross sectional study was undertaken to determine Physico-chemical characteristics of edible hide popularly called Ganda or ponmo, Ganda samples were tested and found to contain about 58.86% Crude protein, 34.93% Moisture, 5.00% Ether Extract and 1.21% Ash. Of all attributes, with the exception of density, weight and area were not significantly affected by retail cuts, while Small and medium retail cuts were similar (p>0.05) in terms of weight, volume and area (p<0.05). The cost components of Ganda in terms of cost per weight, per volume, cost per geometric volume are similar (p>0.05).

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A COMPARISON OF FIVE POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION METHODS FOR BILIGIHOLE WATERSHED IN WESTERN GHATS OF INDIA[ ]


Evapotranspiration is an important component in water-balance and irrigation scheduling models. While the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method has become the de facto standard for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo), it is a complex method requiring several weather parameters. Required weather data are oftentimes unavailable, and alternative methods must be used. Four alternative ETo methods, the Hargreaves, Turc method, Makkink method and Preistley-Taylor method were evaluated for use in Biligihole watershed with the available data using only measurements of air temperature. The Hargreaves equation, developed for use with measured temperature was tested and found to provide better estimates of FAO-56 ETo than the other methods.

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A Review on: Various Methods of Detecting and Preventing Wormhole Attack[ ]


Mobile Ad Hoc Network are based on wireless networks composed of set of nodes that can communicate and are capable of moving. In this paper we present a survey on different wormhole detection technique. These issues are very important to secure the network .wormhole attacks are dangerous attacks we also studied about the different properties of the attack. Also briefly discussed bout the techniques used to detect the wormhole attacks occurring in the network and then compared the all the methods to one another so that a new effective method is formed. This study aims to combine some method to modify the existing method

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Prevalence and conditions responsible for food contamination: a review[ ]


Food and food products may be altered by different contaminants like micro-organisms, chemicals, natural toxins and foreign matter. Food provides an ideal nutritional source for micro-organisms and generally creates an excellent environment for proliferation of these micro-organisms includes virus, bacteria, mould and parasites. Contamination from chemical sources can also occur through accidental mixing of chemical supplies. The use of various chemicals such as food additives, pesticides, veterinary drugs and other agro-chemicals can also pose risk if such chemicals are not properly regulated or appropriately used. Most of the food poisoning incidents occurs as a result of mishandling of food like keeping/storing at inappropriate temperature, incorrect re-heating, and cross contamination. Food may be contaminated during production, processing, preparation and handling. Different type of preventive programs should be used to ensure food safety and quality of processed foods like GMPs, SSOPs, HACCP etc. and other preventive measures are also needed to apply all the way from farm to table.

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IMPACT OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATOR IN POWER SYSTEM NETWORK[ ]


With the increased demand for power, the complexity, cost and power loss in the electrical transmission lines will be increased. In addition, the voltage in areas away from generation there will be less for the allowable value. Distributed generation reduces the transmission losses by power generation close to loads. The presence of distributed generators (DG) in the electrical network is an important effect on power losses and voltage profile. This effect cannot be described as beneficial or harmful but it is dependent on the allocation and size of DG on each distribution network section. There are many methods to determine the best location of the distributed generators in distribution network. Artificial intelligence One of these methods. This paper presents a simple method for investigating the problem of Schering to find best location and size of (DG) for reducing power losses subjected to constraint of voltage regulation in distribution network to improve the voltage profile of the system and minimize power losses. Also, this paper compare between two methods to determine the optimal location of (DG). The suggested technique is programmed under MATLAB and MATPOWER software. The results Obtained show that DG can reduce Electrical Power losses and improving voltage profile of the system which is depends on the optimal Location and appropriate size.

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NATURE-BASED DESIGN THEORY[ ]


We as a human being spent most of our time inside buildings that separate us from the outside nature. We practice most of our activities inside buildings as homes, schools, malls, coffee shops, and hospitals. Have you ever wondered why you so feel sleepy and exhausted in class that has four walls from the ceiling to the floor? This paper will answer your question by explaining the nature-based design theory that improves the environment of the classroom. Also, the paper provides some design considerations and ideas that help incorporate the design theory in the interior space.

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Load Functions on the Cantilever Beam Carrying Structure and its Clamps[ ]


This paper via diagrams shows the load functions on both clamps of the working wheel’s carrying structure in a rotating excavator working under concrete working conditions, and the load functions on the most loaded truss joint of this carrying structure. The load functions apply during the total exploitation lifetime of the excavator. As for the clamps, they are indicative of the change in the axial force of tension depending on the time, whereas for the most loaded truss joint they are indicative of the change in the forces at the constituent trusses of the joint, which forces may be tension forces or pressure forces depending on the external load of the truss.

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Numerical simulation of Gas Turbine Blade Cooling[ ]


This study is a numerical investigation of the effect of hole inclination angle and blowing ratio on film cooling effectiveness of elliptical fixed blade surface. The study was conducted on, (I-R MT250) gas turbine data, with 0.7 mm hole diameter, hole injection angles (from 300 to 900) with the horizontal and blowing ratio (from 0.3 to 1.3). Commercial software Comsol multi physics, with use of finite element method, is used for solving a set of RANS equations and (K-?) turbulence model also is used. The velocity of hot gases is remaining constant during the investigation, but the coolant velocity was varied on the blowing ratio variation. The hot gases flow is inclined by150 with horizontal at coolant exit. During the study the effect of film cooling layer and mixed coolant-hot gas on reducing the heat transfer between blade surface and main stream was studied. At low and moderate blowing ratios, the results showed an increase in effectiveness, when hole inclination angles increased (from 300 to 600). At higher blowing ratio and an increase in inclination angle more than 600, leads to drop film cooling effectiveness down. Maximum film cooling effectiveness achieved at inclination angle 600 with horizontal, and minimum film cooling effectiveness at 900 with the horizontal.

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Dynamic Strain of Diaphragm Spring on Vehicles Friction Clutches Depending on the Spring Angle[ ]


One of the major parts of motor vehicles is the clutch. It is mechanical assemblies built between the engine and transmission that with friction transfers torque from the drive part to the working part (engine gearbox and other transmission). Diaphragm spring as one of the main parts of the clutch creates pressure force of the clutch, where the spring’s quality is affected by many structural and technological factors. Here it will consider only one of the structural factors, the diaphragm spring angle.

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SOME RESULTS ON n-EDGE MAGIC LABELING –part 2[ ]


[2,3,4,5] defined and some results of 0-edge magic labeling and , [7] defined 1-edge magic labeling and [6] defined for n- edge magic labeling for path, cycle. In this paper extended n –edge magic to Ladder graph , Friendship graph, Armed Crown graph, G = Pt+1 ? K1,t , Splitting graph, Prism Graph, Web graph. And find the order and size of n-edge magic labeling of graphs.

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Ferrocement: A Modern Technology with its Application in Water Resource Department (WRD)[ ]


Maharashtra Recently faced the draught situation in many districts.

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THE AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF SOME SELECTED INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FACILITIES AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CHEMISTRY TEACHERS IN KOGI STATE[ ]


The study appraised the availability and utilization of the information technology (IT) gadgets/facilities among the senior secondary school teachers in Kogi State. A survey design was used for the study and the sample consisted of one hundred and eighty-four (184) chemistry teachers drawn from one hundred and five (105) senior secondary schools in Kogi State. Data was collected using teacher’s questionnaire tagged availability and utilization of information technology gadgets for teaching chemistry (AUITGTC). Frequencies and Simple percentages were used to analyse the research questions, while hypothesis was tested with t – test at 0.05 alpha level. The result showed that IT gadgets/facilities are not available in most of the Senior Secondary Schools and that most chemistry teachers do not utilize even the few available IT gadgets/facilities in teaching. It was also found that there was no significant difference between male and female chemistry teachers in their level of utilization of IT gadgets/facilities. Based on the low availability and utilization of the IT gadgets/facilities in the schools, recommendations were made that, government and non – governmental organisations should make efforts to furnish the senior secondary schools with IT gadgets/facilities and chemistry teachers should utilize them in teaching chemistry among others.

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FIBROUS HIGH STRENGTH CEMENT CONCRETE BY USING FLY ASH[ ]


Cement production is causing atmospheric pol¬lution in many ways. Efforts to replace the consumption of cement by using mineral admixtures as partial replacement are quite significant and desirable in this regard. In the pres¬ent paper, High strength concrete mix like M60 is taken as basic reference mix. High strength is carried out by using fly ash at various percent¬ages as replacement to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and CONPLAST SP 430 chemical at various percentages add in water content. FIBRES are added to enhance the strength properties further.

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IT&C Organizations Particularities[ ]


In this paper we introduce the concept of organization and we refer to the particularities of IT&C ones. For a better understanding of the the complex concept represented by IT&C, it requires to understand the terms like: information, technology, communication and information technology.

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Modelling of DC Properties of graphite/polymer composite Prepared in Bulk and Membrane Forms[ ]


Graphite/IIR composites were prepared in both bulk and membrane forms. The insulator – conductor transition was studied according to the percolation theory where three different models were tested. It was found that only Fournier equation achieved the best fitting for all samples and also that the value of critical volume fraction of filler fc has increased with temperature for all samples. Also, the dependence of conductivity on temperature was studied, where it was found that samples loaded with graphite contents less than the percolation threshold exhibited higher positive temperature coefficient of conductivity (PTC).

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SOLID DESICCANT ASSISTED HYBRID AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM[ ]


In the present scenario of “green” and “sustainable” HVAC design approaches and solutions, integrated & hybrid system design is one of the most preferred technique that are important for achieving good indoor air quality with respect to thermal comfort and energy efficiency. In this paper, design & development of experimental setup of hybrid air-conditioning system is carried-out and the results are analyzed and compared with the conventional VCRS based air-conditioning system. It is observed that, hybrid air-conditioning system can handle the latent load very efficiently without burdening the total load over the cooling coil of air-conditioning system. The cop of the hybrid system was found to be 1.13. The conventional vapour compression based air-conditioning system consumes high grade electricity power. Under high ventilation loads or low sensible heat ratio conditions, the conventional system is not designed to handle the continuous supply or increased volume of outdoor air necessary to comply with minimum ventilation standards as recommended by ASHRAE.

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Embedded based Signal Filtration using LabVIEW[ ]


This paper represents the filtration process of a sinusoidal signal using Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) and Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Compiler. The system functions on both hardware as well as software. The hardware includes NI PXIe-1075 and the software as LabVIEW. The hardware consists of various chassis which involves controlling, amplifying, up-converting, down-converting and a baseband transceiver system. The software used is LabVIEW software in both FPGA and RT environment. Both hardware and software are being interfaced through an Ethernet cable for the medium of data transfer. The process involves generation of a target and a host in LabVIEW software for signal filtration and later dumping into the hardware to observe the filtered output. The whole system is performed in order to eliminate unwanted signal from that of the original ones. It can be very much effective for the reliable mode of communication in a wireless channel.

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OPNET BASED SIMULATION FOR RURAL EDUCATIONAL ICT CONNECTIVITY[ ]


Rural areas are geographically distributed and if educational programs for such areas are to provide reasonable exposure, accessibility technological means has to be considered. There has to be an existing or planned infrastructure that could empower these educational programs to be conveyed. A major obstacle apart from the lack of infrastructure is the topography of the areas under consideration, which is a hilly terrain that tends to be a hindrance for communication companies to invest. This paper looks into deploying the information and communication needs for the majority of rural areas in Enugu State surrounding Nsukka in order to enhance education and economic growth. Educational programs for the rural areas cannot by themselves spread to all the communities under consideration. By analysing the topography via Google maps and verifying Line of Sight through Radio works, a WiMAX network solution to link the rural areas is simulated using OPNET.

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Analyzing Gas Cylinders Changing Processes[ ]


This study provides a comprehensive analysis of a repetitive and a common job around the world which is changing gas cylinders. Changing a gas cylinder by a worker in a gas station could lead to back pain and fatigue. To improve the present method being used by the operators, we have to apply principal techniques of Work Study such as Method Study. After using various work study techniques, we were able to reduce the task time by 38 seconds which could yield a hug result on the workers health and productivity.

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Analyzing Genzyme’s Strategy of Focusing on Orphan Drugs[ ]


Genzyme Corporation is a biotechnology company that focuses on rare disorders and inherited diseases. It was established in 1981 by a group of scientists in Boston, Massachusetts. In 2011, Genzyme was acquired by the French company Sanofi for $20 billion which was perfect for Genzyme because it allowed it to innovate freely without the pressure of large corporations. The company should keep focusing on the orphan drugs market and expand to more countries in the future to dominate the market further. Genzyme current success placed it in a powerful position where it can direct the market according to its needs. Therefore, the company could try to strike exclusive deals with insurance companies to protect its position in the market.

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Performance of Mobile Learning System Based on Triple Play[ ]


The development in the mobile computing lead to development of small and portable mobile devices can be used in our daily life. Also the increment in wireless networks technology make these devices more appropriated to use in different fields such socialization, banking, controlling , education, etc. In this paper we proposed mobile learning system aims to enhance learning aspects by using triple play services as a mean to delivering multimedia learning content including audio, video and data to the end users (students) by using wireless channels. The system is implemented by using open source framework combined of PHP, MySQL, WebRTC and ImageMagick that give the system flexibility and compatibility in the design adaption where the system is designed in modular architecture which allow changes in individual modules or subsystem without direct effect on other modules and subsystems. The system was tested and the performance is evaluated results over wireless channels.

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An Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Selected Dug Wells in Vavuniya Urban Council Limit through Water Quality Index[ ]


An assessment conducted in Vavuniya urban council limit from dug well water sample, the particular council consists nine Girama Niladhari Divisions. This study was assessed selected physio-chemical and biological parameters such as pH, electric conductivity, total suspended solids, total hardness, fluoride, nitrate, nitrate nitrogen, iron, free chlorine and total coli form in 90 dug well water. Totally six Girama Niladhari Division zone water quality index is below 50. This means the water quality is good. Other four Girama Niladhari Division zones water quality index are 92, 64, 63 and 58 respectively. This indicates the water quality is poor. The major reason for lowering water quality is the presence of fecal coli form, which is exceeded its allowable level.

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Investigation of Phase Transformation Mechanism of High Manganese Steel Mn15Cr2 Heat-treated by Subzero Temperature Process[ ]


This article presents the results of research on the mechanism of phase transformation of high manganese steel after heat treatment, impact and subzero temperature process. The results of stacking fault energy calculation showed value of stacking fault energy after heat treatment is 28.74mJ.m-2; after subzero temperature process at -800C is 28.55mJ.m-2. The results of the analysis by SEM, TEM found that no martensite; only twinning and sliding strip. Also in the microstructure has small Cr7C3 carbide particles finely dispersed in microstructure. Hardness values of sample after subzero temperature process is smaller than that in untreated sample.

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Programmatic Change Programs within the Organization[ ]


This paper will discuss the reasons why programmatic change programs do not lead to the desired change. Therefore, managers need to understand the nature of their business in order to make an effective change.

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Numerical solution of fractional integro-di erential equations by least squares method and shifted Laguerre polynomials pseudo-spectral method[ ]


In this paper, we investigate the numerical solution of linear fractional integro-di erential equations by least squares method with aid of shifted Laguerre polynomial. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

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