Volume 13, Issue 9, September 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 9, September 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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Evaluation of Reconstructed City using the criteria of Sustainable Cities []

In coming years, the majority of the world's population will be living in cities. Therefore, societies will need to create cities that can intelligently meet the demands of present and future generations. The concept of sustainable development of cities is very crucial in developing countries especially Pakistan which is also facing a population explosion, and which will be more intense in the coming years. The goal of this study is to examine Mingora City's physical and social environment, which has a direct impact on health, as well as the planning and delivery of sustainable development, which necessitates an integrated approach to create a healthy and social environment, which is an important characteristic of vibrant and sustainable cities. Improving the physical and social environment in poor areas benefits not just the residents' health but also reduces inequities within the city. The main objectives of the research are to analyze the historical traces of Mingora City and its patterns, Mingora City after reconstruction and to analyze the reconstructed Mingora City using the criteria of sustainable cities. In this research, principles of sustainable cities were explored for the selection and evaluation of case studies to be carried out. Furthermore, it will identify and analyze the existing situation of Mingora City's transportation distortion.

Equivalance in the translation process []

Translators try to make translations suitable for particular readers. Literary translators, during the translation process, strive to achieve "equivalence" at one or more levels of translation. It must be admitted, however, that the notion of equivalence is undoubtedly one of the most problematic and controversial areas in the field of translation theory. The term has caused, and it seems quite probable that it will continue to cause, debates within the field of translation studies. This term has been ana-lyzed, evaluated and extensively discussed from different points of view and has been approached from many different per-spectives. Some theorists explain that the translator must take into account the problematic nature of the term and the fact that producing a completely equivalent to the source text is quite impossible. Some others examine literary translation as both a reproductive and a creative work, which aims at the same aesthetic effect. "Completely equivalent" translation is not possible because switching from one language to another inevitably brings about changes. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the theory of equivalence as interpreted by some of the most innovative theorists in this field as Nida and Taber, Catford, House, Baker etc. These theorists have studied equivalence in relation to the translation process, using different approaches, and have provided fruitful ideas for further study on this topic. Moreover, some examples are provided to illustrate better some specific concepts which impose problems to the translators during translation process. Index Terms— Equivalence, translation, source language, target language, production, translator, meaning.

Transport Safety Analysis in Pamatata Port Viewing from the Feasibility of the Ship and the Quality of Human Resources []

Transportation is crucial because it opens the door to isolation by connecting remote regions with more developed places. These regions are located far from the hub of economic activity. Competent facilities, network systems, and human resources are required to support effective transportation. Without these two elements, it is impossible to provide transportation services, particularly ferry transportation, in a secure, comfortable, and effective manner. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the output, ship condition, and human resource quality at the Pamatata crossing or port. The study's findings are evident. 1. Passenger ship capacity to and from the port of Pamatata is reportedly adequate. In comparison, fewer automobiles can be transported at the port than can be transported from the port of Bira to the port of Pamatata Selayar. 2). Only 16.7% of Pamatata Port's personnel are qualified for work in the shipping industry, which is a low percentage and endangers maritime security. Keywords: Safety, competence, Human Resources


Carbon exchanges between the land and the atmosphere are significant in the case of global warming. Trees with high carbon sequestration potential thus play a significant role in capturing the CO2, which contributes to global warming. The present study attempts to identify and document the carbon sequestration potential of trees on the Vimala College (Autonomous) Campus and to analyze their efficiency in sequestering carbon. In this study, 40 kinds of species from 20 families were identified on the campus through a field survey. The amount of CO2 in the standing woody biomass of selected trees was calculated using a non-destructive method. Bambusa vulgaris are found to have the highest Carbon sequestration potential whereas Callistemon citrinus is found to have the lowest CO2 sequestration potential. The study also put forward the sequestration model for urban areas and urban campuses.

Women Smallholder Farmers Access to Agricultural Extension Services; Challenges And Prospects. A Case Study of the Builsa South District of the Upper East Region of Ghana. []

Agriculture does not only serve as an important source of rural livelihoods in the Builsa South District and for that Ghana but also makes vital contributions to the country’s economy. Rural women are major agricultural producers especially at the household level where they are seen as backbone of the family. Despite their recognition in their role in the agricultural sector, the study revealed they have least access to agricultural extension services with 55% access being average, 23% indicating low access and 22% having high access to extension services. There are many constraints which are being faced by smallholder women farmers in getting access to extension services (IFPRI, 2020). To explore challenges women face in accessing agricultural extension services in the Builsa South district, the research adopted a convenient sampling technique in the selection of the study respondents. Data was collected over two week’s period in the month of July, 2021 from 150 women small holder farmers. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used and analysis was done by using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (PSS) software. The results showed that women farmers’ access to agricultural extension services was limited. Among different challenges which hinder women’s access to agricultural extension services were cultural constraints, low literacy levels among women, non-availability of female extension staff in agricultural extension departments, lack of local women organizations, violence against women, limited access to credit facilities, less control over resources, social structure, and limited access to market information, mobility and lack of self-confidence. Based on the findings, the study concluded that for women to make meaningful contributions in increasing agricultural productivity it is necessary that more Agricultural Extension Services (AES) be provided to women farmers and their accessibility increased. Women will also be required to work in groups and seen leading the process of accessing extension services from Department of Agricultural Development Unit (DADU). Similarly, the study further suggests for a strong advocacy movement for government and non-government development partners to train community extension agents who can support DADU in extension delivery. Communities will need to be empowered to lead their own development efforts in a more holistic and comprehensive manner. To this end, the study recommended the need for emphasis to be placed on women extension agents so as to be able to address the gender, cultural and social barriers associated with extension services.

The Artificial Intelligence Role in COV-19 Diagnosis []

The pandemic of COV-19 sickness 2019 (Coronavirus) is spreading from one side of the planet to the other. Clinical imaging, for example, X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), is critical in the global fight against the coronavirus; however, as of late, emerging artificial consciousness (artificial intelligence) technologies enhance the power of imaging technology and aid clinically educated specialists. As a result, we examine the local responses of clinical imaging (assisted by artificial intelligence) to the coronavirus. This research proposes an Artificial Intelligence-based solution to combat the virus. Some "DL (Deep Learning) approaches, such as GANs (Generative Antagonistic Organizations)", "ELM (Extreme Learning Machine), and LSTM (Long/Short Term Memory)", have been used to achieve this aim. In this study, the clinical approach of "machine learning and deep learning" in the detection of coronaviruses includes clinical attributes, electronic clinical records, and CT, X-ray, ultrasound, and so on (like clinical images). The current difficulties and future points of view given in this survey can be utilized to coordinate an optimal organization of computer-based intelligence innovation in a pandemic.

Innovative Geothermal Assessment of Akiri – Azara and Environs for Power Generation as a source of Clean Energy in Nigeria []

Geological and hydrological studies across Akiri – Azara , Nigeria was done to identify potential areas with viable thermal resources. The results of the study reveals that the warm springs, Akiri- Awe have their thermal resources as hyper thermal, and thermal, with no hypothermal evidence. Only warm springs with hyper thermal and thermal resources are viable for the electricity generation. The temperature of the springs at the time of measurement was found to ranged from (54-32.7)ºC . The spectral analysis was carried out on the bouguer of the gravity anomaly data of the study areas. Results of spectral analysis for study area revealed the occurrence of geothermal parameters: Curie point depth varied between 7.39 to 20.71 km, geothermal gradient varied between 28.01 to 78.48 °C/km and heat flow values varied between 70.29 to 197.99 mW/m2. A recommended threshold value of heat flow for a good source of geothermal energy is set at 80 to 100 mW/m2. These ranges of values can be observed between the light blue colours depicted within southern regions of the heat flow contour map. Values of heat flow above the stated range is considered as excess, however, the entire study area with exception of the extreme Southern parts can be considered in locating potential geothermal reservoirs. The shallow curie depths with corresponding heat flow are observed around the Akiri and Awe hot springs. The observed anomalies geothermal conditions can be attributed to the intense Cenozoic magmatic activities with numerous volcanic intrusions within the Benue trough.


This paper focused on the realities of epidemic control in developing economics: prospects, challenges and sustainable solutions. The report disclosed how developing economies have managed epidemics, controlled disease outbreaks, tackled challenges and proffered sustainable solutions to the challenges. The paper also discussed controlled measures such as anticipation of new and re-emerging diseases to facilitate faster detection and response; followed by early detection of emergency in animal and human populations; containment of the disease at the early stages of transmission; followed by the control and mitigation of the epidemic during its amplification; and the elimination of the risk of outbreak or eradication of the infectious diseases.

Determinants of College Principal’s Distributive Leadership Practices and Challenges in TVET: In Case of Hadiya zone, Hosanna Polytechnic College []

This study aims to investigate the Determinants of College Principal’s Distributive Leadership Practices and Challenges in TVET by taking Hadiya zone, Hosanna Polytechnic College as a Case Study. Specifically, it helps to investigate the constraints that impede the willingness of instructors/ trainer’s in college leadership besides its current leadership practice in the study area. In this study simple random and stratified sampling method was used to select the sample respondents. Accordingly, the college has, totally 285 employee from this 199 trainers and 86 are Administration employee. Out of these respondents the researcher would targeted 172 respondents and select the sample of 63 (37%) respondents who give important information about the College Principal’s Distributive Leadership Practices and Challenge. The findings of the study indicate that the willingness of instructors/ trainer’s to participate or involve in college leadership besides teaching trainee /students in classrooms was recognized to be positive. However the result showed, that the Hosanna polytechnic college under study did not participate and encourage instructors/ trainers to assume leadership role. Thus, it is recommended that, playing leadership role should not be tied to principal’s position, but should be distributed among instructors/ trainers. In order to utilize the trainer’s unused potential in college leadership area and achieve benefit of distributed leadership, it is necessary to view trainers as partners in educational leadership process by stretching leadership roles across all instructors/ trainers. Finally, the researcher believes that this study could be taken as good start in the area of reorganizing and restructuring educational institutions in general and TVET college in particular in terms of distributive leadership practices.


In early 2020, the coronavirus pandemic influence the educational sector in Nigeria and the rest of the world to search for substitutes for the conventional physical classroom learning style. This led to the adoption video conference system such as zoom in academic institutions to facilitate the virtual teaching and learning. This study review literature from 2017 to 2022 on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use to set the research agenda. The systematic literature review approach was used and 120 journals and conference proceedings were collected and analysed. Results indicate that although the platform is perceived as useful and easy to use, developed countries had wide adoption. Adoption was limited in developing countries like Nigeria due to the factors such as limited electricity supply, internet subscription costs and limited internet service.

Effects of bleaching and water pollution on dying beauty of Coral Reefs []

Coral reefs are made of calcium carbonate, which corals secrete. Construction of a Habitat for millions of animals that live underwater take several years, and it's a beautiful work of nature. This may sound interesting, but it has recently become a nightmare after scientists revealed that coral reefs are on the brink of extinction. Many ecosystems, water sources, underwater water banks, and now even coral reefs have been threatened by environmental hazards. The Great Barrier Reef is a big one, and Qatar has a huge one as well.

Generating Electrical Power by Using Four Dynamos Installed in a Floating Buoy in Experimental Study []

Renewable energy sources are wind, sun, sea waves and other sources. The fact this energy is pure, sustainable, and doesn't pollute our environment or harm people's health is its most significant quality. Wave energy has a better possibility of being compared to solar energy or wind energy. Researchers and scientists are attempting to determine the most effective method for harnessing the power of ocean and sea waves to produce electricity. The purpose of this research is to transform wave energy into electricity by an experimental model based on the vertical movement of the waves. Results showed that Wave height has an effect on how much electricity is produced. In proportion to the buoy's weight, more electrical energy is extracted.

Emotional Geography Using Social Media Data []

Deciphering the Emotional frame of mind of a human being from a text written by him is an upcoming field of research and can be considered an advanced form of Sentiment Analysis. As a boon of the rise in social networking and the utilization of microblogging tools, human beings resort to social media platforms like Twitter for expressing their viewpoints on localized events and global subject matters. The enormous volumes of text collected from these social media platforms are prolific in terms of people's feelings, opinions and emotions, making it a reservoir of information that can be harnessed to gauge the thoughts, ideas, and behavior of individuals all over the world. However, the key challenge is obtaining, investigating, and then classifying the text. In this paper, we propose methods to classify textual data mined from Twitter into six different emotion states, namely - Happy, Sad, Anger, Fear, Disgust, and Surprise, as identified by Paul Ekman [3], using Machine Learning and Natural Language processing approaches and then moving on to visualizing the result with a user interface showing statistics and the same emotional state. Through this, we can dive deeper into understanding the exact emotion the person is trying to convey by just using his words. The proposed approach can be brought into play in fields such as Opinion mining, Understanding Human Mental Health, and Psychological behavior, and learning how external or social events impact a community's mood, aiding Urban Planning.

Data mining based Strategic Decision Support System for Blood Bank Management []

This project work applies the data mining process to derive the rate ratio of donors to recipients of the different blood groups in a bid to identify the most requested blood group, to improve communication and synchronization between the blood bank Management and hospital for reliable blood bank decision making. A set of data was collected as from the case study domain, with data ranging from the year 2015-2019. Data sampling under Data mining technique was applied to generate training data sets and WEKA data mining tool was used to generate pattern using the K-Means algorithm. In addition, statistical analysis was carried out on the obtained pattern -Clusters was analyzed using Microsoft excel to get a to interpret the result. Blood Group O+ has the highest rate of donors and recipients through the years and blood group AB- has the lowest rate. The rate of donors and recipients varies among the other blood groups including O-, B+, B-, A+, A-, AB+ were established.

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