Volume 13, Issue 8, August 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 8, August 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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A Systematic Review on Augmented Reality and Entrepreneurship []

Augmented reality interactive technology has been studied widely over the last decade, with a growing number of organizations and users in conjunction. Augmented reality technology is based on computer-generated images on a user's view of the real world. Keeping in view, augmented reality in the context of entrepreneurship is still scarce that needs to be explored to know the necessities in the study. This study aims to contribute empirically and theoretically to present the broader landscape of augmented reality trends in entrepreneurship studies. It summarizes the contributions from each category of studies and discusses the most influential studies. A systematic literature review was conducted on augmented reality in entrepreneurial studies from 1970 to 2020. A total of 28 papers have been reviewed. Twelve papers were selected that were classified based on users' intention toward an innovative business model with the support of theoretical underpinning. It organizes research areas with a few augmented reality studies and future research opportunities in creative entrepreneurial activities. There is a growing trend of augmented reality toward new ventures as most users feel motivated to interact with virtual objectives in the real world. This study would be helpful for entrepreneurs and academicians to understand the practices of augmented reality in designing new business ventures.

Biological Control of Fusarium Equiseti Isolated from Wilt Disease Tomato Using Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Penicillium Polonicum []

Two strains of pathogenic Fusariun equiseti and three antagonistic fungi including Trichoderma longibrachiatum and two strain of Penicillium polonicum were isolated from wilting tomato plant and the surrounding soil, respectiviely. Macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular analysis were used to identify all the isolated pathogenic and antagonistic fungi. Well assay method was applied to investigate the antifungal activity of the three antagonistic fungi against the two strains of F. equiseti. The results exhibit that, the best biocontrol for the two strains of F. equiseti occure in PDA media for 6 days at pH 3 – 5 and temperature range 25 -30 oC.


The air quality of a given area can be utilized as one of the key determinants of the pollution index, as well as how well the city's industry and population are controlled. With the rise of industrialisation, monitoring urban air quality has become a persistent issue. All around the world, air pollution has remained a severe concern for the public and the government. Air pollution has a notable impact on both the environment and human health, resulting in acid rain, global warming, heart disease, and skin cancer. A metric called AQI is calculated by evaluating the concentration of various PM, such as PM2.5 and PM10, present in the air to estimate the severity of air pollution. Our goal for this project is to design and construct a real-time AQI monitoring system that can be easily controlled and manufactured at a low cost, as well as an air purifier that continuously removes tiny particles (PM2.5 and PM10) from the air, decreasing the harmful impacts of pollution.

An Analytical Data Model to Improve Benefits of the Comprehensive Health Insurance System []

Health insurance is one of the most important types of insurance against the risks of health conditions for an individual including the costs of examination, diagnosis, treatment, psychsological and physical support, Egypt applied the social health insurance system until the first half of 2019, then a new health insurance system was developed from the second half of 2019 until Now, it was called the comprehensive health insurance system, which depends on the obligatory apply of health insurance to all categories of the Egyptian people through providing high quality medical services and integrated care without discrimination, in accordance with Law No. 2 of the new comprehensive health insurance system issued on January 11, 2018. in the official journal. And the research problem is focused on if there are mechanisms for the General Authority for Health Insurance to divide society into slices according to the monthly income of each individual and Classifying insured individuals based on monthly/annual income, in addition to monthly/annual expenses. In additional to if there any allocated of a package of the medical services and coverage percentages appropriate for each slice. This paper provides an analytical data model along with a comparison between models of health insurance systems in Egypt, England, Saudi Arabia and Thailand presenting the most important aspects of the systems as well as their weaknesses

Deep Fake Detection Through Convolutional Neural Network []

Fake media have been defined as videos/images, but without running any types of tests to validate the truth of this content. Fake Media and faux accounts represent a really critical issue whose complexity grows into a commonplace. In recent years, topics such as fake media and accounts detection have received a lot of attention within the research fields. Therefore, using and applying a variety of Deep learning methods and neural networks to effectively detect fake media is the main goal of the paper. Thus, CNN networks have been used to perform deepfake detection, with the best results obtained. In this study, The model used is a sequential convolutional neural network combined with other methods such as adam optimizer and max-pooling with 3 different gathered datasets (Celeb-DF and Faceforensics++). The model ended up with an accuracy 93.3% and loss rate 12.5%.

Extraction of Essential Oil from Orange fruit rind []

Presently in Nigeria, orange peels are being discarded as waste after the consumption of the edible parts of the orange fruits. However, the country depends on imported essential oils for use in industries for the manufacture of products ranging from food to beverage, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This research work was carried out to demonstrate the utilization of orange rind in the production of essential oils by employing the cold pressing method. From the result obtained, it was discovered that orange peel gave a yield of 5.05% when cold pressing method was employed. The constituent of the extracted oil analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy gave twenty-eight compounds with eleven major compounds such as D-limonene (14.14%), ergosta-5, 7-dien-3-ol (13.30%), 9-octadecenoic acid (12.66%), n-hexadecanoic acid (12.34%), di(1-phenylpropyl)ester, adipic acid (6.91%), 5,6,7-trimethoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) 4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (6.73%), octadecanoic acid (4.50%), 2,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene(4.29%), n-hexadecanoic acid (3.53%), cholest-5-en-3-ol,acetate (3.06%), and 4-hydroxy-3-methylacetophenone (2.04%) together with eighteen minor constituents namely 1,2,3-cyclopentanetriol (1.57%), bicyclo [4.1.0]heptanes-3-cyclopropyl,7carbomethoxy (1.29%), 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (1.20%), 3,5-dimethyl-2-pyrazoline-1-carboxamide (1.88%), 2,2,2-trifluoroethylester (1.64%), 4,4-dimethyl-cholesta-6,22,24-triene (1.46%), 2-methyltrans-3-methyl-2-n-quinazoline (1.06%), 3-methyl-2-phenylimino-perhydro-1,3-oxazine (0.90), 2-methyl-2,3-hexadiene (0.77%), (1-methylethyl)-benzene (0.75%), 5,7-dimethoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (0.69%), 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (0.67%), tetradecanoic acid (0.60%), 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroanisole (0.54%), trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-ol (0.53%), (-)-cis-isopiperitenol (0.48%) and benzoic acid (0.46%) corresponding to 99.99% of the total oil. The characterization of the extracted oil gave its physical properties values that indicated that it could be used for the production of other valuable products in different process industries. Hence, it was utilized in the production of liquid air freshener.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as a Tool for Micro Entrepreneurship Development in the Villages of the Rural Areas of Nigeria. []

There are many opportunities found in the rural areas especially in the developing countries of Africa. Many skilful young men and women in the rural areas are being wasted due to lack of exposure and medium of harnessing these potentials in them. Many of these skilful young men do not know that such skills can be made useful for them and the society and also generate income for them and their families. This article attempted to address the position of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as a tool for entrepreneurship growth and job creation in the rural areas of Africa. The paper pointed out some major challenges such as lack of training, inadequate power supply and provision of ICT resources and other uncertainties such as government policies. The paper also suggests the establishment of Rural Village ICT Centres as ways government can come in to help reduce the cost of ICT infrastructures and resources to encourage the rural entrepreneurs bring out the skills domicile in them and also learn ways to stay in the business.

Potential Risk and Benefit of Smart buildings: Home Automation Using COTS Systems []

To fully exploit the concept of home automation using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products, customers look into integrated systems that have been pushed towards a common everything approach, that’s one size fits all solution: The COTS product is easy to purchase, install/ deployed and maintain. It is COTS products that perpetuated the idea of one solution to meet all needs. This paper describes home automation in relation to COTS, followed by security concerns through the risk exposure, and also further discussed the risk exposure and management. Lastly, emphasizes legal, ethical, and social issues related to the topic, etc.

Estimation of Biomass and Carbon Content in Mangroves Area of Kartomulyo Beach, Pati Regency, Central Java, Indonesia []

Abstract— Mangrove ecosystem is one of the ecosystems that plays an important role to reduce carbon in the air and store it from the air in the form of biomass at the body parts of mangrove plants including stems. Research on the estimation of carbon stocks is very much needed to support the improvement of the world's climate, because currently the world is experiencing a global crisis called climate change, both of which can support the life of land and sea biota. The objectives of this research were: 1) to Assess the mangrove population, 2) to Assess environmental parameters in mangrove areas, 3) to Assess the carbon stock in the Kertomulyo Beach area, and the method used was purposive sampling method and observation, carried out at three stations with various conditions of the mangrove ecosystem. Each research station is divided into 6 research plots. The value of mangrove biomass was calculated using the above ground allometric formula to estimate carbon stocks. Water quality measurements are carried out directly in the field according to the Indonesian National Standard (SNI). It is known that there are three species of mangroves consisting of 192 individuals for Avicennia alba, 259 individuals for Avicennia marina and 248 individuals for Rhizopora mucronata. The average density of all mangrove species from these three stations is 280 individuals/ha. The highest frequency, closure and INP were Avicennia marina at the three stations. The environmental parameters measured were temperature in the range of 29-30°C, pH at 7.9-8 ppm and salinity at 22-23 (0/00) for each observation station.The estimated total CO2 carbon at three stations covering an area of approximately 4.3 hectares is 5.36 tons C/ha for Average Carbon Storage/ha, 16.07 ton C/ha for Total Carbon. Mangrove carbon stock at each station on Kartomulyo beach was 2.27 C/ton at station 1, 2.32 C/ton at station 2 and 2.80 C/ton at station 3. KEYWORDS: Biomass, Carbon sequestration capability, Carbon stocks, Carbon storage, Climate change, Mangrove ecosystem, Water quality.

Open Software Vs Commercial Software in Safety Critical System: A Review of Literature []

The use of safety critical systems in modern software is rapidly increasing due to the confidence the society on a wide range of systems that are needed to guarantee the safety of their users as well as their environment. SCS is potentially dangerous, so in general, the most common safety criteria are based on identifying the hazards and generate some requirements that reduce or eliminate the risk of hazards. This paper provides and introduction to SCS in relation to the development of Open source software. The term safety in relation to Open Source Software is required to choose if OSS can be used in critical context. This can be a drive from the terms of reliability, Security, and Flexibility. Open source Software(OSS) is defined as a software that its source codes are distributed together with the executable program and its free to use, it also consists of a licence that allows uses and developers to study, make modifications and distribute the software(1, 2). The paper also aimed at presenting the Social, legal, Ethical, and professional issues in relation to OSS and Commercial/ propriety software. Proprietary software which sometimes refers to as commercial or closed source is a software that remains legal property of the individual, group or organization who created it. The organization that owns the legal right of the software usually do not release the source code to the general public but rather insisted that only those who purchase the licence key can be able to use it (3). Finally, this paper makes a comparative analysis between OSS and proprietary software


Drought is generally an extended period of months or years in which precipitation is less than the annual average and results in severe water scarcity. For the Horn of Africa region, drought occurrence has become increasingly severe during the last decade, with rainfall totals of at least 50–75 % below normal encountered in most areas, amounts that are not sufficient to support crop and pasture growth for livelihood security (Nicholson 2014). The main objective of this study was to evaluate and measure the impacts of the drought on stock market, milk, fodder, and meat productivity, along with the major effects on the pastoralist’s daily life. Methodology adopted in this research was quantitative approach include questionnaire and data analysis procedure, this study was employ through explanatory research design. The purpose affecting the variables involves in this study and helped to achieve all the objectives of research. The study was conducted from the livestock sales and pastoralists, afgoye district livestock market. The researcher had selected 80 respondent(s) randomly from the population. The data analyzed was performed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 16. Result, The study clarified the reason related to poverty caused by drought in various households 46.3%. As well as The study indicated that responders 56.3% was agreed to provided feed supplements for livestock during drought while 3.8% of responders not agreed. Also The study proven that the (55%) of responders said the Shortage of rainfall experienced towards the end of 2016 and early 2017 resulted in degradation of grazing veld, while (1.3%) of responders said not resulted in degradation of grazing veld. Conclusion, The survey results and field observations indicated that the afgoye livestock market was seriously affected by drought particularly in dry seasons. According to responder`s understand towards the period of drought time, the study indicated the majority of people lose their jobs, particularly in the livestock sector. Recommendation, the study recommended to all shepherds to establish an alternative project to store water and fodder to benefit from it during the long drought. , also the study recommended the government, NGO`s in dealing with disaster management in Somalia are currently focused on either emergency health preparedness or post emergency relief. There is need for them to shift their mindsets from reaction and charity to anticipation and preemption.

Pore Pressure and Fracture Gradient Modelling in Northwest Khilala Field, Onshore Nile Delta, Egypt. []

Modeling of Pore Pressure and Fracture Gradients (PPFG) of the hydrocarbon-bearing clastic successions are crucial in the drilling risk assessment and geomechanical reservoir modeling during the entire field lifetime. There are various estimation techniques of the PPFG based on borehole logs of good clues during drilling (predrill and while drilling) with variable uncertainties. The Northwest Khilala (NWK) gas field lies in the central onshore part of the extensively exploited hydrocarbon province of the Miocene Nile Delta. The present study aims to construct a 1D PPFG model by using the logging data of four penetrations in the field. The results of the Eaton and K0 methods are assessed and calibrated with actual MDT and MW data to evaluate their accuracy and limitation. The estimated pore pressure model of the NWK gas field, classified into three types of pressure regimes that are 1) A normal-pressure regime, 2) an overpressured regime with a hydrostatic gradient and 3) an overpressured regime with an overpressure gradient. The top of overpressure is indicated by departure from normal trend (NCT) at depth ~1900 m TVDss where a slightly over-pressured gradient starts within Late Pliocene Kafr El-Sheikh Formation and increases gradually to reach the maximum (~5260 psi) at the base. The pore pressure gradient increases gradually to display a regression/transgression cycle in the Late Miocene Abu-Madi Formation followed by a significant increase and pressure ramp in the Qawasim Formation of the NWK1X &NWK1-2 wells. It is concluded that the wireline Resistivity log was inefficient to identify the Qaswasim pressure ramp. The constructed model can extend to be give clue and applied in the nearby fields of the Nile Delta.

ROS mediated damage and benefits of antioxidants to use as therapy []

In all the aerobic organisms, endogenous and exogenous processes generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their harmful effects are nullified by the antioxidant defense system at some extent. Oxidative stress occurs due to imbalance between ROS production and antioxidant defense systems. ROS exposure damages the functional biological components of the cells which causes several pathological defects. There are reports of these defects, suggest that oxidative stress induced damages are involved in diseases like: heart disease, lung disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Antioxidants act as a therapy and can cure the pathological defects induced by oxidative stress at some level. The purpose of this paper is to provide a subjective knowledge on this topic.


One of the indicators for determining student’s academic achievements is the strategy/approach used in teaching them. Thus, this study investigated chemistry teacher’s level of awareness and utilization of mastery learning approach for inculcation of life-coping skills in chemistry students. Four research questions guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population consisted of all the chemistry teachers in all the government owned secondary schools in Onitsha, Awka and Nnewi Education zones of Anambra State. The sample size was eighty-five (85) chemistry teachers selected from sixty (60) secondary schools in the 3 zones. A validated structured questionnaire which had a reliability coefficient of 0.83 using Cronbach Alpha technique was used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and mean scores. The result of the study showed that differentiated and individualized instruction, giving sufficient time for mastery of concepts during teaching, frequent formative assessment with feedback and reinforcement through assignments were among the mastery learning approaches that chemistry teachers can use to teach for mastery. Other mastery learning approaches includes selecting a chemistry procedure or skill you want all students to master, engaging students in activities for skill practice and helping them approach problem solving in a step-by-step manner. However, the study also revealed that most of the chemistry teachers do not utilize most of these mastery learning approaches in their teaching of chemistry. Conclusion and recommendations were also made.

Assessment of Factors Affecting the Tendering Process In construction Management. A Case Study of Lagos State, Nigeria. []

The challenge of construction tendering process is a common theme in developing countries like Nigeria. Tendering process is often tedious, multitasking and complex. Contractors have the responsibility of tendering appropriately for construction projects; and clients as well as consultants have a duty to create an enabling platform for a successful tendering process. The current tendering process has vulnerabilities that can be exploited to negatively impact project delivery. There are many research papers that discuss the occurrences of these exploitations (i.e., funds embezzlement, fraud invoicing, etc.), but there has not been one that presented problem analysis and mitigation options. The aim of this research is to identify and analyze problems in the stages of the tendering process, then offer potential solutions to resolve or curb these problems. In addition to utilizing publicly available studies, Semi-structured questionnaires comprising of fifty-five (55) questions were categorized into six (6) groups which are project characteristics, business benefits, capabilities, bidding situation, client related factors and external environment related factors. The data was retrieved from 50 respondents. Frequency, Percentile and Mean Index Score (MIS) were used to analyze the responses. Results indicated a level of agreement among the contractor’s tendering success factors and concludes that the expansion of organization expertise, tendering capabilities, flexibility for changes and variations, number of competitors, project difficulties, design constructability, project methodology, tender document detailing, client reputation, involvement of other parties and political consideration to be the top factors affecting the tendering process. With this, there is a broader understanding of the top factors affecting the tendering process among the stakeholders within Lagos state. The study recommended that reasonably sufficient time should be given to examine project characteristic in order for the contractors to assess their suitability for every construction project they intend to tender for. Furthermore, construction design approach, bidding process and project methodology should be properly outlined to all the stakeholders by the client to eliminate vagueness in the tendering process and subsequently, project delivery.

The Effect of Education and Training on Job Satisfaction Mediated By State Officer's Work Placement Civil Inspectorate of Southeast Sulawesi Provinc []

This study aims to determine and analyze the effect of education and training on placement of civil servants in the Inspectorate of Southeast Sulawesi Province. Job placement on satisfaction has an effect on performance. Education and training on job satisfaction of civil servants Inspectorate of Southeast Sulawesi Province. Training on job satisfaction mediated through Civil Servant work placement. The sample in this study was drawn using the slovin so that the number of respondents in this study were 54 people. This research data collected using a questionnaire and processed using Partial Least Square (PLS). The results of the study found that education and training had a positive and significant influence on work placement of Civil Servants of the Inspectorate of Southeast Sulawesi Province. That matter shows that the better the training, the better the job placement. Job placement has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction. This shows the better job placement, the better the job satisfaction. Education and training has a positive influence and significant effect on job satisfaction of Civil Servants. This shows the better the training will increase the job satisfaction of Civil Servants. Education and training has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction mediated through job placement. This shows the placement work can mediate the effect of education and training on job satisfaction. This means that the work placement has a strategic role that can overcome the inconsistency of the effect of education and training on job satisfaction.

Factors Affecting Gross Domestic Saving in Ethiopia: A Vector Error Correction Model Approach []

ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to investigate the short run and long run factors affecting gross domestic saving in Ethiopia using time series data covering the time period of 1985 to 2020. To achieve this desired objective, the study employed Johanson cointegration test to identify the existence of long run relationship between variables after data stationarity has ensured using Augumented Ducky Fuller test. The results reveal that there are up to four cointegrating equationtion in the model. The study also employed Vector Error Correction Model to identify the impacts of factors affecting gross domestic saving in Ethiopia both in short run and lang run. The results reveal that only gross domestic product, real interest rate, annual broad money growth rate and government final consumption expenditure have statistically significant effect on gross domestic saving in Ethiopia in the short run. In long run, Illicit Financial Flows, government final consumption expenditure and annual broad money growth rate have statistically significant negative impact on gross domestic saving while official development assistance, gross domestic product, real interest rate, and inflation rate have statistically significant positive effect on gross domestic saving cetries purbus. The Granger causality test results reveal that there is unidirectional causal relationship between gross domestic saving and illicit financial flows, real interest rate, annual broad money growth rate, official development assistance and inflation rate that runs from these variables to gross domestic saving except for inflation rate that runs from gross domestic saving to inflation rate. Unlike other variables, gross domestic product and government final consumption expenditure have bidirectional causal relationship with gross domestic saving in Ethiopia over the study period. Keywords: co-integration, Finance, Gross, Growth, Investment, Rate, Saving

Simulation Program Based on Lean Six-Sigma to Improve the Performance at Airplanes Depot Line Workshop []

— Scientists of management have been classified and named the systems that work in Space Shuttle, Nuclear Power and Aviation field as a complex and critical systems. In this situation, maintenance and improvements can be supported by an approach which adapts methodologies and tools (Requirement Management).Man, products and business itself are the valuables in aviation field. Therefore airplane (A/P) maintenance systems has been classified as complex and critical systems because of risk always around also the environment that compromised the accuracy, security, and Completeness of information and high level of technician’s training. The high cost of systems support, airplanes maintenance and pressure to eliminate waste without adding risk to the operation is forcing Airplanes maintenance companies to look at maintenance in a new way to improve performance and avoid loss of business.

Optimal Scheduling of Hydro-Thermal-Wind Generation Using Heuristic Search Optimization Technique []

Abstract-: This paper develops the Hybrid Hydro-Thermal-Wind system optimization and Heuristic search Optimization techniques that are used for cracking the optimal organize of hydro-thermal-wind generation organize difficulty. A heuristic hydrothermal organization considering the uncertain behavior of wind power generation mainly depends on the wind speed, which is unresolved in the environment. To tackle the uncertainty related to wind energy, the 5m point estimate method is used. The optimization of hybrid hydrothermal-wind power generation systems can be achieved technically and economically according to the system reliability requirement. the overall efficiency of the proposed optimization techniques is confirmed on short-term variable head hydro – thermal and wind Generation test systems including two thermal units and two hydro plants and one wind unit. A test system has been taken to justify the ability to solve the problem and examine the effect of wind energy in a hydrothermal system. To make difficulty much more practical the valve-point loading effect is contemplated too. A positive session of the strategy is reported in this paper and outcomes for one sample test system are given.


Abstract As the world observes a new pandemic with COVID-19, it is clear that pathogens can spread rapidly and without recognition of borders. Outbreaks will continue to occur, and so the diseases’ transmission method must be thoroughly understood in order to minimize their impact. Some infections, such as influenza, tuberculosis and measles, known to spread through droplets in the air. In a confined space, the concentration can grow as more droplets released. This study examined a simulated confined space modelled as a hospital waiting area, where people who could have underlying conditions congregate and mix with potentially infectious individuals. It further investigated the impact of the volume of the waiting area, the number of people in the room, the placement of them as well as their weight. The simulation is an agent-based model (ABM), a computational model with the purpose of analyzing a system through the actions and cumulative consequences of autonomous agents. The presented ABM features embodied agents with differing body weights that can move, breathe and cough in a ventilated room. An investigation into current epidemiological models lead to the hypothesis that one may implement as a corresponding ABM, where it could possibly, also be improved upon. In this paper, it has shown that, all parameters of the Gammaitoni and Nucci model, been taken into account, in an ABM via the MASON library. In addition, proof produced, suggested that some flaws of the epidemiological model, should be amended in the ABM. It was demonstrated, the constructed model, account for proximity between susceptible people and infectors, an expressed limitation of the original model. KEYWORDS: transmission method, confined space, agent-based model, epidemiological models, Pandemic

Fiscal Decentralization in Developing Countries - A Review of its Elements []

The reform of economic systems in developing countries during the 1980s focused largely on increasing the role of the market and improving the environment in which it operates. For some years, there was a preoccupation with the private sector, such that the potential role of the public sector in promoting development received little attention. In recent years, there have been widespread attempts to both redefine the role of the public sector in developing countries and improve its performance. An increasingly important goal of these reforms is the decentralization of government functions. During the 1990s, fiscal decentralization and local government reform were among the most widespread trends in development (World Bank, 2000: chapter 5). Many of these extensive and costly efforts, however, have made only modest progress toward meeting their stated goals. Given this uneven performance, there has been considerable debate about the desirability of fiscal decentralization and how to approach it. This paper examines the origins, conceptual foundations, and practice of fiscal decentralization in developing countries. Several issues are covered. First, briefly consider why fiscal centralization has been historically prominent in developing countries, Second, outline some key elements of fiscal decentralization as it is being promoted in some countries, including some of the challenges being faced. Finally, the researcher makes some concluding observations on how to think about designing more appropriate and effective fiscal decentralization in developing countries.

A Research on Nelson Mandela Leadership Style from 1963 to his death []

This paper presents the life of one of the extraordinary leaders of the 21st century, Nelson Mandela and provides an in-depth analysis of his leadership style in the standpoint of Transformational Leadership theory from the period of 1994 to 1999. Why doing this, the researcher also deals into Trait Leadership Theory. The paper analyzes the factors that contributed to the birth of Mr. Mandela as a leader as well as his governance. Finally, the paper shows that Mandela was a great transformational leader and further noted that he fulfills most of the requirements of Transformational Leader Theory as well as presented some of his failures regarding decision-making. In the final end, the paper reveals that Mandela leadership demonstrated good qualities and some of these included: integrity, vision and being tenacious; all of these were useful ways that led him to success in the face of unpredictable times.

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