Volume 13, Issue 7, July 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 7, July 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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Striving for flying in COVID - Pakistan International Airlines []

Flying in the time of COVID was not less than an unplanned trip and Unstable travel due to travel restriction and imposed bans by states & governments. People from all the world faced different kind of problems due to the pandemic such as they lost their jobs, unable to see their loved ones and compulsion of isolation or quarantine. Beyond what countries decide, individuals still need to balance benefits and risks of the decision to travel, and with most cruise ships not operating at the moment, the focus for international travelers is on flying.

Performance Analysis of VANET Based Routing Protocol []

Vanet has helped the road traffic with massive level of improvement as because due to its development road accidents have been minimized and the acts of traffic management have also been reduced. This concept is inexpensive so this technology has been widely accepted. VANET takes all the information from the road and passes the information to the other vehicles in the neighboring cluster so to take precautionary measures for the road safety. Here we will discuss about a few typical protocol s and will compare their performance s to show which is the best one t o be used in Vanet for road safety application.

Smelling is equivalent to eating []

When we eat then we must think well about the thing we are eating to digest it better. Smelling some good food helps like eating that food virtually to digest that food better or digestion of previous food better. There is a known thing that smelling is half of eating. If your eyes are closed and you eat an abnormal thing, thinking that as a good thing of your choice then your digestion will be good . Smelling is equivalent to eating . I want to mean that thinking and eating together is the best part of digestion. The most beautiful thing is that if you smell good foods all the time then your digestive enzymes coming from your body will help you to digest all the foods you have eaten before. If you smell the food then some organic compounds of food goes to your body and helps as food in your body also. So if we send food as a gaseous compound then we can digest the food compound and we should try this method to patients who can not eat.

Targeted Human Trafficking - The Wars between Proxy and Surrogated Economy []

Upon Brexit & Trade War, the research took a supply-side analysis in macroeconomic paradigm for the purpose and cause of the actions. In the geopolitical competitions on crude oil resources between the allied powers & the Russian hegemony, the latter of which has effective control over P. R. China's multilateral behaviors, the external research induced that trade war, either by complete information in intelligence or an unintended result, was a supply chain attack in prohibiting the antisatellite weapon supplies in the Northern regions of mainland China in relation to Russia. Although no substantive change to international relations, the Trade War's prohibitive effect on the high frequency trading in the monetary domain of CNY was observed, which had been the source of economic bubbles in the import-export control regime with centralized banking. The paper argues that by realism in economy & military strategy, trade war was ineffective in deterring the covert operations of the People's Liberation Army by their territorial strategies and raises questions in humanitarianism in conflict situations. Moreover, with gross privacy breaches by mass surveillance in domain politics, totalitarianism with coercions, and counterfeit of drone strikes, traditional methods of threat elimination are rendered less pragmatic apart from the adversaries' cyber security breaches. With the scientific approach, I offer an ecological paradigm with historic analysis of the Chinese military's conducts in terms economics. The territorial methods of the PLA are contextualized into the ecological paradigm in regionalism & public administration. Electronic combats of the Chinese regime with the Great Firewall and Denial-of-Service attacks not only contribute to the diminishing natural freedoms of the population, but also transgress the fundamental right to health along with non-traditional nuclear threats to P.R.C. itself.

Greywater recycling A review of the available treatment alternatives []

All life on Earth depends on water. As Pakistan’s economy and population grows, so does the country's water supply, which is only 3% of the world's total. Rainwater harvesting, grey and sewage reuse and desalination are all viable options for Pakistan to consider in order to alleviate the water situation. Water generated in bathrooms, lavatories and kitchens falls under the category of "grey water," which refers to waste water. Grey water, which accounts for about 70 percent of residential water use, may be treated and reused with simple technologies. Minimizes the amount of fresh water needed and reduces the amount of sewage delivered to treatment plants through the reuse of grey water. Water and waste water treatment must be linked so that water supplies are maintained and waste water can be reused for agricultural and industrial purposes. The Christian Hospital Taxila area generated a lot of grey water, so an integrated grey water treatment facility was built. Natural physical processes were combined to create the integrated model, which includes, sedimentation, filter medium and reverse osmosis. For the sake of this investigation, the hospital area was divided into two halves. Zone-I and Zone-II, which include the hospital and residential areas. In the spring, winter, and summer seasons, 4 random samples were obtained from the kitchen and bathroom, with tap water and borewell water as sources of supply. In the spring, winter, and summer seasons, the overall performance of the integrated plant for treatment of kitchen and bathroom grey water using tap water and borewell water was excellent, producing very high quality effluents. The effectiveness was demonstrated in terms of COD (86%), BOD (96%), Coliform (99%), TSS (87%), TDS (58%), Turbidity (98%), and Total hardness (98%) reduction competence (97 percent). In both rural and urban areas, this treatment technique can be regarded a feasible alternative to conventional treatment plants.

Mechanical and Durability Properties of Rice Husk Ash Blended Concrete []

Due to the high level of carbon emission associated with the use of limestone cement based concrete in the construction industry, the development of concrete utilizing supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been considered as alternative sources of binders in the production of concrete. These SCMs include industrial and agricultural wastes such as rich husk. SCMs are materials that have high silica content which enables them to polymerize and serve as binder. Rice husk ash, a common agricultural waste, is in abundance in the Nigeria. Hence, in this current study, the effects of rice husk ash on self-compacting concrete were examined through experimental processes in the laboratory by the partial replacement of cement with rice husk ash in designed concrete matrices. Rice husk obtained from rice mills were incinerated and blended into powder form and introduced into self-compacting concrete mix as partial substitute of cement in percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20. Tests implemented on the prepared concrete samples include the workability tests (which were implemented in accordance to EFNARC guidelines on self-compacting concrete), mechanical performance tests (compressive strength and splitting tensile strength tests) and durability performance tests (compressive strength and mass losses on exposure to acid attack). The workability of the prepared self-compacting concrete was improved by the inclusion of rice husk ash. The compressive strength and mass of concrete samples exposed to acid attack in 56 and 90 days showed that the reduction in compressive strength masses of concrete containing 5% and 10% rice husk ash were less than those of the corresponding control samples whereas, at 15% and 20%, the reductions were more than the control. Hence, with up to 10% replacement of cement with rice husk ash, the durability performance of rich husk ash blended concrete was better compared to the control samples. The compressive strength and splitting tensile strength results showed that the inclusion of rice husk ash into the concrete matrix reduced the mechanical performance of the concrete. However, as the water-binder ratios increased and at later curing age (28 days), the reduction in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength were minimized. Compressive strength more than 75% of the control samples were obtained.

Santal Folktales as Mirror of Santal Identity []

Santal folktale is one of the Santal people's oldest and most popular literature. Although the literature did not significantly contribute to world literature, their folktales are rich. This literature is fading due to a lack of practice, globalization, and ignorance of Santals about its importance. On the other hand, Santals are now facing identity crises due to the influence of globalization, modernity, the tyranny of the mainstream people, conflict among themselves, and various other reasons. In this situation of Santals, the study claims that Santal folktales as a mirror of Santal identity. This research aims to understand Santal folktales and define their identity. It analyzes the folktales, the collections of the first missionaries in the land of Santal in India, using the National Folklore theory, the Cultural Functional Theory of Franz Boas and William Bascom, and Vladimir Propp's Theory of Reality and qualitative research method to show their identity from their folktales. The research concluded with the assertion that Santal folktales are elegant literature. They mirror Santals as children of nature because they live nature-dependent lives. They are peace-loving people; their lifestyle is simple, and they live harmoniously with the other creatures. So the study provides a deep understanding of their identity, increases Santals' interest in their literature, and inspires them to preserve ancient literature. Furthermore, this scholarly endeavor also intends to probe further into Santal's literature and its socio-cultural impact on local communities, society, and the world's literature.


Rivers plays a major role in people’s living and in agricultural production, since the human started their settlement, however the crucial behavior of the human is now destroying the river structure and its ecology.Ecological corridor is the main thing that strengthens the rivers. In order to protect the river, the ecological corridors must be protected from the damages that caused by human activities. This paper discuss about the impacts faced by the ecological corridors of Thamirabarani River due to urbanization at Tirunelveli stretch. This river covers from Tirunelveli district to Thoothukudi district. This river is famous for its ecological and cultural value. Due to urbanization the river started facing problems like water pollution, decrease in ecological corridors, Loss of vegetation. This paper shows the result of conservation of ecological corridors of the Thamirabarani River.

Free Energy is a Self-fulfilling Proposition if a Specific Set of Conditions are Met []

These conditions are: that the voltage peaks and troughs of oscillations and the current peaks and troughs are in opposition to each other for most of the time. This must be brought about by a simultaneous opposition of inductive and capacitive reactance at their full displacement of ±90º. This constitutes the generation of reactive power as defined by passive sign convention as well as the non- saturation of current within inductors. This latter consequence ensures unlimited growth of potential unless regulated.

Women Leadership Training and how they should be empowered for church ministry []

This study examines ways that can offer solutions to challenges facing women participation in the mission and outreach. The study has explored dimensions of the role of women ministries’ mission and outreach in church. Numerically women seem to be more than men and yet balance growth is lacking in terms of roles women play in the church. The study discusses challenges such as cultural practices and beliefs, poor education, leadership positions on women and lack of general empowerment among others, highlighting contextual examples in East and Central Africa. The study offers viable solutions and recommendations which aim at empowering women roles towards attaining mission and outreach in the church through gender inclusivity, proper Biblical interpretation and practice. Hypothetically, holistic church mission and outreach is not just about numbers therefore the women roles and challenges need to be highlighted, planned and determination made on how to include all in church activities. The study used descriptive survey design. In data collection method, primary and secondary data were collected which provided the opportunity to examine the impact of women leadership, the scriptures, and empowerment on how training in leadership can shape the destiny of women in church ministry. Simple random sampling and purposive technique was utilized in selecting respondents comprising of 50 women who are involved in women ministry in the church. The data collection instruments used in this study was interview schedules and questionnaires. And finally systematic analysis and interpretation of the interim reports

Study of NFKB Polymorphism with HPV Infection in Women of Reproductive Age Group []

Background: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is highly prevalent, with around 80% of women thought to be infected at some point. They are thought to produce proteins which inhibit the tumour suppressor protein p53 in cervical epithelial cells, allowing for uncontrolled cell division. The persistent HPV infection changes a premalignant lesion to cancerous state and this seems to be accompanied by a progressive loss of responsiveness to the NFƙB mediated growth inhibitory signal. This study was undertaken to provide a more precise evaluation of association of NFƙB -94ins/del ATTG promoter polymorphism and cancer risk. Methods: The study included 75 cases (unhealthy cervical pathology) and 75 controls (healthy normal cervix) belonging to reproductive age (15-44years) group. Cervical swab for HPV genotyping was performed in cobas x 480 and cobas z 480 analysers. DNA was extracted from EDTA blood sample using cobas DNA sample preparation kit. NFƙB gene polymorphism was seen by PCR-RFLP method in gel electrophoresis. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 20. Results: Among the healthy normal cervical cytology, HPV infection rate was found to be 6.6%. In cases, maximum HPV positivity was for HPV 16. Among the study population, insertion allele was seen more in both the study groups compared to deletion allele. We found del/del genotype contribution maximum among the cases with cervical pathology. Ins/del genotype was found in cases group. In unhealthy cervix, we found that ins/ins genotype was prevalent among all the HPV strain except HPV 18 followed by del/del genotype. But, among HPV 18 strain, del/del was seen more common. Conclusion: The study provided information about genotype distribution among women with and without cervical cancer which would help planning an appropriate strategy for disease monitoring. Keywords – Cancer, Cervical pathology, Genotype, HPV, NFƙB

Simulation Based Energy Use Assessment of old housing stock ibadan, oyo state , Nigeria []

Over the years, the housing typology has undergone a variety of paradigm shifts, influenced by regulatory changes, developments in technology and materials, changes in architectural thinking and economic issues. However, the traditional houses in Western Nigeria, typically the ibadan, oyo state mud houses has lasted over generations and experienced varying climatic conditions. Moreso, inspite of the increase in heat within the climatic region, the traditional houses built with mud and adobe building material has lasted the test of time. Heat experienced in this structure cannot be compared to the modern sandcrete blocks construction in order to achieve thermal comfort. Couple of these traditional houses are being retrofitted while most are being demolished outrightly. This research tends to use a simulation approach to examine the energy use to maintain an appropriate indoor condition for thermal comfort and energy use. Revit and insight 360 are being used to smulation the model afterits being drafted in autocad and position appropriately on google map. This enables us identify the impact of the building material envelop on its energy use intensity.However, the Energy use intensity result of 454kwh/m2/yr. was gotten which is high compared to the benchmark of 286kwh/m2/yr accepted for the building. Moreso, , in order to achieve the benchmark as stipulated, other areas have to be looked into like the Operational schedule, lighting efficiency etc

Data Accuracy and Integrity for Cloud Storage Using Block Chain []

Cloud security involves the methods and approaches that protect cloud computing environments against security risks. Cloud security procedures are implemented to check unauthorized access and to keep original data and applications in the cloud from emerging security threats. While storing and transferring some important data and file on cloud, both external and internal intruders can attack the file. When anyone try to hack at the cloud end, is not possible to break the different blocks stored in different locations on cloud because the security of our scheme is very strong. While using a cloud computing service provided by a public cloud provider, the integrity of the data and applications are verified by third party auditing, however in our scheme the data was held within a self-controlled network where the data owner justifies the outsourced file when shared with other users. Ensuring data security is the vital step to build a cloud service strategy. Block chain technology is used to store data by encrypting the files and distributing them across the decentralized network by making it harder for hackers to access the data. The private keys are controlled entirely by the user, making it impossible for a third party to access the files. Splitting the files makes it impossible to view the contents of the complete file, providing even more privacy. If anyone try to hack at the cloud end is not possible to break the different blocks because the security of our scheme is very strong. At the time of upload a key will be generated and it will send to the file owner. We can download that file by using verification key when it is shared by the owner. Any change in the content of the file can be identified by comparing the ASCII values which is initially stored in the database. Understanding your security responsibility is important to build a cloud security strategy.


Since April 2021, HR and Operations of MCB Islamic faced a breathtaking moment after getting a complete report on more than 700 employees of MCB Islamic Bank’s resignations. a record rate that has disrupted operations. MCB was having a hard time figuring out why their workers were leaving in the first place, and they couldn't figure out how to fix it. Instead of spending the effort to look into the real reasons for employee turnover. Managerial style has a detrimental impact on bank managers since they don't comprehend how it affects staff retention. Specifically, some bank managers may not have a strategy for reducing turnover. As a major factor in the mass resignations, a new manager was brought in from another bank. One of the factors is the significant shift in managerial behavior. As a result, workers are pushed to perform the duties of two distinct positions at once. MCB was putting its company at risk by failing to recognize the sources of employee dissatisfaction and the potential sources of staff attraction. Furthermore, the bank failed to invest in a more meaningful employee experience and failed to meet new needs for autonomy and flexibility at work since many other businesses are doing the same.

Effect of change of Antenna Model with the Variation of Pause Time for Reactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks []

The collection of the many mobile nodes forming a short lived infrastructure with the help of any centralized administration. Since there's a random and dynamic modification in topology due to the quality of host, so the requirement for a study dynamic routing protocol is needed. Mobile ad-hoc network have the attributes like wireless affiliation, continuously dynamic topology, distributed operation and simple deployment. It establishes a short lived affiliation wherever nodes will be part of or leave the network at any time. Communication takes place by routing protocols in effective and economical manner in wireless network. Economical protocols are accustomed forward information packets while not a lot of packet loss. The target of the present paper is to boost the performance of the reactive and hybrid routing protocols with different directional antenna i.e. Omni and Pattern antenna with variation of pause time. The performance metrics in the research paper is PDR, NRL, Throughput and Routing Overhead.

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